# STEEL STRUCTURE I / STRUKTUR BAJA I

INTRODUCTION
 Structure Material : wood , concrete and steel
 Strength : wood ( < 50 MPa), Concrete ( 50 MPa)

Steel ( 500 MPa)  Tension members are define as structural elements that are subjected to axial tensile forces.  Shape use as tension members :

TENSION MEMBER IN STRUCTURE

BEHAVIOUR AND STRENGH OF TENSION MEMBERS

to get the diagram Tensile test (ASTM) According to SNI & ASTM

Diameter of specimen

Lo

 The determination of stress and elongation is based on

the following Formulas:  Ultimate strain : ε = ∆l / l  Yield stress : σ yield = F yield / A  Ultimate stress : σ ult = F ult / A  Where :
Lo L Fyield Fult A : The specimen length (mm) : Ultimate elongation (mm) : Yield force (N) : The ultimate force (N) : Section area of the specimen (mm2)

STEEL TYPE (SNI) BI 37 BJ 41 BJ 50 BJ 55

Fy (MPa) 240 250 290 410

Fu (MPa) 370 410 500 550

DESIGN STRENGTH
 A tension member can fail by reaching:excessive

deformation or fracture.  Stress P/A must be less than a limiting stress F :
P/A < F Pn = Fy Ag (nominal stress in yielding) Pn = Fu Ae (nominal strength in fracture) Resistance factor (φ) : for yielding = 0,90 for fracture = 0,75 Fy Ag = Fu Ae

EFFECTIVE NET AREA

DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS
 Pu < φ Pn
Pu : Sum of factored load

 To prevent yielding :

0,90 Fy Ag > Pu or Ag > Pu / 0,90 Fy  To avoid fracture : 0,75 Fu Ae > Pu or Ae > Pu / 0,75 Fu  The slenderness ratio limitation : r > L / 240 (utama) r > L / 300 (sekunder) r : minimum radius of giration

FLOWCHART : TENSION MEMBER DESIGN
TENSION MEMBER DESIGN NO FRIGHTTENED LOAD YES ADDITIONAL LIFE LOAD DETERMINE Fy, Fu CALC. A needed = P/Fy SELECT SHAPE TYPE CALC. Ag and Ae CALC. ACTUAL STRESS F = P/Ae F < Fy FINISH r < L/300

2. Given : A double line of standard holes 7/8 in. bolts are placed in a 10 x ¾ plate. Determine the gross and net areas Gross area Ag = 10 (3/4) = 6.50 in2 Effective hole size for a 7/8 in diameter bolt : dc = 7/8 + 1/16 + 1/16 = 1 in Net area An = ( 10 – 2 (1)) (3,4) = 6 in2

EXAMPLE
1. Given : A single line of standard holes for ¾ in. bolts are placed in a 6 x ½ plate. Determine the gross and net area. Solution : Gross area Ag = 6 (1/2) = 3 in2 Net are An = (b - dc) t dc = ¾ + 1/16 + 1/16 = 7/8 in An = (6 – 7/8) (1/2) = 2,56 in2

 Sambungan geser baut : Rn = m x r x fu x A
r = 0.4 (pada ulir ) ; 0.5 (tidak pd ulir) fu : kuat tarik baut, A luas penampang baut pd tempat tidak berulir m : jumlah bidang geser

 Sambungan tumpu : Rn = 2.4 x d x t x fu
d : diameter lubang ; t : tebal profil ; fu : kuat tarik profil

 Sambungan tarik : Rn = 0.75 x fu x A