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Group IV

LITHOSPHERE

The Earth's Lithosphere

Soil, Rocks and Minerals Dynamics of the Earth's Crust Weathering and Erosion Issues Affecting the Lithosphere Environmental Legislation

Lithosphere

The Lithosphere from the Greek words (lithos) for rocky (sphaira) for sphere is the rigid outermost shell of a rocky planet. It is the solid part of the Earth.

and

It comprises the crust and the portion of the upper mantle that behaves elastically on time scales of thousands of years or greater.

LITHOSPHERE

Three Layers of the Earth


1. Crust

Crust is the top layer and Earth's outermost layer. It varies from 5-70 km in thickness that includes rocks, minerals, and soil. These rocks and minerals are made from just 8 elements: Oxygen (46.6%), Silicon (27.72%), Aluminum(8.13%),Iron (5%), Calcium (3.63%), Sodium (2.83%), Potassium (2.70%) and Magnesium (2.09%). Crust is constantly moving that's why continents move and earthquakes happen. Directly below the crust. It makes up the largest volume of the Earth's interior. It is almost 2900 km thick and comprises about 83% of the Earth's volume.

2. Mantle

2 parts of the Mantle

Upper Mantle about 670 km in depth. It is brittle and less dense. It is thought to be made of peridotite, a rock made from the minerals olivine and pyroxene. The rocks are more rigid and brittle because of cooler temperatures and lower pressures. Lower Mantle is much thicker and more dense. It is 670-2900 km below the Earth's surface. This layer is hot and plastic. The higher pressure in this layer causes the formation of minerals that are different from those of the upper mantle. The region beneath the mantle. It is mostly made of iron, with a little bit of nickel. 2 Parts of the Core

3. Core

Outer Core is at 1, 800 3,200 miles (2, 890 5, 150km) below the earth's surface. The temperature is about 7200 9032 F (40005000C). The molten, liquid iron in the outer core is important because it helps create Earth's magnetic field.

Inner Core 3,200 3,960 miles (5,150-6,370 km) below the earth's surface and mainly consists of iron, nickel and some lighter elements (probably sulphur, carbon, oxygen, silicon and potassium). The temperature is about 9032-10832F (5000-6000C). Because of the high pressure, the inner core is solid.

>>>The outer core and inner core together cause the earth's magnetism. Because the earth rotates, the molten outer core spins. The inner core does not spin because it's solid. This is what causes the earth's magnetism. Earth's magnetic north and magnetic south are NOT at the poles. Earth's magnetic north is in northern Canada and magnetic south is north of Antarctica and south of Australia. Another strange fact about Earth's magnetic poles is that they reverse every few million years. (North becomes south and south becomes north) This is called geomagnetic reversal. Scientist still do not fully understand why geomagnetic reversals happen.

Soil

Soil Minerals and Rocks

A non-renewable resource A final product of weathering A combination of mineral and organic matter, water and air. Defined as that portion of the regolith.

Regolith

Unconsolidated rock and mineral fragments covering the land surface. It is capable of supporting plant life. It is generally grouped into 2: Residual (soils formed on bedrock) and Transported (soil formed on material that has been moved to its current location)

Three Kinds of Soil


1. Parent Material material that soil is formed from. 2. Residual Soil if the bedrock is the parent material. 3. Transported Soils when soil comes from other areas such as glacial action.

Soil Profile
>>>Soil consists of a series of horizontal layers called horizons. A soil with well-developed horizons is called mature, whereas a soil with poorly developed horizons is called immature. Soil horizons from top to bottom are as follows: 1. O Horizon This organic zone, that contains humus (produced by bacterial decay of organic matter) is typically only a few c thick.

2. A Horizon This horizon is a zone of leaching (topsoil), where soluble material is leached out by rainwater. The zone has higher organic content and biological activity than lower horizons. 3. B Horizon This horizon represents a zone of accumulation (subsoil) where some material from the A horizon is deposited as clay and iron oxides. It contains the fragipan (a dense layer) which is called claypan. 4. C Horizon This horizon consists of partially decomposed bedrock, and can not support plant life.

Types of Soil that Grow in different Climates

Tropical Soil this soil thrives in high temperatures and heavy rain. Most of this soil is infertile because the rains have washed away the nutrients. Grassland Soil this soil must have enough rain for heavy grass, but not enough for trees. Forest Soil this soil grow in humid weather, cool seasons and forests of hardwood and evergreen. These soils have well developed horizons. Desert Soil this soil is very dry, shallow, and contains much calcium. They can be fertile when watered. Arctic Soil the bottom layer is perrmafrost and is poorly drained.

Classification of Soil
>>>Modern soil classification are very complex. An older soil classification is easier to understand because it is based on climate: 1. Pedalfer (Pedon is a Greek for soil, Al = aluminum, Fe = iron) forms in humid temperate climates. The A horizon is generally dark due to organic matter, but most soluble materials are leached, so that clays and iron oxides are concentrated in the B horizon. 2. Pedocal (Cal = calcium) forms in arid and semi-arid climates, where calcium salts (caliche) accumulate in a layer. The A horizon is lighter in color due to lower organic content and is less leached of soluble materials. Alkaline soils can form in deserts where sodium salts are deposited in the A horizon. 3. Laterite forms in tropical rain forests, where extreme leaching removes everything but clays and iron oxides. These soils are not fertile, despite lush vegetation. They are mined for bauxite (aluminum ore) and iron (oxides) in some places.

Causes of Soil Degradation


>>>Soil degradation can be caused by any decrease in soil fertility, including erosion, chemical deterioration, and physical deterioration: >>>Erosion involves the movement (transportation) of weathers materials to a place of deposition. Agents of erosion include gravity, water, ice, and wind. Water erosion, for example, involves: 1. Sheet Erosion - where erosion is fairly evenly distributed over the surface and removes thin layers of soil. 2. Rill Erosion where erosion occurs in channels scoured by running water, producing rills (shallow channels) and gullies.

>>>The rate of erosion can be estimated by the amount of sediment

carried by streams in an area. Rates vary widely depending upon climate, topography, rock type, and human influences (agriculture). Differences in erosion rate are usually caused by compositional or gainsize differences, but can also be caused by the presence/absence of fractures/joints or by differences in sunlight intensity. Differential erosion occurs where different portions of a rock body erode at different rates, and typically produces unusual surfaces, shapes, and formations.

>>>Chemical deterioration of soils can be by several factors that include loss of soil nutrients, pollution, or salinization. Loss of Soil Nutrients can be caused by: 1. overuse of soil 2. clearing land of natural vegetation 3. insufficient use of fertilizer

>>>Pollution can be caused by improper disposal of waste and overuse


of pesticides and herbicides. Salinization involves the concentration of soluble salts in topsoil due to extensive irrigation in a semi-arid climate.

>>>Physical deterioration can be caused by compaction, where heavy machinery and animals compact soil particles and reduce infiltration, or by exposure to air and sunlight, which can bake clay-rich soil into a brick-like consistency. These processes make it impossible to plow soil or for seeds to take root.

Minerals
>>>What is the difference between coal and a diamond? A piece of coal is black and diamond is colorless. What do they have in common? Both are made of carbon. Diamond is a mineral and coal is not. What then is a mineral? A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic, crystalline solid that has a definite chemical composition, and is stable over a range of temperatures and pressures. Example Quartz is a mineral, it is found in nature, it forms without the help of plants and animals, it is crystalline, and it has a definite chemical composition (SiO2, two oxygen atoms for every one silicon atom). It is stable, both at low and high temperatures,

But is unstable at very high temperatures ( > 600 C). It is stable at low to moderate pressures and is unstable at high pressures (equivalent to burial many tens of kilometers deep).

Physical Properties of Minerals


>>>Minerals can be identified by determining its physical properties. >>>Color is the most obvious characteristic. Minerals are colored because certain wavelengths of light are absorbed, and the mineral color then results from the combination of those wavelengths which reach the eye - - if light is not absorbed, the mineral is colorless in reflected or refracted light and is black if all wave- of light are absorbed. The color of the freshly broken surface of some minerals is a reliable clue to their identification. >>>Hardiness is the property of scratch ability or resistance to abrasion. Certain minerals are used as standards of comparison for all others. For a true test of hardness the harder mineral must be able to make a groove or scratch on a smooth surface of softer mineral. Calcite

Moh's Hardness Scale


A listing of minerals with increasing relative hardness 1-10 1.Talc 2. Gypsum 3. Calcite 4. Flourite 5. Apatite 6. Feldspar 7. Quartz 8. Topaz 9. Corundum 10. Diamond

Talc

Gypsum

Calcite

Flourite

Apatite

Feldspar

Quartz

Topaz

Curundum

Diamond

>>>the following can be assigned in this scale Glass = 5.5; knife = 5.5; steel file = 6-7; fingernail= 2.5; penny = 3 >>>Tenacity the cohesiveness of a mineral, or the resistance a mineral offers to breaking, crushing, bending or tearing-1. Brittle if a mineral powders easily 2. Malleable if a mineral can be hammered into sheets 3. Sectile if a mineral can be cut into thin shavings with a knife 4. Ductile if a mineral can be drawn into wire 5. Flexible if a mineral is bent but does not resume the original shape 6. Elastic if a mineral bends and resumes the original shape >>>Streak is the color produced by a fine powder of the mineral when scratched on a streak plate. Often it is different than the color of the mineral in non- powdered form.

