Code Course : MEC655 : RENEWABLE AND


Contact Hrs: 3 (L) & 1 (PBL) / weeks Course Status : SPECIAL TOPICS


Course Outcomes
Upon Completion of this course, students should be able to :
CO1 Compare energy efficiency and renewable energy approaches to the reduction in the use of fossil fuel. [PO1, LO1]{C4}. Analyse principles of renewable energy systems to propose possible solutions for real-life energy management issues [PO3, LO3, SS1]{C5}. Relate energy utilization and its impact on the environment. [PO9, LO6, SS4] {A3}. Review literature and compile information related to sustainable energy technologies. [PO10, LO7, SS5]{P5}.




3. Sustainable Energy Technologies Assessment
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Solar Energy Systems: Bio-mass Energy Systems Hydro Energy Systems Wind Energy Systems: Geo-thermal. Hydrogen fuel. Waste heat recovery /harvest Nuclear Energy.

• Renewable energy is energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, biomass etc. which are renewable (naturally replenished). • In 2010, only about 18% of global final energy consumption came from renewables (Ref: ). • The International Energy Agency (IEA) estimates that nearly 50% of global electricity supplies will need to come from renewable energy sources in order to halve carbon dioxide emissions by 2050 and minimise significant, irreversible climate change impacts

Global Trend : Investment in RE Techs

Global Fuel Mix for Electricity

Source : WEO 2009 IEA

Malaysia Fuel Mix for Electricity

Source :

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Malaysian Energy Policies
• The Energy Policy of Malaysia is determined by the Malaysian Government, which address issues of energy production, distribution, and consumption. The Department of Electricity and Gas Supply acts as the regulator while other players in the energy sector include energy supply and service companies, research and development institutions and consumers. Government-linked companies, Petronas and TNB are major players in Malaysia's energy sector. • Governmental agencies that contribute to the policy are the Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water (KeTTHA), Energy Commission (Suruhanjaya Tenaga)), and the Malaysia Energy Centre (Pusat Tenaga Malaysia).

Malaysian Energy Policies

The Governing Bodies… 1. Ministry of Energy, Communications and Multimedia (Kementerian Tenaga, Komunikasi dan Multimedia) < 2004 2. Ministry of Energy, Water and Communications – (Kementerian Tenaga, Air dan Komunikasi Malaysia) (KTAK) MAC 2004 3. Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water Kementerian Tenaga, Teknologi Hijau dan Air Malaysia (KeTTHA). April 2009

Malaysian Energy Policies

• Among the documents that the policy is based on are the 1974 Petroleum Development Act, 1975 National Petroleum Policy, 1980 National Depletion Policy, 1990 Electricity Supply Act, 1993 Gas Supply Acts, 1994 Electricity Regulations, 1997 Gas Supply Regulation and the 2001 Energy Commission Act etc

Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water
Green Technology is the development and application of products, equipment and systems used to conserve the natural environment and resources, which minimize and reduces the negative impact of human activities. Green Technology refers to products, equipment or systems which satisfy the following criteria: • It minimizes the degradation of the environment; • It has zero or low green house gas (GHG) emission. It is safe for use and promotes healthy and improved environment for all forms of life; • It conserves the use of energy and natural resources; and • It promotes the use of renewable resources.

OPP3 (2001-2010)
Statements on ENERGY SECTOR (infrastructure)

 Sustainable development of the energy sector is important in ensuring competitiveness of the economy…Efforts will be undertaken to manage both depletable and renewable energy resources to cater for the demand of the economy;
 To supplement the conventional supply of energy, new sources such as renewable energy will be encouraged…. Of these, biomass resources such as oil palm and wood waste as well as rice husks, will be used on a wider basis mainly for electricity generation. Other potential sources include palm diesel and hydrogen fuel.

National Renewable Energy Policy
On June 10, 2010, the government announced the National Renewable Energy Policy and Action Plan with a goal of increasing renewable energy from 1% to 5.5% of electricity supply by 2015.

