Applied Linguistics 423


Self Introduction
Fakhar Hussain Malik
Ph.D Interpersonal Communication Skills..Theses to be finalized M.As Applied Linguistics, Linguistics and Literature Post Graduation in Linguistics, Applied linguistics, and education

National University of Modern Languages American University and World Bank and Universities at Kabul Arid Agriculture University of Technology International Islamic Uiniversity Allama Iqbal Open Universities Sarhad University

Teaching and Research Fields
Communication Skills Linguistics Applied Linguistics Functional English Literature ESP- English for Specific Purposes

Teaching by passion and nature Friendly and cooperative Wish to follow the desired standards Likely to discuss the issues than being apprehensive Always wish to add as much as it desired

Teaching method Learning Strategies preferred Preferred dealing behavior Problems generally faced Demands from the course and teacher FEEL FREE TO DISCUSS EVERY PROBLEM PLEASE

Applied linguistics is an interdisciplinary field of study that identifies, investigates, and offers solutions to language-related real-life problems. Some of the academic fields related to applied linguistics are education, linguistics, psychology, computer science,anthropology, and sociology.

Fields that Linguistics Covers Linguistics:
Theoretical linguisticsCognitive linguistics Generative linguistics Functional theories of grammar Quantitative linguistics Phonology Morphology Morphonology

Lexis Semantics Pragmatics Graphemics Orthography Semiotics Descriptive linguisticsAnthropological linguistics Comparative linguistics

Historical linguistics Phonetics Graphetics Etymology Sociolinguistics

Fields of Applied Linguistics
Applied and experimental linguistics
Computational linguistics
Evolutionary linguistics Forensic linguistics Internet linguistics Language acquisition Language assessment Language development Language education Linguistic anthropology Neurolinguistics Psycholinguistics Second-language acquisition

Major branches of applied linguistics include
Bilingualism, multilingualism, computermediatedcommunication (CMC), conversation analysis, contrastive linguistics, sign linguistics, language assessment, literacies, discourse analysis, language pedagogy, second language acquisition, lexicography, language planning and policies, stylistics, pragmatics, forensic linguistics, and translation.

History of Applied Linguistics
It started in1950s after the introduction of Generative Linguistics in Europe and America and It became part of Language Policy and Language Assessment By 1970 it shifted from theoretical study to problem-analyses and real life language solutions In 1990 it was widened to critical studies and multilingualism from theoretical to empirical study of real life issues and their solutions

Applied Linguistics World Wide
Firstly the focus was on first language and then second and foreign language In America Leonard Bloomfield stressed on structuralism or grammarian school of thought which gave Army Specialized Training Program Chrles C. Fries launched the English Language Institute (ELI)

Some unsolved issues in AL
Is there a universal definition of word? Is there a universal definition of sentence? Are there any universal grammatical categories? Can the elements contained in words (morphemes) and the elements contained in sentences (syntactic constituents) be shown to follow the same principles?

Problems Continued..
Origin of language is the major unsolved problem, despite centuries of interest in the topic. Unclassified languages (languages whose genetic affiliation has not been established, mostly due to lack of reliable data) comprise about 38 of the 6,000-7,000 languages spoken in the world. An additional 45 languages are classified as language isolates, with no demonstrable relationship to other languages.

Psycholinguistics Language acquisition: infant language acquisition / first language acquisition. How are infants able to learn language? Is the human ability to use syntax based on innate mental structures or is syntactic speech the function of intelligence and interaction with other humans? What fundamental reasons explain why ultimate attainment in second language acquisition is typically some way short of the native speaker's ability, with learners varying widely in performance?

Translation What should the translator adhere to: fidelity or transparency? Is there an objective gauge for the quality of translation?

Some Fundamental Concepts
Every language is complex. All languages are systematic. (not for NS)

Speech is the primary mode of language; writing is a secondary one. First language is acquired naturally.

What is Human Language?
Human Language
Arabic German Spanish

English French Japanese

Greek Dutch Italian Turkish

Russian Urdu Swedish

Why Do Teachers Study Linguistics? To know how language works. To help their students.

To make good decisions. To be more effective.

Aspects of Language Development
Halliday (1984) We learn language. We learn through language. We learn about language.

How Should We Study Language?
Observe (we collect data and analyze it)

Hypothesize (we hypothesize a rule)
Test (we gather more data to test our hypothesis) Conclude (we write a final rule based on our
observation and tests)

Hello! This is the scientific method!!!

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.