>>>Luster is the general appearance of a mineral in reflected light. Two general types of luster are designated as follows: a. Metallic looks shiny like a metal. May be very shiny, like a chrome car part or less shiny like a broken piece of iron. Usually opaque and gives black or dark colored streak. b. Non-metallic translucent or transparent to light and have a colorless or white streak. Non metallic luster are referred to as: Vitreous looks glassy examples : clear quartz, tourmaline Resinous looks resinous examples : sphalerite, sulfur

Clear Quartz

Tourmaline

Sphalerite

Sulfur

Pearly irisdescent pearl-like example: apophyllite Greasy appears to be covered with a thin layer of oil example: nepheline. Silky looks fibrous examples: some gypsum, serpentine, malachite Adamantine brilliant luster example: diamond

apophyllite

nepheline

gypsum

serpentine

malachite

diamond

>>>Cleavage is the ability of a mineral to break or come apart in a


consistent way breakage is along atomic planes-cleavage is consistent with crystal symmetry and may be one to multi-directional from one mineral of cleavage. micas one direction of cleavage feldspars, pyroxenes and amphiboles two directions of cleavage Calcite and dolomite three directions of cleavage (rhombohedral)

>>>Fracture is the ability of a mineral to break in a consistent way and therefore not along cleavage planes >>>a few specific types of fracture are:

Concoidal a smooth, curved breakage-quartz Fibrous or Splintery Hackly jagged with sharp edges Irregular rough surfaces

>>>Specific Gravity expresses a ratio between the mass of a substance


and the mass of an equal volume of water at 4 degrees C. Crystal Habits and Aggregates >>>the appearance of a single crystal or an aggregate of crystals of a mineral can aid in the identification of the mineral 1. isolated individual mineral crystals a. bladed elongated flattened crystals that looks like a knife blade b. acicular thin needlelike crystal c. capillary hair like or thinner 2. groups of distinct crystals a. dendritic resembling small veins on a tree leaf b. radiated crystals appearing in a radial pattern c. drusy a surface containing very small crystals

3.groups of distinct crystal occurring in parallel or spherical form a. columnar column like crystals b. bladed many flat bladed crystals c. fibrous parallel fibers d. colloform includes botryoidal (resembling a bunch of grapes) Most Common Minerals >>>Quartz (kwarts) is a common and diagnostic mineral in light-colored felsic igneous rocks, such as granite, diorite, andesite and ryolite. It is usually clear, but in granite it is cloudy white or greyish in color. Many gemstone are actually less common colored varieties of quartz. Examples include purple amethyst, yellow citrine, and pink rose quartz. Quartz is also common in metamorphic rocks such as gneiss.

Purple Amethyst

Yellow Citrine

Pink Rose Quartz

>>>Potassium Feldspar (feld-spar) known as K-spar or orthoclase, is usually light cream to a salmon pink in color. >>>Plagioclase feldspar (pla-geo-klays feld-spar) is a common member of the feldspar group of minerals.The color of plagioclase ranges from white, to gray, to an iridescent purple in a variety called labradorite. A good way to distinguish between the feldspars is to look for striations. Striations are found on many cleavage planes of Plagioclase feldspar, but are not present on potassium feldspar. >>>Olivine (olive-ene) is a magnesium-iron-silicate. It has a glassy luster and is yellow green. Olivine has no cleavage. Olivine is a common mineral in gabbro and basalt and often occurs as phenocrysts. >>>Pyroxene (peer-ox-zene) is a diverse group of minerals composed of magnesium- iron- calcium- aluminum silicates. It is common mineral in basalt which is from the oceanic crust and gabbro which is from the volcanic areas on the continents.

Potassium Feldspar

Plagioclase feldspar

Olivine

Pyroxene

>>>Hornblende (horn-blend) is the most common member of a chemically complex mineral group called amphiboles. Amphiboles are minerals that contain ions of iron and/ or magnesium in their structures. Hornblende is in the group as pyroxene and biotite which are known as dark silicate minerals. It is usually dark green to black and looks very splintery. >>>Mica (mike-a) is a silicate mineral composed of potassium (K), aluminum (Al), silicate (SiO). It breaks down into thin, flexible, shiny and often transparent sheets. Two of the most common varieties are dark mica, biotite and light mica, muscovite. Both of these minerals are very common in metamorphic rocks such as gneiss and schist, as well as in intrusive rocks like granite. >>>Calcite (kal-site) is composed of calcium ions (Ca) and carbonate ions (CO3). In its purest form, calcite is transparent with rhombic shaped faces with a glassy luster. Calcite is relatively soft and has good cleavage along three directions. If transparent calcite is placed over an image on paper, two images are seen. This phenomenon and is caused by light splitting into two components.

Hornblende

Mica

Calcite

Gems It is rare and highly priced minerals. Its color, luster, hardness and how light passes trough them make them valuable. Common Minerals >>>Diamonds in their natural state before cutting and polishing. Are known as diamonds in the rough. This diamond in the rough is still attached to the rock that surrounded. >>>Sapphire, a precious stone, is a variety of the mineral corundum. The deep blue color of these stones comes from traces of the element cobalt. It's a birthstone of September. >>>Emerald, distinguished by its bright green color, the naturally occurring emerald ranks as one of the most valuable varieties of precious stones. The market price of this emerald will not be determined until the stone is cut and examined. Emeralds occur naturally in many countries. Scientists and gemologists also can synthesize emeralds in laboratories, although careful analysis can separate the synthetic gemstones from genuine emeralds.

Diamonds

Sapphire

Emerald

>>>Tourmaline is a relatively hard mineral composed chiefly of silicon and aluminum. Tourmaline exhibits the property of dichroism - that is, the mineral appears to be two different colors when viewed from different sides. In the tourmaline pictured here., most of the stone appears blue, but some areas where light strikes at different angles appear green. >>>Rubies are form of corundum, which is the second hardest mineral after diamond. The most valued variety is a clear, deep red termed pigeon's blood. Some rubies display a star when illuminated because of an effect called asterism. Asterism is caused by inclusions, which are needlelike extensions of other mineral crystal (such as rutile) trapped within the primary stone. The Rosser Reeves stone seen here is one of the finest star rubies. It weighs 138. 7 carats. >>>Opals, gemstones composed of silicon and oxygen, are valued for their iridescence. The distinctive sparkling play of color displayed by precious opals comes from a unique structure of layered silica spheres. As light passes through the different layers and catches on tiny cracks within the stone, it bends, or refracts, creating bright flashes of color. However, the layered structure also makes opals susceptible to cracking and chipping.

Tourmaline

Ruby

Opals

>>>Aquamarine is a semiprecious variety of the mineral beryl. It is found in granite and pegmatite rock. Aquamarine appears in the colors blue, green, or turquoise, and crystals may grow to 1m (3 ft) in length. >>>Amethyst, a popular gemstone, is well known for the deep purple color and crystal shapes of its clusters. The stone's color varies from pale pinkish to clear purple to deep purple. >>>Topaz is a relatively hard stone with a soft luster. It is most frequently clear or pale blue, but also occurs in variations of yellow, green, and red. The most valuable stones are golden-yellow, a form of topaz called imperial topaz. Although it has a hardness of eight, only two steps lower than the diamond, topaz can be broken easily because the crystal has a perfect line of cleavage. A birthstone of November. >>>The abrasive surface of sandpaper is sometimes made from tiny fragments of low-quality garnet. Deep red stones are generally the most valuable and are often used in jewelry. Garnet is a birthstone for January. >>>Gem-quality, transparent olivine is called peridot. Peridot is one of the August birthstones. The peridot is uncut and unpolished.

Aquamarine

Amethyst

Topaz

Garnet

Peridot

>>>Turquoise has been used as a decorative stone since ancient times. The mineral ranges in color from sky blue to greenish-gray. >>>Pearls are valued as gemstones although they are not actually minerals. They are made from the same material that covers the inside of mollusk shells, an iridescent substance called nacre, more commonly known as mother-of-pearl. When an irritant such as a parasite enters its shell, a mollusk secretes a nacre coating to make them less dangerous to its soft tissues. Eventually, the nacre coatings transform the irritant into a pearl.

Turquoise

Pearls

Common Minerals and Rare Gem Forms


Mineral Diamond Corundu Composition C Al203 Gem Diamond Ruby Sapphire Beryl Be3Al2(SisOls) Emerald Aquamarine Tourmaline Als(BO3)3SisO,s( O) Rubellite Indicolite Spinel MgAl204 Ruby Picoltite Color many red blue green blue-green red blue red Yellow to greenish brown red red Where Found Australia, India, Brazil, Uganda Burma, Thailand, Sri Lanka Thailand, Sri Lanka, India, Australia Colombia, Brazil, Siberia Brazil, Madagascar, United States Brazil, U.S.S.R Madagascar, United States Thailand, Burma, Sri Lanka Madagascar

Garnet

(Mg, Fe)3AllSi04)3

Pyrope Almandite

United States India, Sri Lanka, Brazil

Topaz

Al2SiO4(F, OH)2

Topaz

Clear, U.S.S.R., Brazil, Mexico, Japan, yellow, blueUnited States green clear purple Europe, Brazil, Japan United States

Quartz

SiO2

Crystal Amethyst

Rocks The earth is made of different kinds of rocks. Rocks is common aggregate of mineral grains. Rocks are naturally occurring solid materials made of one or more minerals. Minerals are composed mostly of different combinations of eight elements- oxygen, silicon, aluminum. Iron, calcium, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. They are most abundant elements on earth. Petrology is the study of rock and petrologists are scientists who study rocks and their mineral compositions. They group rocks into three types, based on the way the rocks were formed.