• Parliament debated on the Renewable Energy Act and the Act for a Feed-in Tariff Implementing Agency in October 2010 with the expectation that the program passed into law and launched in 2011. (Dec 2011 Renewable energy, feed–in Tariff launched) The legislation will establish the Sustainable Energy Development Authority (SEDA) which will manage the feed-in tariff program.

• 9MP targeted the production of 350MW of grid-connected electricity from renewable sources, translating into 1.8% of electricity mix. “However, only 53MW was achieved by the end of 2009, or 15% of the targeted capacity,” he said. The 10th Malaysia Plan (10MP) re-emphasised the use of renewable energy to meet Malaysia’s growing energy demands, in particular hydro power for electricity generation and blending of biofuels for transport sector. Two of the steps taken by the Government to help boost development in renewable energy sector is the plan to implement a feed-in tariff programme later this year and the mandatory blending of biofuels for transport sector in 2011. Source: The Star, 27th August 2010

Source :

MALAYSIA RE Programes < 2009

Source :

Initiatives • Centre for Education and Training In Renewable Energy and Energy Effiency (CETREE) • This project is a continuation of the centre for education and training in renewable energy and energy efficiency (CETREE) project that was implemented by the Malaysian Government in collaboration with DANIDA under the Malaysia-Danish environmental cooperation programme that began in 2000. The purpose of the project is to increase the level of knowledge and awareness on the role and use of energy efficiency in education. Through this project the concept of renewable energy and energy efficiency could be absorbed into curricular activities in schools and universities.

• The Sarawak Corridor of Renewable Energy or SCORE is a new development corridor in central Sarawak was launched on 11 February 2008. It is one of the five regional development corridors being developed throughout the country.

Renewable Energy Resources & Systems

3.1 Solar Energy Systems
• Solar radiations data; Solar energy collection and conversion, Storage and utilization; Solar heating and cooling; Solar power generation; Refrigeration and Air-conditioning; Solar Energy system Economics

Solar Energy The Official Journal of the International Solar Energy Society®

Solar Radiation

SOLAR Radiation

The electromagnetic spectrum
• The heat radiated by a body is comprised of a range of frequencies. – Thermal radiation is defined as the portion of the spectrum between: 10-7 and 10-4 m.

– Visible light is the portion of the spectrum between: 3.9x10-7 and 7.8x10-7 m.
– Solar radiation is the portion of the spectrum between: 105 and 3x10-6 m. • Electromagnetic waves transport energy and travel at the speed of light. c0= 2.9979 x 108 m/s


The electromagnetic spectrum
Thermal radiation (10-7 to 10-4 m) Solar radiation
(10-5 to 3x10-6 m)

(3.9x10-7 to 7.8x10-7 m)


The Potentials of Solar Energy
• Solar energy represents an abundant and unlimited resource, which theoretically could supply all the world’s energy demand. • The Earths' surface receives so much solar energy from the sun everyday, that if this energy is harnessed for even just 60 seconds, it would be enough to power the world's total energy requirements for a year • The Sun radiates energy at 3.9×1026 W, but energy received at the outer atmosphere of Earth is 1368W/m2. This value varies in ±1.7% due to changes in the Earth–Sun distance • The maximum radiation is received during a sunny day, where 90% of the extraterrestrial radiation become direct radiation while the rest are being deflected as diffuse radiation, while conversely, on a cloudy day, nearly all of the solar radiation is diffused • Although solar energy is sufficient to meet the entire energy needs of the world, currently it is not economical to do so because of the low concentration of solar energy on earth ( W/m2) and the high capital cost of harnessing it due to low conversion efficiency.

Typical Solar variation (temperate regions)

• A tropical country such as Malaysia is generally hot all year around and experiences its rainy season during the end of the year. With an average of 12 h of sunshine daily, the average solar energy received is between 1400 and 1900kWh/m2 annually. • Although Malaysia has high potential in solar electricity generation, the present initiatives and efforts are lower than the country’s actual potential. • Currently, the solar energy conversion status in Malaysia is 1 MW, and its estimated potential can reach more than 6500 MW [14].

