You are on page 1of 29

When 5x12 is more than 60: Exploring Number Talks in High School

Melissa Johnson Tara Perea Beth Peters

Agenda
Number
How

Talk

are number talks supported by research? and Strategies in High School

Dilemmas

Common Core Standards for Mathematical Practice


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. Reason abstractly and quantitatively Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. Model with mathematics. Use appropriate tools strategically. Attend to precision. Look for and make use of structure. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.

Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them


Mathematically

proficient studentsconsider analogous problems and try special cases and simpler forms of the original problem in order to gain insight into its solution.

Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them


James

Heibert: Making Sense (1997)

In order to take advantage of new opportunities and to meet the challenges of tomorrow, todays students need flexible approaches for defining and solving problems.

Reason abstractly and quantitatively


Quantitative

reasoning entailsattending to the meaning of quantitiesand flexibly using different properties of operations and objects.

Reason abstractly and quantitatively

Study by Eddie Gray and David Tall (1994)

Students ages 7-12 in two groups: above average ability & below average ability Gave them three different types of simple addition problems 4 different ways of solving the problems:

Count all, count on, known facts, derived facts

Reason abstractly and quantitatively


Analysis:

The lower ability group was doing a different kind of math!! Highlights the importance of exposing students to many different kinds of strategies for working with numbers.

Look for and make use of structure


Mathematically

proficient studentscan step back for an overview and shift perspective.

Look for and make use of structure

Relational vs. Instrumental Understanding in Math

Richard Skemp (1976) wrote about two different types of math understanding

Relational understanding = knowing both what to do and why


Instrumental understanding = rules without reasons

Look for and make use of structure

Instrumental Understanding: the problem with algorithms

Algorithm = a process or set of rules to be followed in calculations or other problemsolving situations, esp. by a computer Students memorize algorithms, or rules without understanding them and then often forget or mix up the many different rules When the problem doesnt exactly fit a rule, students do not know how to solve it

Look for and make use of structure

Relational Understanding: creating problemsolvers

Skemp writes, the more complete a pupils schema, the greater his feeling of confidence in his own ability to find new ways of getting there without outside help Students can create an overview of problems and develop creative ways to solve them

Attend to precision
Mathematically

proficient students try to communicate precisely to others. Principles and Standards. Heibert

NCTM

study

Look for and make use of structure


James

(1993)

Heibert and Diana Wearne Study

Compared 6 2nd-grade classrooms


Two

classrooms received alternate instruction (fewer problems, more discussion of methods and strategies)

Analyzed test scores before and after instruction

Before Instruction Average Ability Question Type # of Questions A B C D High Ability E F

Place Value
Instructed Computation Story Problem New Computation

8
4 1 8

22%
35% 38% 3%

25%
31% 56% 4%

21%
41% 53% 6%

27%
32% 43% 3%

71%
70% 90% 25%

69%
80% 97% 29%

After Instruction Average Ability Question Type # of Questions A B C D High Ability E F

Place Value
Instructed Computation Story Problem New Computation

7
13 3 5

37%
72% 45% 38%

24%
71% 44% 39%

36%
76% 60% 39%

53%
83% 79% 54%

60%
88% 76% 59%

86%
88% 93% 63%

Look for and make use of structure


Analysis:

Allowing students to talk about their solution methods leads to better understanding and therefore better results The data reported in this study suggest that, in mathematics classrooms, certain kinds of instructional tasks and discourse encourage more productive ways of thinking.

Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others


They

justify their conclusions, communicate them to others, and respond to the arguments of others.

Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others


Noreen

Webb Study (2009)

Looked at data from four 2nd and 3rd grade classrooms


Focused

on teacher questioning and student explanations

Then compared test scores from the four different classrooms

Teacher probed students explanations to uncover details or further thinking about their problem-solving strategies
Classroom Whole-Class Small-Group A 23 36 B 25 25 C 92 77 D 71 50

Student Explaining in Small Groups Classroom Group gave correct/com plete explanation A 16 B 33 C 72 D 56

Student Achievement

Classroom
Written Assessment Interview

A
17 13

B
30 24

C
47 37

D
45 44

Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others

Analysis:

Teacher practices of questioning led to more student explanation and greater percentage of correct answers By asking students to explain their methods for solving problems and refraining from evaluating students answers, teachers helped create expectations and obligations for students to publicly display their thinking

Possible Dilemmas in high school


Students afraid to share their thinking Maintaining number talks in high school students think its childish How much should a facilitator push? Traditional algorithm Receiving support from other faculty or parents doing number talks alone may be difficult Choosing a problem that is at the right level Supporting English Learners or students with special needs Timing Disjoint between number talk and lesson Status issues Introducing number talks in a way that is meaningful to high schoolers

We will focus on

Students afraid to share their thinking Maintaining number talks in high school students think its childish How much should a facilitator push? Traditional algorithm Receiving support from other faculty or parents doing number talks alone may be difficult Choosing a problem at the right level Supporting English Learners or students with special needs Timing Disjoint between number talk and lesson Status issues Introducing number talks in a way that is meaningful to high school students

1. Students Afraid to Share

2. Traditional Algorithm

3. Choosing a Problem at the Right Level

4. Disjoint between Number Talk and Lesson Content

Questions?

Thank you for coming!