Igneous Rocks The term igneous comes from the latin word Ignis which means fire. Igneous rocks are produced deep underground by the cooling and hardening of magma. Magma is a molten rock that is produced in the upper part of the mantle or in the lowest areas of the crust usually at a depth of 50 to 200 kilometers. Magma is less dense than the surrounding rocks which cause it to rise. When magma reaches the surface it is then called lava. The lava that reaches the Earth's surface will harden and become igneous rock. When the magma does not reach the surface it produces a variety of geologic structures. When lava reaches the surface of the Earth through volcanoes or through great fissures the rocks are called extrusive igneous rocks. Some of the more common types of extrusive igneous rocks are lava rocks, cinders, pumice, obsidian, and volcanic ash and dust. Extrusive igneous rocks was generally glassy or finely crystalline in texture. When magma solidifies and does not reach the surface of the earth it forms intrusive or plutonic rock.It has coarser texture with large masses of crystal grain of varying sizes. Intrusive igneous rock forms batoliths, laccoliths, sills and dikes.

>>>Dikes form when vertical cracks or fissures is filled with magma. Sometime the rocks of a dike show very large crystals. They developed because magma containing large amount of gases and water vapor remains fluid for long time. Thus, crystals of quartz, feldspar and mica several feet in diameter have been found in dikes. >>>Sills are similar to dikes except that the magma wedges itself horizontally between sedimentary rock layers over a wide area. Thus, it has the form of a relatively thin sheet. >>>Laccoliths form from magma that intruded between layers of sedimentary rocks causing them to arch upward. >>>Batholiths are the parent source of many other intrusive and extrusive masses extend deep into the earth. They are different from laccolith by their great size and they extend downward indefinitely. Batholith form the roots of mountain ranges and the bases of continents.

Common Igneous Rocks >>>Rhyolite (rye-o-lite) forms from lava that is extruded out of a volcano. It is usually a light gray, pink, purple, or yellow color. If purple it may appear quite dark. It composed of the same minerals as granite. The difference is that most of the crystals are so small that they can't be seen with the naked eye, whereas in granite the crystals are big enough to see (>0.5mm). >>>Granite(gran-it) forms from magma that cools deep within the crust (2 to 50 km) as large batholiths. It most commonly forms in areas of convergent tectonic plates. It is a coarse-grained igneous rock with the major minerals being quartz, feldspar, and mica. Most of the minerals in granite are lighht colored, although potassium feldspar can be a dark pink. Mica can either be light (muscovite) or dark (biotite). As a result granite is commonly light gray or pink with small dark spots. >>>Andesite (ann-da-site) is a fine-grained, extrusive igneous rock. It is immediate because it contains some minerals that are common to rhyolite and some common to basalt. It can look very much like basalt to the unaided eye, but it is usually less dark or greenish in color. Andesite magma is viscous and forms thick lava flows or domes.

Rhyolite

Granite

Andesite

>>>Diorite (die-a-rite) is a plutonic rock from intermediate magma. It occurs in large amounts in roots of mountains in places like Scotland, mid Europe and Norway. >>>Gabbro (gab-row) is a coarse-grained, intrusive igneous rock, the main minerals being plagioclase (i.e. a mixture of calcium and sodium feldspar, minerals >>>Basalt (basalt) is a fine-grained, extrusive igneous rock with the same minerals as its intrusive equivalent, gabbro. Basalt is black, or gray. It is formed in areas where tectonic plates move apart (diverge). The earth's crust in these areas is thinned, stretched, and eventually it breaks along long fractures called faults. As the plates pull apart a rift valley begins to form. As the Earth's crust is thinned, pressure is released on the underlying mantle. This release of pressure causes part of the mantle material to melt. Partial melting results in the generation of large amounts of basaltic magma, which then rises up to the surface and erupts as basaltic lava. >>>Peridotite (per-rid-o-tite)is a coarse-grained plutonic rock composed of olivine and possibly including amphibole, pyroxene.

Diorite

Gabbro

>>>Scoria (score-ee-a) is hardened lava that has retained the vesicles produced by escaping gases. >>>Obsidian (ob-sid-ian) is formed when rhyolite magma is cooled rapidly, e.g. on lava surfaces and at contact surfaces of intrusions. It is jet black in color and has a glossy luster. >>>Pumice (pum-miss) are fragments of frothy, solidified magma foam which is thrown into the air during a volcanic eruption. It may get carried very far from the source area. Pumice is so light that it floats on water but after sometime when the vesicles get saturated with water, it will sink. Sedimentary Rocks >>>Sedimentary Rocks are formed from broken pieces of rocks or sediments that are usually formed in water. Streams and rivers carry sediments in their current. When the current slows around a bend or the river empties into a lake, or ocean, or another river the sediments fall out because of gravity. The larger sediments fall out first and the lightest sediments fall out last.

When rain come the bodies of water receives an influx of water from highlands which carries with it a large amount of sediment that becomes suspended in it. As the sediment settles the sediments come to rest on the bottom. The heaviest and largest particles settle out first and the lightest sediments such as silts and clays settle out last. This laying down of rock-forming material by a natural agents of deposition are water, ice, gravity, and wind. Sediment is deposited in flat, horizontal layers with the oldest layers on the bottom and the younger layers lying on and over the older layers. Geologists use this knowledge to read layers of sedimentary rock. They can date layers by the fossils that are found in them. If a layer has a fossil in it that is known to be 50 million years old the layer itself must be at least 50 million years old and the layers below it have to be older than 50 million years. Types of Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rock formed from 1.) lithification of sediments, 2.) precipitation from solution, or 3.) consolidation of the remains of plants or animals. These different types of rocks are called, respectively, clastic, chemical, and organic rocks.

A. Clastic Sedimentary Rocks formed from cemented sediment grains that are fragments of preexisting rocks. The rock fragments can be either identifiable pieces of rocks, such as pebbles of granite or shale, or individual mineral grains, such as sand sized quartz and feldspar crystals loosened from rocks by weathering and erosion. Examples are: >>>Conglomerate (con-glom-er-ate) It consists mostly of gravel. The particles may vary largely in size within any one sample. This variety of size is called poor sorting where the rock may consist of rocks as large as boulders as well as pieces pieces as small as a single pea. >>>Sandstone (sand-stone) It is any rock with predominantly sand-sized grains. After shale, sandstone is the next most abundant sedimentary rock. Sandstone forms in a variety of environments and often contains important clues about the history of the past. >>>Shale(shale) It is a sedimentary rock consisting of slit and clay sized particles. These particles are so small that they can only be identified with great magnification. Because it is difficult to see individual grains without a microscope, a shale is one of the more difficult sedimentary rocks to study and analyze.

B. Chemical Sedimentary Rocks are rocks deposited by precipitation of minerals from solution. An example of inorganic precipitation is the formation of rock salt as seawater evaporates. Chemical precipitation can also be induced by organism. Limestone, for instance,can form by the precipitation of calcite within a coral reef by corals and algae. Examples are: >>>Limestone (lime-stone) It is formed from material that is carried in solution to lakes and seas. It is the most abundant chemical sedimentary rock. It is composed mostly of mineral calcite (CaCO3). Although the chemical composition of limestone is similar in all environments, there are many different types because it can be produced in so many different environments. The two major types of limestone can be classified as either biochemical or inorganic limestone. C. Organic Sedimentary Rocks are rocks that accumulate from the remains of organism. Coal is an organic rock that forms from the compression of plant remains, such as moss, leaves, twigs, roots and tree trunks. Example is:

>>>Coal It is a sedimentary rock that forms from the compaction of

plant material that has not completely decayed. It usually develops from peat, a brown, lightweight, unconsolidated or semi consolidated deposit of moss and other plant remains that accumulates in wet bogs. Metamorphic Rocks

Metamorphism occurs when any previously existing rock, the parent rock, is buried in the earth under layers of other rock. The deeper the rock is buried the hotter it gets, and the higher the pressure becomes. Eventually, rock must adjust to the new conditions, whether it is baked, or squeezed, or both, and in the process becomes a metamorphic rock. The word metamorphic comes from Greek word To Change Form. Three main Agents of Metamorphism A. Temperature. It can be caused by layers of sediments being buried deeper and deeper under the surface of the Earth. The earth's temperature increases at about 25C for every kilometer of descend. The deeper the layers are buried the hotter the temperatures become. The great weight of these layers also causes an increase in pressure, which in turn, causes an increase in temperature.

The descending of rock layers at subduction zones causes metamorphism in two ways; the shearing effect of the plates sliding past each other causes the rocks coming in contact with the descending rocks to change. Some of the descending rock will melt because of this friction. When rock melts it is then considered igneous not metamorphic, but the rock next to the melted rock can be changed by the heat and become a metamorphic rock. B. Pressure It can be caused by; 1. The huge weight of overlying layers of sediments. 2. Stresses caused by plates colliding in the process of mountain building. 3. Stresses caused by plates sliding past each other, such as the shearing stresses at the San Andres fault zone in California. C. Chemical Change. This happens when extreme cause very hot fluids and vapors fill the pores of existing rocks. These fluids and vapors can cause chemical reactions to take place that over time can change the chemical makeup of the parent rock.