Solar Energy Technologies
• Solar Energy Technologies are characterized by how Solar energy could be harnessed, either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute solar energy. • Active solar technologies increase the supply of energy and are considered supply side technologies, while passive solar technologies reduce the need for alternate resources and are generally considered demand side technologies

Source :

Active Solar Techniques
• Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic (PV) panels , solar thermal collectors and concentrating solar power to harness the energy. • Other than PV systems, Active solar energy systems collect, store and distribute solar energy by use of mechanical devices such as pumps or fans. When air or water is warmed by the sun, the active system circulates the warmer air or water, replacing the medium in the collection device with cool water or air, which is then warmed and cycled through the system again.

Passive Solar Techniques
• Passive solar energy systems harness the sun's light and heat directly, without employing devices to capture and convert it to electricity include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air. • One example of passive solar energy is the placement of windows to allow optimal amounts of sunlight into a room or building, both lighting and heating the area without the need for an external energy source. • Passive solar energy can also be used, within a building, to create air currents, which work with the ventilation system to cool as well as provide heat.

3.1.1 Photovoltaics (PV)
• Photovoltaics (PV) is a method of generating electrical power by converting solar radiation into direct current electricity using semiconductors that exhibit the photovoltaic effect. Photovoltaic solar cells convert solar energy into electricity by using photons of light to knock electrons into a higher state of energy. • A solar power cell consists of two layers of this treated silicon. The bottom layer is positively charged (P-type) and the top layer is negatively charged (N-type). • The two layers form an electric field between them which only allows the electrons to flow from the P-type silicon to the N-type silicon. • When the solar power cell is part of an external circuit, this will allow it to generate solar electricity when light strikes the top silicon surface • Materials presently used for photovoltaics include monocrystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride, and copper indium selenide/sulfide.

…..Photovoltaics (PV)
• Photovoltaic power generation employs solar panels comprising a number of cells containing a photovoltaic material • Photovoltaic systems are more versatile than other solar energy systems and their popularity among solar power researchers and enthusiasts has created a faster rate of advancement and development. • Photovoltaic solar energy systems are used in consumer, commercial and industrial applications, which use the direct production of electricity to power lights, cooling systems, ventilation and many other applications. • Due to the growing demand for renewable energy sources, the manufacturing of solar cells and photovoltaic arrays has advanced considerably in recent years.

Solar PV
PV cells are often grouped in the form of “modules” to produce arrays which have the capability to produce a significant power

Types of Solar PV
• Most solar panels can be classified as : monocrystalline, polycrystalline or amorphous based on the silicon structure that comprises the cell. • Different panels use different materials that display the photovoltaic effect. • Each has different sensitivity to light and temperature and may have different cell designs which affect the overall look • Solar panel efficiency is still only about 13-18% efficient in turning sunlight into electricity.

Monocrystalline Solar Module Polycrystalline silicon solar module

Thin Film Amorphous Solar Panels

Monocrystalline PV panels • Made from a single silicon crystal. • The most efficient commercially viable panels producing the highest wattage per square metre though more expensive, than polycrystalline types. Hence not necessarily the first choice for every home • Very slow degradation, generally losing 0.25 - 0.5% per year • The lifespan of a monocrystalline cell is a minimum of 25 years and can be upto 50, i.e. worthwhile investment for long term use. • The average size 180 W panel is about 160cm length, 80 cm in width, 3cm high, and weighs 15kg with its aluminum frame. • Extremely fragile,that means a rigid mounting is a must • Don't perform as well as other panels in shady conditions or at high temperatures • costlier than polycrystalline options, but their longevity, performance, and efficiency mean that they’re a good buy over a longer period of time

Polycrystalline PV panels • Similar to mono-crystalline panels, but the silicon used has a different structure which is easier to make and therefore cheaper to buy and install than mono-crystalline panels. • perform a bit better in high temperatures. • Poly-crystallines are slightly less efficient, so more panels may be needed for the same output.
Amorphous PV panels • Less expensive than the crystalline panels. If space is not an issue, than an amorphous panel could be a great option. • Perform better than crystalline panels in very hot temperatures and are also slightly more tolerant of partial shading. • The production process is more energy efficient than the other panel varieties so the panels are generally cheaper to make and to purchase. Their light weight makes them suitable for curved structures. • They have a lower energy generation efficiency, so the panel is typically nearly double the size than the other panel varieties • Thin film has improved shade and temperature tolerances over both mono and poly and has better embodied energy rates than both.

