Geography

• Ancient Greek scholar Eratosthenes first coined the word "Geography". • The term “Geography” is composed of two Greek words
– Geo = Earth and … – Graphien = to write.

• The Greeks defined Geography as “Description of the Earth

What is Geography?
Geography is a representation of the whole known world together with the phenomena which are contained therein.
Ptolemy, Geographia 2nd Century A.D.

Geography is the science of place. Its vision is grand, its view panoramic. It sweeps the surface of the Earth, charting the physical, organic and cultural terrain, their areal differentiation, and their ecological dynamics with humankind. Its foremost tool is the map.
Leonard Krishtalka, Carnegie Museum of Natural History, 20th Century A.D.

Human habitat & Geographic studies
The human habitat is made up of:
• A natural environment: comprising natural features e.g. trees, rivers, weather, etc. • A cultural environment: consisting of products of human civilization e.g. schools, cities, cars, computers and buildings.

Major Sub-disciplines – Physical & Human Geography
PHYSICAL HUMAN

Physical Geography
The study of how people make places, organize space & society, interact with each other in places & across space and make sense of others in our locality, region, and world.

Physical Geography
• • • • • • • Political Urban Geographic Population Agricultural Cultural Economic

Human Geography
It focuses on the study of patterns and processes that shape human interaction with various environments. It encompasses human, political, cultural, social, and economic aspects. Human geography can be divided into many broad categories, such as: Cultural, Development, Economic, Health.

Physical Geography Rocks and Minerals Landforms Soils Animals Plants Water Atmosphere Rivers & other water bodies Environment Climate and Weather Oceans

Human Geography Population Settlements Economic Activities Transportation Recreational Activities Religion Political Systems Social Traditions Human Migration Agricultural Systems Urban Systems

Five Key Spatial Themes of Geography
1) Location: the meaning of relative and absolute position on the earth's surface  Sample terms: Latitude and longitude, site and situation, direction, distance, scale  Skills: Map reading, identification  Questions: Where is ____? Where is ____ relative to where I am?

2) Place: the distinctive and distinguishing physical and human characteristics of locales  Sample terms: Physical and cultural landscapes, sense of place  Skills: Description, compare and contrast  Questions: What does ____ look like? Why? How is it different from ____?

3) Relationships within places: the development and consequences of human-environment relationships  Sample terms: Ecosystems, natural resources, environmental pollution  Skills: Evaluation, analysis  Questions: What human-environment relationships are occurring? How do they affect the place and its inhabitants?

4) Movement: patterns and change in human spatial interaction on the earth  Sample terms: Migration, diffusion, globalization  Skills: Explanation, prediction  Questions: How has this spatial pattern developed? Will it continue to change? What does it mean for the places involved?

5) Regions: how they form and change  Sample terms: Formal vs. functional regions  Skills: Synthesis, application  Questions: How has this spatial pattern developed? Will it continue to change? What does it mean for the places involved?

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