Metamorphism can be instantaneous as in the shearing of rocks at plate boundaries or can take millions of years as in the slow cooling of magma buried deep under the surface of the Earth. Common Metamorphic Rocks >>>Slate (slate) is a very fine grained foliate rock composed of tiny mica flakes. Since the mica flakes are so small, slate is not usually visibly foliate. Slate does, though, exhibit cleavage which is evidence that minerals are aligned, therefore, foliate (foliation is the growth of larger crystals, reorientation of mineral grains into a layers or banded appearance due to metamorphism). Slate is considered low-grade metamorphism of shale, although, it may be form of metamorphosed volcanic ash as well. >>>Phyllite (phy-lite) is between slate and schist on the metamorphic scale. It looks a lot like slate, but its glossy sheen gives it away. >>>Schist (schist) is strongly foliate. It can be easily split into thin flakes or slabs. As with phyllite, the parent rock of schist is shale, but the metamorphism is much greater. If the parent rock would contain an abundance of silica, schist will often contain thin layers or bands of quartz and possibly feldspar.

>>>Gneiss (nice) is a term used to identify banded metamorphic rock that contains mostly elongated and granular, as opposed to platy, minerals. The most common minerals found in gneiss are quartz, potassium feldspar and sodium feldspar. There is also a smaller amount of muscovite, biotite and hornblende. Gneiss are easily identifiable by the segragations of light and dark minerals giving it a banded texture. Most gneisses consist of alternating bands of light and dark. >>>Marble (mar-ble) is a non-foliated, coarse, crystalline rock who's parent are usually limestone When marcble are examined by hand it closely resembles crystalline limestone. Pure marble is white composed primarily of minerasl calcite. Often, limestone is not pure. These impurifies color the marble pink, gray, green or black.Under extreme deformation, the bands formed by the minerals, may become very contorted and give marble that well known, swirl look. >>>Quartzite (kwarts-ite) is a very hard, non-foliated, metamorphic rock formed usually from quartz-rich sandstone. Under low to moderate grade metamorphism the quartz grains in sandstone fuse together. These bonds are so strong that when quartzite id broken it will break only along the original quartz grains. Quartzite is usually white, but iron oxide may produce reddish, pinkish, purple colors.

Rock Cycle The concept of the Rock Cycle was created by James Hutton (17271979), the father of modern geology. Although he loved science and studied chemistry and medicine in college, he became a farmer instead. The Rock Cycle is a group of changes. The upper part of the earth (mantle, crust and surface) is like a giant recycling machine. Rocks are not created or destroyed, but only broken or changed from one kind of rock to another. Igneous rock forms when magma cools and makes crystals. Magma is a hot liquid material made of melted minerals. When magma cools minerals form crystals. Igneous rock can be formed underground, where the magma cools slowly. Or, above ground, where the magma cools quickly. On Earth's surface, rocks can be exposed to weathering and erosion. Wind, water and human activities break rock pieces into sediments can be buried under other layers compacted and cemented together to form sedimentary rock.

Rocks either sedimentary or igneous can be exposed to heat and pressure because of overlying layers of rock or when rocks were pressed near magma. It partially melts causing bigger crystals to form metamorphic rock. Once rock melts it becomes magma and the cycle continues. When Earth's tectonic plates move around, they produce heat. When they collide, they build mountains and metamorphose the rock. Mountains made of metamorphic rocks can be broken up and washed away by streams. New sediments from these mountains can make new sedimentary rock. The rock cycle never stops.

TYPES, CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF CRUSTAL MOVEMENTS Dynamics of the Earth's Crust It is the dynamic internal forces the generally tend to elevate the earth's surface. They are in constant battle against external forces that tend to wear away the land surface. Types/Causes of Earth Movements 1. Uplift is the movement of the earth wherein the crust rises 2. Subsidence a sinking or setting of a part of the Earth's crust with respect to the surrounding parts. 3. Thrust horizontal movement of the Earth crust Effects of Earth Movements 1. Theory of Isostacy from the Greek word meaning equal standing. States that as rock from higher region is removed by erosion and deposited on a lower region becomes heavier and slowly rises while the lower region becomes heavier and slowly sinks.

2. Contraction Theory states that the Earth is gradually shrinking. As the shrinking occurs, the stronger and heavier blocks of the crust sink while the weaker strata are crowded and squeezed upward. 3. Convection Theory is the theory which would account for the pushing and folding of rocks through convection current. This process is true when it occurs under a continental mass. 4. Continental Drift Theory is the theory which accounts for diastrophic movement and for the folding and faulting along the edges of the continents. 5. Expansion Theory is the theory which states that the earth would change the continents' positions. Mountains Mountains are lands that rise high above the surrounding land. There are four main kinds of mountains: folded, upwarped, fault-block, and volcanic.

Folded Mountains are made from rock layers that were squeezed from opposite sides causing the rock layers to fold. The Appalachian Mountains in the eastern United States are an example of folded mountains. Unwarped Mountains are made when the crust was pushed upward by forces inside the Earth. The Rocky Mountain in Colorado and New Mexico, the Black Hills of South Dakota, and the Adirondak Mountains of New York are all examples of unwarped mountains. Fault-Block Mountains are made of huge tilted blocks of rocks that are separated from surrounding rocks by faults. A fault is a huge crack in the rocks. The Grand Teton Mountains(Wyoming) and the Sierra Nevada Mountains (California) are examples of fault-block mountains. Volcano Mountain is an active cinder cone in central Yukon Territory, Canada, located a short distance north of Fort Selkirk, near the confluence of the Pelly and Yukon Rivers. Volcano Mountain is called Nelrna in the Northern Tutchone language.Volcano Mountain is the youngest volcano in the Fort Selkirk Volcanic Fieldand one of the youngest in the northern section of the Northern Cordilleran Volcanic Province.

The lava at Volcano Mountain is called olivine nephelinite, which is a very uncommon type of lava. This type of lava is believed to have come from much deeper inside the Earth than the basaltic lava. The last eruption from Volcano Mountain produced young nephelinitic lava flows that remain unvegetated and appear to be only a few hundred years old. However, dating of sediments in lake impounded by the lava flows indicated that the youngest flows could not be younger than midHolocene and could be early Holocene or older. Life History of Mountains 1. Youth in early youth, all mountains are growing. Their growth may be indicated by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, slow rise of rock strata or by all of these. All mountain are grow for a long period of time, they are weathered and eroded. They become rugged and high, with sharp peaks, narrow valleys, steep slopes on which landslides and avalanches frequently take place. Example of young mountain are Himalayas, Andes, Alps, Coast, and Cascade Ranges in the U.S., Sierra Nevada, Rocky Mountains and Hawaii.

2. Maturity mature mountains have stopped growing. Weathering and erosion continue to wear down their surfaces. Peaks are greatly lowered, slope, become gentler, valley become wider, and interstream areas are found where softer layers wear away fast. Appalachians, the white Mountains, the Adirondacks, and mountains of Scotland and Scandinavia. 3. Old Mountains mountains are worn down to almost base level. The low rolling surface of mountain region is called peneplain. It is almost flat. Volcanism Volcanism is part of the process by which a planet cools off. It is the rock movements both inside and outside the earth crust. Hot magma, rising from below reaches the Earth, eventually, but not always, erupts onto the surface in the form of lava. Volcanoes form when hot material from below rises and leaks into the crust. This called the magma chamber. Eventually, but not always, the magma erupts onto the surface. Strong earthquakes accompany rising magma, and the volcanic cone may swell in appearance, just before an eruption. Scientist often monitor the changing shape of a volcano,

especially prior to an eruption. The different reasons why a volcano forms are: 1. via plumes or hot spots in the lithosphere 2. as a result of subduction of the nearby lithosphere Different Kinds of Volcanoes 1. shield volcanoes 2. cinder volcanoes 3. composite volcanoes Shield Volcanoes can grow to be very big. In fact, the oldest continental regions of Earth may be the remains of ancient shield volcanoes. Unlike the composite volcanoes which are tall and thin, shield volcanoes are tall and broad, with flat, rounded shapes. The Hawaiian volcanoes exemplify the common type of shield volcano. They are built by countless outpourings of lava that advance great distances from a central summit vent or group of vents. The outpourings of lava are typically not accompanied by pyroclastic material, which make the shoeld volcanoes

relatively safe. Mauna Loa, the largest of the shield volcanoes, is 13, 677 feet above sea level, which means it rises over 28, 000 feet above the deep ocean floor, and would be the world's tallest mountain if much of it were not underwater. Famous shield volcanoes include Mauna Loa, Kilauea, (two of the world's most active volcanoes), and Olympus Mons of Mars. Cinder cones are simple volcanoes which have a bowl-shaped crater at the summit and only grow to about a thousand feet, the size of a hill. They usually are created of eruptions from a single opening, unlike a strato-volcano or shield volcano which can erupt from many different openings. They are usually made of piles of lava, not ash. During the eruption, blobs (cinders) of lava, blown into the air, break into small fragments that fall around the opening to the volcano. Famous cinder cones include Paricutin in Mexico. Another well known cinder cone is in the middle of Crater Lake.