PV R&D…..

Types of PV Solar Energy Systems
• PV Stand-Alone (off-grid) Systems These are designed to operate independent of the electric utility grid, and are generally designed and sized to supply certain DC and/or AC electrical loads. Stand-alone off-grid systems can be applied to remote homes, lighting, TV, computers, water pumps and greenhouse ventilation systems The output of an off-grid system is entirely dependent upon the intensity of the sun. The more intense the sun exposure, the greater the output. The electricity generated is used immediately, so the system must function on direct current and variable power output The simplest type of stand-alone system is a direct-coupled system, where the DC output of a solar module or array is directly connected to a DC load. If a certain power output guarantee is required at any time of the day or night, either some kind of storage device is necessary. Most off-grid systems use batteries to store power during periods of low to no sunlight .

Stand Alone System: Main Components

PV Stand Alone Systems

Stand-Alone Off-Grid PV Hybrid Systems

The systems may be powered by a solar array only or may be combined with another energy supply such as wind turbine, propane or a diesel generator as an auxiliary power source in what is called a solar-hybrid system (see hybrid systems). To meet the largest power requirements in an off-grid location, the PV system can be configured with a small diesel generator. This means that the PV system no longer has to be sized to cope with the worst sunlight conditions available during the year. Use of the diesel generator for back-up power is minimized during the sunniest part of the year to reduce fuel and maintenance costs.

Stand-Alone Off-Grid Solar-Wind Hybrid Systems

PV Grid-Connected System
PV Grid-Connected Systems • In grid-connected or grid-tied systems, solar energy is used during the day by the system owner. At night, the user draws on the previously established electricity grid. • An addition benefit of the grid-tied system is that the solar system does not need to be sized to meet peak loads—overages can be drawn from the grid. • Surplus energy generated during the day can be exported back to the grid. • Grid-connected systems must meet utility requirements. For example, inverters must not emit noise that can interfere with equipment reception. • Grid-connected systems can be applied to residential installations PV Stand-Alone Grid-Tied Systems • Stand-alone grid-connected systems are the same as grid-connected systems, except with battery storage added to allow power to be generated even if the electricity grid fails. • Stand-alone grid-tied systems can be applied to residential and business systems that require uninterrupted power

• A "Grid-tie" solar system is useful for homes that are already connected to the utility grid. The advantage of this type of system is the price reduction of utility. The system has to be wired with an inverter that produces puresine-wave AC electricity, which is necessary for connecting to the utility grid.

BIPV (Building Intergrated PV)


The PTM Green Energy Office (GEO) Building is the office for the Pusat Tenaga Malaysia (Malaysia Energy Centre. The GEO building is a pilot project to demonstrate the use of green building design and the integration of energy efficiency and renewable energy


PV Solar Power Plant
• Commercial solar panel efficiency is still only about 13-18% efficient in turning sunlight into electricity. Therefor Photovoltaic power generation plant employs large number of solar panels to generate sufficient power. • Example : 11 MW solar power plant in Portugal

3.1.2 Solar Thermal Energy
• Solar thermal energy (STE) utilizes solar thermal collectors to collect heat, which can then be transferred to air and waterheating systems. • STE collectors are similar to photovoltaic collectors in appearance, but operate by collecting and distributing heat through fluid-filled pipes to provide solar space heating and solar water heating.

Solar Water Heating

3.1.3 Concentrating Solar Power (thermal solar)
• Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) systems utilize lenses, mirrors and tracking systems to focus large amounts of sunlight into smaller areas. The focused sunlight can then be used either as a direct source of heat, or to boost the effectiveness of photovoltaic systems.

Thermal Solar Power Plant

• Concentrated solar power can also be stored long enough to produce electricity at night, like the Andasol plant does in Spain.