Composite volcanoes are the most majestic and also known as stratovolcanoes. Unlike the shield volcanoes which are flat and broad, composite volcanoes are tall, symmetrically shaped, with steep sides, sometimes rising 10, 000 feet high. They are built of alternating layers of lava flows, volcanic ash, cinders, blocks, and bombs. Famous composite volcanoes include Mount Fuji in Japan, Mount Cotopaxi in Ecuador, Mount Shasta in Lassen in California, Mount Hood in Oregon, Mount St. Helens and Mount Rainier in Washington, Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines, and Mt. Etna in Italy. Location of Volcanoes Volcanoes are mainly found along those plate boundaries: 1. where an oceanic plate and continental plate and continental plate meet 2. where two oceanic plates meet 3. where plates move apart

Types of Volcanic Eruptions 1. Quiet the fluid lava spreads out quickly to form a broad cone with granite slope. Such volcano is called the oozing or quiet type. It is non-explosive but sends fountains of lava hundreds of feet into the air in spectacular scarlet tongues. When the lava flows from the containing crater, it flows swiftly toward the lower level. There it destroys and buried everything in its path. 2. Explosive some volcanoes explode with unbelievable violence. The eruption is often preceded by loud rumblings and earthquakes. These open up the ground forming great fissures, draining lakes, and developing hot springs. 3. Intermediate between the quiet and the explosive kinds is the intermediate which is sometimes quiet, sometimes explosive or a combination of both. 4. Fissures the largest amount of volcanic materials are extruded from cracks in the crust called fissures. Rather than build a cone, these long narrow cracks distribute volcanic materials over a wide area.

Advantages of Vulcanicity 1. Fertile Soil is formed at volcanic areas. This is why the slopes of volcanoes in Central Java, Indonesia are terraced for padi cultivation. 2. Precious stones and minerals such as silver, gold, diamonds and sulfur are formed during vulcanicity. This enables mining to be carried out. 3. Hot springs contain mineralized water believed to have medical value. Thus becoming Health Spas. 4. Geothermal energy derived from the heat of the superheated underground watery volcanic areas can be used to produce electricity (e.g. New Zealand and Japan). 5. Tourism. Tourists are attracted to volcanic features such as geysers and spectacularly scenic volcanoes (e.g. Mt. Fuji in Japan) 6. Volcanic ashes can be used to surface roads and manufacture bricks. Sulphur deposits in volcanic areas are mined for industrial uses.

Disadvantages of Vulcanicity 1. Volcanic eruptions cause destruction to lives and property. 2. Poisonous gases (e.g. Carbon Monoxide, ash and volcanic dust pollute the environment for months or years. They damage respiratory systems of people and livestock, and contaminate water sources and vegetation. 3. When the steam is ejected during an eruption, heavy rain falls and cause floods. Ejected sulphur particles cause the thinning of the ozone layer. 4. Explosive eruptions in the sea create huge sea waves called tsunamis. Distribution of Volcanoes Almost of the volcanoes of the world are found into two belts which cover much of same regions as the earthquakes belts. They are roughly the zones of fracture in the crust. These two belts are: 1. Circum-Pacific Belt also called ring of fire 2. Mediterranian Belt

Active and Inactive Volcanoes When volcano has erupted within historic times (within the last 600 years) and has been documented by man, it is called active volcano If the volcano's form is beginning to be changed by the agents of weathering and erosion via formation of deep and long gullies and has never erupted within prehistoric times, it is considered to be inactive one. Economic Importance of Volcanic Eruption Products 1. The fumarole gases are used for generating electric power, this is mixed with varying amounts of CO2, ammonia, methane, and helium. 2. SO2 is used in manufacture of sulfuric acid 3. Ammonia is used in making fertilizers 4. Methane is used as a fuel gas 5. An inert gas, helium is used in melting and metallurgy of light metals that react readily with the oxygen in air. 6. Helium is also used in lifting a balloon

7. Hydrogen sulfide gas oxidizes in air to form water-sulfur deposits 8. Pumice is used for grinding and polishing stone wash 9. Lava, volcanic ash, and dust form fertile soil which supports productive farms Precautions Knowing the dangers and the vulnerable areas, individuals who choose to live volcanoes should heed the following precautionary measures. 1. Avoid low places or areas vulnerable to avalanches, rock falls, lava flows and mudflows. 2. To minimize mudflows, refrain from deforesting the slopes of the volcano 3. During ash showers, people with respiratory ailments should be evacuated outside the ash shower areas so as not to aggravate their condition. Others should cover their noses, preferably with wet pieces of cloth.

4. In between the heavy ash shower, ash that has accumulated on roof tops should be scraped off to prevent the collapse of destruction of structures. 5. Construct earthquake assistant structures in areas near active volcanoes 6. Comply strictly with PHILVOCS prohibition against human settlement in Permanent Danger Zone or the areas within 4-6 km radius from the summits of active volcanoes. Also heed warnings and orders for evacuation issued by PHILVOCS and the Disaster Coordinating Councils (DCCs) in times of volcanic unrest. 7. Those living on or around volcanoes should have ready means transport. Earthquake It occurs when sudden movements take place within and below the Earth's crust. They cause fractures and faults in the crust and the sudden release of built-up stress send shock waves. Tectonic plates then move in sudden jerks. Earthquake Regions

Shock waves range from slight vibrations which are hardly felt to very strong vibrations which can cause great destruction. Magnitude of an earthquake can be measured with an instrument called a seismometer, ranges from 0-9 on the Richter scale. Source of the earthquake >>> focus Epicenter >>> point on the Earth's surface directly above the focus. It receives the strongest shock waves and therefore, maximum destruction of lives and property. Factors Influencing Extent of Damage 1. Magnitude of Earthquake: An earthquake which measures 2 and below on the Richter scale is barely noticeable while 7 and above show major earthquakes. 2. Depth of Focus: Those with shallow focus (depth of 0-70 km) is most devastating earthquakes. 3. Epicenter: Places near the epicenter are more badly damaged than those further away from it.

Earthquake Signs and Predictions 1. Earthquake clouds - are clouds claimed to be signs of imminent earthquakes. They have been described in antiquity: In chapter 32 of his work Brihat Samhita, Indian scholar Varahamihira (505 587) discussed a number of signs warning of earthquakes, including extraordinary clouds occurring a week before the earthquake. In modern times, a few scientists claim to have observed clouds associated with a seismic event, sometimes more than 50 days in advance of the earthquake. Some have even claimed to accurately predict earthquake occurrences by observing clouds. However, these claims have very little support in the scientific community. 2. Thermal precursor - a few months before the occurrence of an earthquake the average temperature of the area keeps increasing. Weather report bulletins refer to temperatures above or below average by so many degrees. It is seen that in case the area is heading for an earthquake, the average temperature goes on increasing. On the day of the earthquake it is about 5 to 9 degrees Celsius above the average normal temperature for that day. This could be monitored by the meteorology department and also by thermometers inside homes.

3. Water precursor - there is a sudden rise or fall in water level in the wells. It could be as high as one metre. Sometimes the well water may turn muddy. At times a fountain appears inside the well. All these changes happen about one or three days before the earthquake. Sometimes a fountain appears in the ground. This normally happens a few hours before the quake. 4. Seismo-electromagnetic precursor - This is a very reliable precursor. It occurs and is exhibited about 10 to 20 hours before the quake. Before the occurrence of an earthquake the subsurface temperature rises. As a result of this the geomagnetic field is reduced. The reduction in geomagnetic field adversely affects the propagation of electromagnetic waves. This is experienced abundantly on the radio, television and telephone. 5. Animal precursor - it is seen that 10 to 20 hours before the occurrence of an earthquake, the entire animal kingdom becomes highly disturbed and restless. They move in a directionless manner and in fear. Birds do not sit on trees but move about at a low height, emitting a shrill noise. Rodents like rats, mongooses etc are in a panic. Domestic animals like cows, dogs, cats etc struggle against being tied up, and even turn on the owner. Pandas may moan.

5. Human precursor - doctors and nurses observe that some sensitive patients in hospitals become highly disturbed. They exhibit a sudden rise in blood pressure, heart trouble, headache, migraine, respiratory disorders etc. Further, these psychosomatic signs are manifested without any provocation. It is also seen that the number of patients in the out-patient department increases by five to seven times, some 10 to 20 hours before the quake. The best indicator is the number of child deliveries in any hospital. On the penultimate day of the earthquake the number of deliveries goes up about three to five times, while on the day of the earthquake it is as high as seven to eight times the normal.

Locations Earthquakes usually occur along plate boundaries, just like volcanic eruptions. Some of the major earthquake zones are: 1. The Pacific Ring of Fire 2. The East-African Region 3. The Himalayas Asia Minor Region Causes and Effects of Earthquakes Occur Causes: 1. Fractures of rocks in faulting or volcanic eruptions 2. Percussion or blow explosion of quarry blasts, atom bombs, volcanic eruptions, or from traffic (tracks, tanks, trains) or from rockfalls (from cliffs, waterfalls, caverns or mines) 3. Rubbing together of two even surfaces in fault planes, landslides, avalanches and submarine slumping of sediments

4. Movements of magma or sudden release of stress that built up along fault planes Effects 1. Raising and lowering of the sea floor, causing tsunamis 2. Destruction of lives and property, especially in densely populated areas: Victims are trapped under the collapse buildings. Supply of water, gas, electricity and sewage disposal are disrupted. Gas mains and sewage tanks burst and electric transmission lines snap. People left homeless. 3. Fires, gas explosion and diseases: Diseases are rampant because of contaminated water and decomposed bodies. 4. Avalanches and landslides in mountainous areas. Effects of Human Earthquakes may result in disease, lack of basic necessities, loss of life, higher insurance premiums, general property damage, road and bridge damage, and collapse of buildings or destabilization of the base of buildings; this may lead to collapse in future earthquakes.

Earthquakes can also precede volcanic eruptions, which cause further problems; for example, substantial crop damage, like in the Year Without a Summer Measures to Reduce the Impact 1. Early warnings of Earthquakes: a. Using advanced equipment to predict earthquakes and tsunamis b. Water levels in wells rising and falling 2. Reinforcing bridges to withstand earthquakes. 3. Limiting the height and density of buildings in earthquake prone areas. 4. Equipping electricity generators with shutdown switches which are activated by seismic waves. 5. Automatic shutoffs of gas pipes and electricity supplies. Usage of fireproof materials in building s to reduce outbreak of fire. 6. Regular earthquake drills to prepare people for emergencies.

7. Stockpiling food and drinking water, and providing survival kits for emergency use. How to measure and locate an earthquake Earthquakes can be recorded by seismometers up to great distances, because seismic waves travel through the whole Earth's interior. The absolute magnitude of a quake is conventionally reported by numbers on the Moment magnitude scale (formerly Richter scale, magnitude 7 causing serious damage over large areas), whereas the felt magnitude is reported using the modified Mercalli scale (Intensity II-XII). Every tremor produces different types of seismic waves which travel through rock with different velocities: the longitudinal P-waves (shockor pressure waves), the transverse S-waves (both body waves) and several surface waves (Rayleigh and Love waves). The propagation velocity of he seismic waves ranges from approx. 3 km/s up to 13 km/s, depending on the density and elasticity of the medium. In the Earth's interior the shock- or P waves travel much more faster than the S waves (approx. relation 1.7: The differences in travel time from the epicenter to the observatory are a measure of the distance and can be used to image both sources of quakes and structures within the Earth. Also the depth of the hypo-center can be computed roughly.

In solid rock P-waves travel at about 6-7 km/s; the velocity increases within the deep mantle to ~13km/s. The velocity of S-waves ranges from 2-3 km/s in light sediments and 4-5km/s in the Earth's crust up to 7 km/s in the deep mantle. As a consequence, the first waves of a distant earthquake arrive at an observatory via the Earth's mantle. Rule of thumb: On the average, the kilometer distance to the earthquake is the number of seconds between the P and S wave times 8. Slight deviations are caused by inhomogeneities of subsurface structure. By such analysis of seismogram the Earth's core was located 1913 by Beno Gutenburg. Seismic Waves Seismic waves are sound waves traveling through and cross the earth that are produced by earthquakes. Some wave travel through the earth and other waves travel over the surface of the ground. The surface waves faster than the interior waves. The waves from a large earthquake can be recorded on instruments on the opposite side of the world, having taken about 21 minutes to pass right through the earth.

Three major types of seismic waves are generated by an earthquake shock. Each type travels through the earth at a different speed: 1. Primary waves these kind of longitudinal wave, identical in character to a sound wave passing through the liquid or gas. The particles involved in these waves move forward and backward in the direction of wave travel, causing relatively small displacements. 2. Shear waves or secondary waves the second type of the body wave is called the shear wave or the secondary, or S wave. In this type, particles oscillate back and forth at right angles to the direction of wave travel; S wave cause strong movements that can be recorded on seismographs. 3. Surface waves those are seismic waves that travel along the outer of the earth. Surface waves, like body waves, are R (Rayleigh) waves and L (Love) waves, named after the scientists who first described them. This kind of wave is the last to arrive since it travel relatively slowly. Particles involved in surface waves move in an orbit similar to the particles in water waves.

How to Reduce Earthquake Losses The occurrence of earthquakes cannot be prevented. Furthermore, although some work is currently being done to understand earthquakes in more detail, no earthquake prediction can yet be issued with confidence. Therefore, the only way to prevent disasters caused with earthquakes is to anticipate and prepare for them. What to do Before an Earthquake 1. The key to effective disaster prevention is planning. Evaluate the structural soundness of the buildings and places where you frequently stay. Determine whether the site is transverse by a ground fracture, technically known as fault, which may give away or cause the building to fall. After these evaluation process, you should be more aware of the hazards which need attention or consideration.

2. Preparation you place of residence for the event. Most causes of injuries during earthquakes are from sliding and falling objects. Hooked should be installed on drawers, cabinets, and cupboards. Heavy materials should be identified and placed in the lower compartments of cabinets. Breakable items should be secured while harmful chemicals and flammable materials should be stored properly to minimize the possibility of falls or spills. 3. Strap heavy furniture to restrict sliding or toppling during earthquakes. It is also advisable to provide blocks to stop the movement of furnishing equipment on wheels. The chances that an earthquake could hit when you are in bed is as high as when you are on your feet. Check your bedroom for hanging or unstable objects which may fall on you during earthquakes. 4. Familiarize yourself with place of work. Know and master the routes to take to get out of your building. Also find and mark the places where the fire extinguisher, first aid kits, alarms, utilities, and communication facilities are located. One thing to note, through: do not use elevators during and after an earthquake. Any structural or power failure can cause you to be stranded indefinitely in the elevator.

5. Lastly, but most importantly, plan on coping with the event. It is wiser to prepare an emergency plan to cope with disaster than to regret the absence of anticipation later. Prepare a stock of potable water, flashlight, radio and batteries, spare clothes, and some food packed and ready to take with you in case an earthquake forces you to evacuate your place. The authorities may take some time to your needs since it is possible that they may also be affected by the event. Discuss with your family a reunification plan and identify a contact person or place in case you get separated or in case you get separated or in case an event occurs when one family member is away. What to do During an Earthquake 1. If you are indoors, stay there! The best thing to do is to protect your body from falling debris by getting under a sturdy table or desk or by bracing yourself in the doorway or corner of the room. Be aware and stay clear of heavy and sharp materials which may fall or topple on you. Be particularly wary of glass fragments from windows bookcases, cabinets, chandeliers, hanging plants, and lighting fixtures

2. If you are outside, move to an open area away from power lines, posts, trees, walls and like. Also aware event occurs when you are amid tall buildings, find the corner, doorway, or structural indentation where you can be protected from failing debris. If the earthquake occur while you in the fields or forests, stay clear steep escarpments which may be affected by landslides. 3. When driving a vehicle during an earthquake, pull to the side of the road and stop. Park away from bridges, overpasses, overhead wires, posts, and similar things which may fall on the vehicle. If electrical wires have fallen on your vehicle, stay inside and wait from assistance. Do not attempt to cross bridges or overpasses which may have been damaged by the earthquake. 4. In crowded places like stores, theaters, malls, and churches, do not rush to exit. Try to calm the crowd and direct them away from materials which may fall. 5. If you are residing in a coastal area, always be aware of tsunamis. If you feel an unusually strong earthquake, especially when you are able to note that the difference between the arrival times of the P and S waves I very short (less than 10 seconds) you and your family should immediately run to higher ground.

What to do After an Earthquake 1. Check yourself and others for injuries. Also trapped persons and others who may need assistance like disabled or sick people. 2. Wear shoes for protections. Expect floors and roads to be strewn with sharp objects and it is best to protect yourself from further accidents. 3. Use flashlight when searching. Gas leaks, chemical spills, flammable materials always abound after earthquakes and an open flame will add to the risks of starting fires. 4. Check for fires and if there is any, controlled it. Some earthquake damage has been aggravated by occurrences of the fires. If case you see the fire, locate the nearest fire control or alarm unit and use it.

5. Check your water, electrical or gas lines for defects. If any damage is suspended, turn the system off in the main valve or switch. Before turning the lines on again , check with the utility serviceman for instructions. 6. Cleans up spills immediately. Start cleaning the flammable and toxic materials first to avoid any chain of unwanted events. 7. Never touch falling electrical wiring's or objects touched by these wires. If any fallen power line observed, fence this off to prevent others from being electrocuted. Inform the authorities on any power line damage. 8. Do not use the telephone except for emergency calls. During earthquakes, communication lines are being used as information link during the warning, rescue, relief, and security operations. 9. Gather information from battery-operated radios or from victim assistance center which the government shall provide for the purpose. Do not spread or easily believe in rumors. 10. Do not use vehicle unless there us an emergency. Roads may be closed to traffic and hazards ,ay still have to be checked along your route. Do not go sightseeing.

11. Be prepared for after shocks. Use extreme caution when entering damaged buildings since aftershocks can bring them down. 12. Obey public safety precautions. Instructions to reduce the effects of earthquakes will be issued by the authorities. Keep streets clear for the passage of emergency vehicles. 13. Take note of what you observe and be prepared to inform authorities of the presence of victims needing assistance, materials needing attention, and information of scientific value. 14. If you must evacuate, have a message on where you are headed and take with you a first-aid kit, flashlight, portable radio, food, clothes, important papers, toiletries personal items, and blankets. Your destination may not immediately have all the necessary items for the comfort.