3.1.4 Passive Polar Systems
• Passive solar energy systems harness the sun's light and heat directly, without employing devices to capture and convert it to electricity include orienting a building to the Sun. • Daylighting is simply designing a space to use as much natural light as possible. This decreases energy consumption and costs, and requires less heating and cooling from the building • A good daylighting design can save up to 75 %of the energy used for electric lighting in a building. • Electric lights also generate significant heat in a building and by turning off or dimming the lights when not needed, 10 to 20 %of the energy used to cool a building can be saved ( -ve for hot regions, +for cold regions)


KLIA: day-lighting

Passive Solar Heating design is an aspect of building design in which the solar cycle is exploited in Winter to provide passive building heating for free. In essence the heat of the Sun is 'captured' in Winter to provide building heat so known as designing for solar gain.

Solar Ventilation

3.1.5 Solar cooling
• Solar cooling refers to any cooling system that uses solar power. This can be done through passive solar, solar thermal energy conversion and photovoltaic conversion. • Technologies available for solar-driven cooling include :

1) absorption systems . 2) desiccant cooling systems. 3) direct conversion cooling systems (PV)

Solar cooling

3.1.6 Solar Systems Installation in Malaysia

• • •

Harnessing solar energy has been limited. The largest solar installations are solar water heating systems in hotels, small food and beverage industries and upper middle class urban homes. A third of the Government's total allocation of RM469 million for rural electrification programmes under the Seventh Malaysia Plan has been allocated for the provision of solar powered installations for rural and remote communities. A 100 kWp Demonstration Photovoltaic Project was implemented under the initiatives of the Ministry of Energy, Water and Communications, and the Japanese Government, represented by NEDO in Marak Parak, Sabah. The project was completed in 1995. The project has given the necessary beginning for the effective and efficient transfer of technology in the field of PV power generation. There is also a demonstration project 17,500 KWh per year 'Hybrid Solar PV Diesel” at Nature Education and Research Center (NERC) at Endau Rompin NationalPark, Johor, Malaysia. At the end of 2008, Malaysia had cumulative total installed and commissioned grid-connected PV capacity of approximately 740 kWp and off-grid PV capacity of 7-8 MWp. The off-grid PV applications serve mainly rural electrification and nonbuilding structures and are almost fully funded by the Government of Malaysia

name has changed in 2011

The PTM Green Energy Office (GEO) / Zero Energy (ZEO) Building is the office for the Pusat Tenaga Malaysia (Malaysia Energy Centre. The GEO building is a pilot project to demonstrate the use of green building design and the integration of energy efficiency and renewable energy

changed in 2011

Rural Electrification Projects

Solar Farm in Kg. Kalabakan Sabah

Rural Electrification Projects

• Suria 1000 Programme. A national MBIPV programme ‘SURIA 1000’, targeting the residential and commercial sector will establish the new BIPV market and will provide direct opportunities to the public and industry to be involved in renewable energy initiatives and environmental protection.
Suria 1000 Secretariat - MBIPV Project Pusat Tenaga Malaysia No. 2, Jalan 9/10, Persiaran Usahawan, Seksyen 9 43650 Bandar Baru Bangi Selangor Darul Ehsan Email: suria1000(a)

• The Suria 1000 programme allows houses and commercial buildings to become part of the country’s renewable energy initiative by producing energy through solar power.



The MBPIV component that most benefit the public is Suria 1000. Here, people can bid for PV system subsidies of up to 50%. This scheme has so far given 30 house owners the rare opportunity of generating solar power. These developments will benefit from a 30% to 35% subsidy from the Malaysian Building-Integrated Photovoltaic (MBIPV) project, which funds PV systems for private dwellings, commercial buildings and housing development, to promote solar energy. This scheme is implemented by Pusat Tenaga Malaysia (PTM) and is partially sponsored by the United Nations Development Programme/Global Environment Facility. The MBIPV project also backed development of the Ministry of Energy, Water and Communications Low Energy (LEO) Building and PTM Zero Energy (ZEO) Building. Both structures have incorporated PV cells and energy-conservation features. Numerous workshops were also held to build up expertise in BIPV technology, promote a local PV industry, and outline laws and policies that will encourage BIPV development.