Weathering and Erosion Weathering is the breaking up of rocks by water, ice, chemicals, plants, and changing temperature. Two Types of Weathering: 1. Physical or Mechanical weathering breaks rocks into pieces. Ice is the major force in this type of weathering. Water fills the cracks of rocks naturally during rainstorms but if the temperature falls and causes the water to freeze it expands in the cracks and may push hard enough to split the rock. In a similar way, plants, especially trees, may grow in the cracks of rocks sending their roots down deep into the cracks looking for water. As the roots grow the pressure an cause the rock to split. 2. Chemical Weathering caused by action of water. This type of weathering affects the minerals within the rocks. Rain, streams, and ocean water dissolves minerals from rocks, causing the rocks to crumble. Erosion is the process y which weathered rock and soil are moved from one place to another. Erosion carves the Earth's surface creating canyons, gorges, and even beaches.

Five Agents of Erosion 1. Gravity Deposition id the process by which sediments are laid down in new locations. Deposition builds new landforms. Usually water is responsible for deposition but landslides can be caused by earthquakes and volcanoes. 2. Running Water when rain falls to the Earth it can evaporate, sink into the ground, or flow over the land as runoff. When it flows over land, erosion occurs. Runoff picks up pieces of rock and runs downhill cutting tiny grooves into the land. How much erosion takes place is determined by the:

amount of rainfall amount of plant growth shape of the land type of rock

3. Wind the most active agent of erosion with sand is wind. As the wind blows it picks up small particles of sand/sediment and blasts large

rocks with the abrasive particles, cutting and shaping the rock. The ability for wind to erode larger rocks is controlled by:

Size of particles Speed of wind Length of time wind blows Resistance of rocks

4. Waves it cause erosion by four different methods:

Breaking as the breaking waves hit the shoreline, their force knocks off pieces of existing rocks. Forcing water into the cracks of the rocks on the shoreline Abrasion waves carry small rocks and sand that scrape other rocks Chemical weathering (salt water breaks down the rocks)

The sand on the beach comes from two sources, first from streams and rivers that deposit sediment from the mountains into the ocean water, and second from the waves eroding the rock off the shoreline. The color of the sand and its texture depends on the type of rock that was eroded.

Issues Affecting the Lithosphere


Deforestation is the logging and/or burning of trees in a forested area. There are several reasons deforestation occurs: tress or derived charcoal can be sold as a commodity and used by humans, while cleared land is used as pasture, plantations of commodities and human settlement. The removal of trees without sufficient reforestation has resulted in damage to habitat, biodiversity loss and aridity. Deforested regions often degrade into wasteland. Harmful Effects of Deforestation Human beings always have been and probably always will be to some extent dependent on forests. Trees were their habitat, their environment, their source of food and their protection from enemies. Forests are very important to man, and other organisms, and one of the biggest problems the world is facing today is the threat of totally losing the forests due to massive deforestation and suffering the harmful effects of deforestation.

Deforestation can be defined as the large scale removal of forests. Deforestation occurs when forests are converted to non-forest areas for urbanization, agriculture, and other reasons without sufficient reforestation. It is the permanent destruction of forests and woodlands. At present, forests are considered among the most endangered on the planet. Everyday at least 80, 000 acres of forest vanish from Earth. The food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations show that the rates of deforestation has not abated and has actually increased by 8.5% from 2000-2005 composed during the 1990s. FAO has approximated that about 10.4 million hectares of tropical forest have been permanently destroyed from 2000-2005 compared to 10.14 million hectares in the period of 1990-2000. The process of deforestation is often a complex pattern of progressive fragmentation of the forests. Mistakes of this sort could lead to forest destruction. Along with this destruction is the extinction of many species, heavy soil erosion, greenhouse effect, silting of rivers and dams, flooding, landslide, denuded upland, degraded watershed, and even destruction of corals along the coast.

Extinction of Thousands of Species Destruction of the forests leads to a tragic loss of biodiversity. Millions of plants and animal species are in danger of disappearing as a result of deforestation. Tropical forests are much more biologically diverse than other forest and a very serious effect of deforestation in tropical countries is the loss of biodiversity. Heavy Soil Erosion One function of the forest is that its roots hold the soil in place. Without trees soil erosion and landslides easily happen. When heavy rains and typhoons come, soil is easily carried to lower areas especially to communities at the foot of the mountains. Greenhouse Effect Deforestation increases the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The continued degradation of our forest heightens the threat of global warming because the trees and other plants that take up carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to be used for photosynthesis are gone. The burning of wood or its decay contributes to the release of more carbon, which combines with oxygen in the atmosphere thus increasing further the levels of carbon dioxide that causes greenhouse effect.

Silting of Rivers and Dams Deforestation results in the silting of rivers sediments deposit, which shortens its life span and clogs irrigation system. As a result of deforestation, the reservoir behind many dams are filled with sediments more rapidly than expected. Flooding One major importance of forest is that they absorb quickly in great amount during heavy rains. But due to massive deforestation there are no trees to absorb the water thus resulting to the loss of many lives. Landslides The roots of the trees bind soil to it and to the bedrock underlying it. That is how trees prevent soil from getting eroded by natural agents like wind or water. When trees are uprooted, there will be nothing to hold the soil together thus increasing the risk for landslides which can cause seriously threaten the safety of the people and damage their properties. Preventive and Control Measures: extreme care and caution in handling cyanide and its compounds, wear protective clothing and gloves when handling cyanide and its compounds.

Watershed is the line separating neighbouring drainage basins.the area of land from which precipitation or surface water flow is drained into a receiving water body. The term is roughly analogous to "drainage basin", and are often used either interchangeably. While primarily describing the geologic/geographic drainage patterns of water, a more holistic view of the word watershed incorporates all the biotic and abiotic communities and processes contained in the drainage basin. Therefore a watershed may be referred to as the sum of the area, drainage patterns, and environment of a given waterway or waterway segment.

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB's)


Characteristics: synthetic organic compounds and non-flammable, PCB's are chlorinated biphenyls used extensively as coolant and preservative additive to insulating and dielectric fluid. Uses and applications: insulators in electrical transformers, used in lubricants and paints. capacitors and

Risks and hazards: discharged into the environment in the waste water of industrial plants that use them. They do not readily react with any substance and remain in the environment for years. PCB's have been found in fishes and humans. PCB's have been known to produce cancer and birth defects. Preventive and control measures: proper waste management and disposal; banning of the discharge of PCB's into the nation's waterway; employ as new technique developed by US scientists that can render PCB's harmless by removing their chlorine atoms.

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's)
Characteristics: systemic organic compound with carbon, chlorine and fluorine, non-poisonous and non flammable; commonly known as freons. Uses and applications: used as propellants in aerosol spray products refrigerants in refrigerators and air conditioner; used to make plastic foams for furniture and insulation products. Risks and Hazards: CFC's have been known to break down the ozone molecules in the atmosphere. Ozone is the form of oxygen, which protects the plants and animals from the harmful ultra violet radiation of the sun. Destruction of the ozone layer leads to global warming and may cause potential weather and climate anomalies. Preventive measures: banning of the CFC's proper disposal of old refrigerators and air conditioners.

Environmental Legislation
Waste Management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal of waste materials, usually ones produced by human activity, in an effort to reduce their effect on human health or local aesthetics or amenity. A sub-focus in recent decades has been to reduce waste materials effect on the natural world and the environment and to recover from them. Waste management can involve solid, liquid or gaseous substances when different methods and fields of expertise for each. UK practices differ for developed and developing nations, for urban and rural areas, and for residential, industrial producers. Waste management for non-hazardous residential and institutional waste in metropolitan areas is usually the responsibility of local government authorities, while management for non-hazardous commercial and industrial waste is usually the responsibility of the generator.

Waste Hierarchy The waste hierarchy refers to the 3 R's reduce, reuse and recycle, which classify waste management strategies according to their desirability in terms of waste minimization. The waste hierarchy remains the cornerstone of most waste minimization strategies. The aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract the maximum practical benefits from products and to generate the minimum amount of waste. REPUBLIC ACT 9003 January 26, 2001 AN ACT PROVIDING FOR AN ECOLOGICAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM, CREATING THE NECESSARY INSTITUTIONAL MECHANISMS AND INCENTIVES, DECLARING CERTAIN ACTS PROHIBITED AND PROVIDING PENALTIES, APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFOR, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representative of the Philippines in Congress assembled:

BASIC POLICIES Article 1 General Provisions Section 1. Short Title - This Act shall be known as the "Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000." Section 2. Declaration of Policies - It is hereby declared the policy of the State to adopt a systematic, comprehensive and ecological solid waste management program which shall: (a) Ensure the protection of the public health and environment; (b) Utilize environmentally-sound methods that maximize the utilization of valuable resources and encourage resource conservation and recovery; (c) Set guidelines and targets for solid waste avoidance and volume reduction through source reduction and waste minimization measures, including composting, recycling, re-use, recovery, green charcoal process, and others, before collection, treatment and disposal in appropriate and environmentally sound solid waste management facilities in accordance with ecologically sustainable development principles;

(d) Ensure the proper segregation, collection, transport, storage, treatment and disposal of solid waste through the formulation and adoption of the best environmental practice in ecological waste management excluding incineration; (e) Promote national research and development programs for improved solid waste management and resource conservation techniques, more effective institutional arrangement and indigenous and improved methods of waste reduction, collection, separation and recovery; (f) Encourage greater private sector participation in solid waste management; (g) Retain primary enforcement and responsibility of solid waste management with local government units while establishing a cooperative effort among the national government, other local government units, nongovernment organizations, and the private sector; (h) Encourage cooperation and self-regulation among waste generators through the application of market-based instruments;