2008 Solar homes for Malaysia (The Star, Tuesday July 8, 2008 )


MBIPV funding support has led to a growing number of PV-equipped buildings which serve as demonstration sites: the Sri Aman school in Petaling Jaya; shoplots in Damansara Uptown in Petaling Jaya; six bungalow show units at Setia Eco Park in Shah Alam; Putrajaya Perdana office in Putrajaya; a roof link bridge at Monash University in Bandar Sunway, Selangor; and four bungalows at Precinct 16 in Putrajaya. 2. At Setia Eco Park in Shah Alam, Selangor, SP Setia is including PV systems in 20 of the 39 bungalows, which are going for around RM1.58mil. The 5kilowatt peak (KWp) system cost over RM170,000 each and is expected to generate RM150 worth of electricity every month. 3. In Precinct 16 of Putrajaya, developer Putrajana Perdana is offering PV modules in 15 bungalows ranging in price from RM2.9mil to RM4mil. The PV systems average around 5.4KWp each.

MBIPV Projects


Sek. Men, Keb. St. John

Type Project By

Retrofitted School Green School Campaign
5.04 kWp KANEKA GEA060 ( Thin Film). 60 Wp x 84 units 22 December 2010

Start of Operation

Type Project By Capacity

Private Bungalows, Bandar Eco Setia
Retrofitted Residential Suria For Developer 10.29 kWp Mitsubishi PV-AD 180MF5 (Polycrystalline)180Wp x 28 Suntech STP 175S-24/Ac (Monocrsytalline)175Wp x 30 Fronius IG 60HV (2 units) 24 January 2011

Start of Operation

Address: Photovoltaic Monitoring Centre, Research Innovations on Sustainable Energy, Institute Of Science, UiTM Malaysia, Shah Alam, Selangor, MALAYSIA •

3.1.7 Economics Assessment
The cost of home solar power systems have continued to change over the past decade due to changing Government incentive schemes, technology advancements in panels manufacturing and inverter efficiency, and suppliers in the market. Cost considerations The price of your solar PV system can be affected by variables including: • Government rebates and support schemes (these vary in each state) • Location • Number of panels • Orientation of panels • Type of panels • Type of inverter • System design and configuration • Shipping costs for equipment and parts • Contractor installation costs • Removal of trees or other shading • Site preparation needs (for example, condition of roof or ground) • Structural engineering, architectural, and other professional services (for commercial systems)

Cost considerations
• It is also important to note that if you have a solar PV system installed, your electricity rates will change from an off peak tariff to a time-of-use (TOU) tariff. This will particularly affect your dedicated off-peak loads, such as hot water, space heating and air-conditioning. • You should check with your electricity retailer whether the benefits of the time-of-use (TOU) tariff outweigh the benefits of staying on your off-peak tariff. This needs to be considered before your install your solar PV panels. • Government rebates such as Renewable Energy Certificates can be deducted from these figures.

Example: Cost considerations
• 1 kW peak solar system generates around 1,600 kilowatt hours per year in a sunny climate and about 750 kilowatt hours per year in a cloudy climate. • A solar energy system can provide electricity 24 hours a day when the solar electric modules are combined with batteries in one integrated energy system. • Solar modules produce electricity even on cloudy days, usually around 1020% of the amount produced on sunny days. • The typical components of a solar home system include the solar module, an inverter, a battery, a charge controller (sometimes known as a regulator), wiring, and support structure. • A typical silicon cell solar module will have a life in excess of 20 years • Monthly average residential consumption of electricity in Malaysia is..…kWh • Monthly average residential electricity bill in the Malaysia is…...

Calculations for Savings in Electricity bill per month for BIPV System Installed (Residential) This is only valid for monthly consumption of more than 400 kWh per month Your monthly usage 1500 kWh New Electricity tariff First 500 units (0-500): Next 100 units (501-600): Next 100 units (601-700): Next 100 units (701-800): Next 100 units (801-900): Every unit >900:
PV System 5.25 kWp

Maximum kWh Your Consumption Amount (RM) (kWh) 500 100 100 100 100 0 Total
produces 481.25 kWh