(i) Institutionalize public participation in the development and implementation of national and local integrated, comprehensive, and ecological waste management programs; and (j) Strength the integration of ecological solid waste management and resource conservation and recovery topics into the academic curricula of formal and non-formal education in order to promote environmental awareness and action among the citizenry. Article 2 Definition of Terms Section 3. Definition of Terms - For the purposes of this Act: (a) Agricultural waste shall refer to waste generated from planting or harvesting of crops, trimming or pruning of plants and wastes or run-off materials from farms or fields; (b) Bulky wastes shall refer to waste materials which cannot be appropriately placed in separate containers because of either its bulky size, shape or other physical attributes. These include large worn-out or broken household, commercial, and industrial items such as furniture, lamps, bookcases, filing cabinets, and other similar items;

(c) Bureau shall refer to the Environmental Management Bureau; (d) Buy-back center shall refer to a recycling center that purchases of otherwise accepts recyclable materials from the public for the purpose of recycling such materials; (e) Collection shall refer to the act of removing solid waste from the source or from a communal storage point; (f) Composting shall refer to the controlled decomposition of organic matter by micro-organisms, mainly bacteria and fungi, into a humus-like product; (g) Consumer electronics shall refer to special waste that includes wornout, broken, and other discarded items such as radios, stereos, and TV sets; (h) Controlled dump shall refer to a disposal site at which solid waste is deposited in accordance with the minimum prescribed standards of site operation; (i) Department shall refer to the Department of Environment and Natural Resources; (j) Disposal shall refer to the discharge, deposit, dumping, spilling, leaking or placing of any solid waste into or in an land; (k) Disposal site shall refer to a site where solid waste is finally discharged and deposited;

(l) Ecological solid waste management shall refer to the systematic administration of activities which provide for segregation at source, segregated transportation, storage, transfer, processing, treatment, and disposal of solid waste and all other waste management activities which do not harm the environment; (m) Environmentally acceptable shall refer to the quality of being reusable, biodegradable or compostable, recyclable and not toxic or hazardous to the environment; (n) Generation shall refer to the act or process of producing solid waste; (o) Generator shall refer to a person, natural or juridical, who last uses a material and makes it available for disposal or recycling; (p) Hazardous waste shall refer to solid waste management or combination of solid waste which because of its quantity, concentration or physical, chemical or infectious characteristics may: (1) cause, or significantly contribute to an increase in mortality or an increase in serious irreversible, or incapacitating reversible, illness; or (2) pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, or disposed of, or otherwise managed;

(q) Leachate shall refer to the liquid produced when waste undergo decomposition, and when water percolate through solid waste undergoing decomposition. It is contaminated liquid that contains dissolved and suspended materials; (r) Materials recovery facility - includes a solid waste transfer station or sorting station, drop-off center, a composting facility, and a recycling facility; (s) Municipal waste shall refer to wastes produced from activities within local government units which include a combination of domestic, commercial, institutional and industrial wastes and street litters; (t) Open dump shall refer to a disposal area wherein the solid wastes are indiscriminately thrown or disposed of without due planning and consideration for environmental and Health standards; (u) Opportunity to recycle shall refer to the act of providing a place for collecting source-separated recyclable material, located either at a disposal site or at another location more convenient to the population being served, and collection at least once a month of source-separated recyclable material from collection service customers and to providing a public education and promotion program that gives notice to each person of the opportunity to recycle and encourage source separation of recyclable material;

(v) Person(s) shall refer to any being, natural or judicial, susceptible of rights and obligations, or of being the subject of legal relations; (w) Post-consumer material shall refer only to those materials or products generated by a business or consumer which have served their intended end use, and which have been separated or diverted from solid waste for the purpose of being collected, processed and used as a raw material in the manufacturing of recycled product, excluding materials and byproducts generated from, and by-products generated from, and commonly used within an original manufacturing process, such as mill scrap; (x) Receptacles shall refer to individual containers used for the source separation and the collection of recyclable materials; (y) Recovered material shall refer to material and by products that have been recovered or diverted from solid waste for the purpose of being collected, processed and used as a raw material in the manufacture of a recycled product; (z) Recyclable material shall refer to any waste material retrieved from the waste stream and free from contamination that can still be converted into suitable beneficial use or for other purposes, including, but not limited to, newspaper, ferrous scrap metal, non-ferrous scrap metal, used oil, corrugated cardboard, aluminum, glass, office paper, tin cans and other materials as may be determined by the Commission.

REPUBLIC ACT NO. 6969 October 26,1990 AN ACT TO CONTROL TOXIC SUBSTANCES AND HAZARDOUS AND NUCLEAR WASTES, PROVIDING PENALTIES FOR VIOLATIONS THEREOF, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES. Sec. 1. Short title. - This Act shall be known as the "Toxic Substances and Hazardous and Nuclear Wastes Control Act of 1990." Sec. 2. Declaration of Policy. - It is the policy of the State to regulate, restrict or prohibit the importation, manufacture, processing, sale, distribution, use and disposal of chemical substances and mixtures that present unreasonable risk and/or injury to health or the environment; to prohibit the entry, even in transit, of hazardous and nuclear wastes and their disposal into the Philippine territorial limits for whatever purpose; and to provide advancement and facilitate research and studies on toxic chemicals.

Sec. 3. Scope. - This Act shall cover the importation, manufacture, processing, handling, storage, transportation, sale, distribution, use and disposal of all unregulated chemical substances and mixtures in the Philippines, including the entry, even in transit as well as the keeping or storage and disposal of hazardous and nuclear wastes into the country for whatever purpose. Sec. 4. Objectives. - The objectives of this Act are: a) To keep an inventory of chemicals that are presently being imported, manufactured, or used, indicating, among others, their existing and possible uses, test data, names of firms manufacturing or using them, and such other information as may be considered relevant to the protection of health and the environment; b) To monitor and regulate the importation, manufacture, processing, handling, storage, transportation, sale, distribution, use and disposal of chemical substances and mixtures that present unreasonable risk or injury to health or to the environment in accordance with national policies and international commitments;

c) To inform and educate the populace regarding the hazards and risks attendant to the manufacture, handling, storage, transportation, processing, distribution, use and disposal of toxic chemicals and other substances and mixture; and d) To prevent the entry, even in transit, as well as the keeping or storage and disposal of hazardous and nuclear wastes into the country for whatever purpose. Sec. 5. Definition. - As used in this Act: a) Chemical substance means any organic or inorganic substance of a particular molecular identity, including: i) Any combination of such substances occuring in whole or in part as a result of chemical reaction or occurring in nature; and ii) Any element or uncombined chemical. b) Chemical mixture means any combination of two or more chemical substances if the combination does not occur in nature and is not, in whole or in part, the result of a chemical reaction, if none of the chemical substances comprising the combination is a new chemical substance and if the combination could have been manufactured for commercial purposes without a chemical reaction at the time the chemical substances comprising the combination were combined. This shall include nonbiodegradable mixtures.

c) Process means the preparation of a chemical substance or mixture after its manufacture for commercial distribution: i) In the same form or physical state or in a different form or physical state from that which it was received by the person so preparing such substance or mixture; or ii) As part of an article containing a chemical substance or mixture. d) Importation means the entry of a products or substances into the Philippines (through the seaports or airports of entry) after having been properly cleared through or still remaining under customs control, the product or substance of which is intended for direct consumption, merchandising, warehousing, or for further processing. e) Manufacture means the mechanical or chemical transformation of substances into new products whether work is performed by power-driven machines or by hand, whether it is done in a factory or in the worker's home, and whether the products are sold at wholesale or retail. f) Unreasonable risk means expected frequency of undesirable effects or adverse responses arising from a given exposure to a substance. g) Hazardous substances are substances which present either:

1) short-term acute hazards, such as acute toxicity by ingestion, inhalation or skin absorption, corrosivity or other skin or eye contact hazards or the risk of fire or explosion; or 2) long-term environmental hazards, including chronic toxicity upon repeated exposure, carcinogenicity (which may in some cases result from acute exposure but with a long latent period), resistance to detoxification process such a biodegradation, the potential to pollute underground or surface waters, or aesthetically objectionable properties such as offensive odors. h) Hazardous wastes are hereby defined as substances that are without any safe commercial, industrial, agricultural or economic usage and are shipped, transported or brought from the country of origin for dumping or disposal into or in transit through any part of the territory of the Philippines. Hazardous wastes shall also refer to by-products, sideproducts, process residues, spent reaction media, contaminated plant or equipment or other substances from manufacturing operations, and as consumer discards of manufacture products.

i) Nuclear wastes are hazardous wastes made radioactive by exposure to the radiation incidental to the production or utilization of nuclear fuels but does not include nuclear fuel, or radioisotopes which have reached the final stage of fabrication so as to be usable for any scientific, medical, agricultural, commercial, or industrial purpose.

The End
Prepared By: Xyllene Gail A. Pitel Guinevere Atienza Josephine Joy Balhag Sarah Jane Langcay Richelle Joie Dia Carmina Patulay Karen Sequijor Maria Elena Braza Jeaselle Ericah Tapero Avhegail Gutierrez Angelica Dotado