28.6 37.8 38.7 39.7 41.7 44.6

500 100 100 100 100 600

143.00 37.80 38.70 39.70 41.70 267.60 568.50

Total electricity usage from TNB New Electricity tariff First 500 units (0-500): Next 100 units (501-600): Next 100 units (601-700): Next 100 units (701-800): Next 100 units (801-900): Every unit >900: 28.6 37.8 38.7 39.7 41.7 44.6

1018.75 kWh Maximum kWh Your Consumption Amount (RM) (kWh) 500 100 100 100 100 0 Total 500 100 100 100 100 119 143.00 37.80 38.70 39.70 41.70 52.96 353.86

Savings in electricity per month (RM)


Cost estimation (example)
Some basic figures about the power resource from direct sunshine. On a cloudless midday it could equate to 1000W/m². This needs to be corrected according to the angle of tilt between the surface and the sun. A major correction being the latitude on earth from the equator. (So, for example, in London at 51 degrees north would be about a 60% reduction to being on the equator. It would be further reduced by the season of the year and further still for cloud cover. On average the sun shines about 34% of daylight hours in London) The combined effect of these three factors is that the average raw power of sunshine per square metre of south facing roof in London is roughly 110W/m². Some rough estimates of the potential power we could harness from the sun. The two most common domestic solar power options are ‘Solar Thermal and ‘Solar Photovoltaic' Solar Thermal utilizes the simplest technology by heating water directly. Let's say we have 10m² of south facing solar thermal panels and these are 50% efficient in converting the sun's 110W/m² into hot water. 50% x 10 m² x 110W/m² which would deliver 13kWh per day Solar Photovoltaic (PV) panels convert sunlight into electricity. Typical solar panels have an efficiency of about 10%, the more expensive ones could be higher than 20% efficient. An average south facing 20% efficient photovoltaic panel in England would be 20% x 10m² x 110W/m² = 22W/m² which would deliver 5KWh per day

3.1.8 Solar Energy Systems Future
Solar power technology is improving consistently over time, as people begin to understand all of the benefits offered by this technology. Advantage: • Solar energy is a completely renewable resource. • Solar energy system make absolutely no noise at all. There are no moving parts in a solar cell. • Solar power is pollution-free during use. Production end-wastes and emissions are manageable using existing pollution controls. End-of-use recycling technologies are under development and policies are being produced that encourage recycling from producers. • PV installations can operate for many years with little maintenance or intervention after their initial set-up, so after the initial capital cost of building any solar power plant, operating costs are extremely low compared to existing power technologies. Solar cells tend to last a good long time with only an annual cleaning to worry about. • Solar panels and solar lighting may seem quite expensive, but in the long run it is saving quite a great deal of money.

Advantages • Solar powered panels and products are typically extremely easy to install. Wires, cords and power sources are not needed at all, making this an easy prospect to employ. • Solar electric generation is economically superior where grid connection or fuel transport is difficult, costly or impossible. Long-standing examples include satellites, island communities, remote locations and ocean vessels. • When grid-connected, solar electric generation replaces some or all of the highestcost electricity used during times of peak demand (in most climatic regions). This can reduce grid loading, and can eliminate the need for local battery power to provide for use in times of darkness. These features are enabled by net metering. Time-of-use net metering can be highly favorable, but requires newer electronic metering, which may still be impractical for some users. • Grid-connected solar electricity can be used locally thus reducing transmission/distribution losses • experimental high efficiency solar cells already have efficiencies of over 40% in case of concentrating photovoltaic cells and efficiencies are rapidly rising while mass-production costs are rapidly falling.

Disadvantages • Photovoltaics are costly to install. While the modules are often warranteed for upwards of 20 years, much of the investment in a homemounted system may be lost if the home-owner moves and the buyer puts less value on the system than the seller. • Solar electricity is not produced at night and is much reduced in cloudy conditions. Therefore, a storage or complementary power system is required. • Solar electricity production depends on the limited power density of the location's insolation. Average daily output of a flat plate collector at latitude tilt in the tropic the is 3–7 kw·h/m² and on average lower in Europe. • Solar cells produce DC which must be converted to AC (using a grid tie inverter) when used in existing distribution grids. This incurs an energy loss of 4–12%.

Future development.....

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