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RF Engineering
Continuing Education & Training
Introduction to GPRS

Page 2 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Class Agenda
• Overview of GSM
• What is GPRS?
• Network Architecture
• Protocol Stack
• Air Interface
• Mobility Management
• Quality of Service
• Optimization and RF Planning
• Traffic Planning
• HSCSD, EDGE and 3G Growth Path
• Conclusions

Page 3 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Class Agenda
• Overview of GSM
– Network Architecture
– Air Interface
– Additional Features
• What is GPRS?
• Network Architecture
• Protocol Stack
• Air Interface
• Mobility Management
• Quality of Service
• Optimization and RF Planning
Page 4 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Overview of GSM
Introduction to GPRS
F1
F2
F3
F4
F1
F2
F3
F4
F2
F1
F2
N=4 Frequency Reuse Concept
• Second Generation
Technology
• Groupe Speciale Mobile
• Developed by ETSI
• International wireless standard
• Based on the cellular concept
• Frequency reuse
implementation
• Over 480 million subscribers
• GSM900, DCS1800,
PCS1900, R-GSM
100 200 300 400 500 0
GSM
IS-95
IS-136
PDC (Japan)
Analog
Millions of subscribers (Feb 2001)
source: EMC
Page 5 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Introduction to GPRS
Series Specification Area
01 General
02 Service Aspects
03 Network Aspects
04 MS-BS Interface and Protocol
05 Physical Layer and the Radio Path
06 Speech Coding Specification
07 Terminal Adapter for MS
08 BS-MSC Interface
09 Network Interworking
10 Service Internetworking
11 Equipment and Type Approval Specs
12 Operation and Maintenance
Overview of GSM
• All GSM documents are
standardized by ETSI
• Standards are grouped into 12
series
• Allows for easy integration of
network elements from different
equipment vendors
• Significantly reduces the cost of
the overall network deployment
Page 6 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Introduction to GPRS
Overview of GSM - Network Architecture
• GSM network can be divided into three main subsystems:
– Base Station Subsystem - BSS
– Mobile Station Subsystem - MSS
– Network Switching Subsystem - NSS

GSM Network Layout
MSC
Area
HLR
MSC
Area
VLR
MSC TRAU BSC
BTS
BTS
BSS
MSC Area
BSS
BSS
BTS
PSTN
PLMN - Public Land Mobile Network
Gateway
MSC
NSS
Page 7 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Overview of GSM - Mobile Station
Introduction to GPRS
Keyboard
Control
Display
Transmit Audio
Signal
Processing
Receive Audio
Signal
Processing
Channel
Decoding
Deinterleaving
Message
Regenerator
Channel
Encoding
Interleaving
Message
Generator
Ciphering
Ciphering
RF
Processing
RF
Processing
SIM
Duplexer
Antenna
ANTENNA
ASSEMBLY
TRANSMITTER
RECEIVER
TRANSCEIVER UNIT
CONTROL
SECTION
• Offered as a phone for
voice services
• Data services will bring
new devices to the market
• Two functional parts:
– HW/SW radio
interface
– SIM
• Two types of SIM
– Smart Card
– Plug-in
GSM Mobile Architectural Diagram
Page 8 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Overview of GSM - Base Transceiver
Station
• BTS is a set of transceivers (TX/RX).
• GSM BTS can host up to 16 TX/RX.
• In GSM one TX/RX is shared by 8 users.
• The main role of TX/RX is to provide
conversion between traffic data on the network
side and RF communication on the MS side.
• Depending on the application, it can be
configured as macrocell, microcell, omni,
sectored, etc.
BTS
Introduction to GPRS
Page 9 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Overview of GSM - Base Station Controller
• Provides a small digital
exchange with some
mobility tasks
• Connects to one or several
BTS on the Abis Interface
• Connects to the MSC on
the A Interface
• Designed to offload most of
the radio link related
processes from the MSC
• Provides clock distribution
to BTS
• Communicates with the
OMC
Introduction to GPRS
Central Module
Switch
Matrix
Database
OMC
OMC - Operation and Maintenance
Center
A
Interface
Towards
MSC
Abis
Interface
Towards
BTS
Page 10 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Overview of GSM - TRAU
• TRAU is responsible for
transcoding the user data from
16Kb/sec to standard ISDN
rates of 64Kb/sec.
• It can physically reside on
either BSC side or MSC side.

• If it resides on the MSC side, it
provides substantial changes in
the backhaul – 4 users over a
single T-1/E-1 TDMA channel.
• TRAU, BSC and BTSs form
Base Station Subsystem (BSS)

Introduction to GPRS
Page 11 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Overview of GSM - MSC
• Responsible for connecting the
mobile to the landline side
• GSM MSC is commonly
designed as a regular ISDN
switch with some added
functionality for mobility support
• GSM Network can have more
than one MSC

• One of the MSC has an added
functionality for communication
with public network – Gateway
MSC (GMSC)
• All calls from the “outside
networks” are routed through
GMSC

GSM MSC and Gateway MSC
BTS
BSC MSC GMSC
Introduction to GPRS
Page 12 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Overview of GSM - HLR/AuC
• Database for permanent or semi-permanent data associated with the
user
• Logically, there is only one HLR per network
• Typical information stored in HLR: International Mobile Service
Identification Number (IMSI), service subscription information,
supplementary services, current location of the subscriber, etc.
• HLR is usually implemented as an integral part of MSC
• AUC is an integral part of HLR responsible for ciphering and
encryption.
• GSM specifies elaborate encryption schemes.
• There are three levels of the encryption:
– A5/1 – Used by countries in Europe and USA
– A5/2 – Used by countries and the so called COCOM list
– No encryption – used by all other countries


Introduction to GPRS
Page 13 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Overview of GSM - VLR and EIR
• Temporary database that keeps the information about the users within the
service area of the MSC
• Usually there is one VLR per MSC
• The main task of the VLR is to reduce the number of queries to HLR. When
the mobile, registers on the system its information is copied from HLR to VLR
• VLR is usually integrated with the switch
• Separation of SIM and mobile opens possibility for market of stolen and
fraudulent equipment.
• GSM Systems are equipped with Equipment Identity Register (EIR) –
responsible for tracking the equipment eligibility for service.
• EIR maintains three lists of mobile terminals:
– White list: is the list of approved mobile types.
– Black list: list of the International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) numbers
that are barred from service.
– Gray List: The list of mobiles that are tracked within the GSM system.
Introduction to GPRS
Page 14 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Overview of GSM - Interfaces
• GSM defines different
interfaces between
two system
components
• Allows for multi-
vendor
implementation
• Promotes more
competition
• Lower costs
• Air interface is
limiting in terms of
capacity
• Air interface is also
called Um interface
GSM Interfaces
Introduction to GPRS
Page 15 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Overview of GSM - Air Interface
• GSM is a FDMA/TDMA based
technology
• Transmissions are
discontinuous
• Each user is assigned a timeslot
• Each frequency is divided into
eight timeslots
• Each channel has a 200 kHz
bandwidth
• Overhead signaling is required
for coordination and control
• Information is sent in bursts
• Several types of bursts
GSM as a FDMA/TDMA Interface
BTS
USER 1 USER 2 .... USER 8
USER 6 USER 7 USER 8 USER 1
USER 1,
ARFCN
1
USER 2,
ARFCN
1
USER 8,
ARFCN
1
USER 9,
ARFCN
2
USER 10,
ARFCN
2
USER 16,
ARFCN
2
ARFCN
1
ARFCN
2
Introduction to GPRS
Page 16 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Overview of GSM - Burst Types
Tail Traffic/Signaling Flag Training Sequence Flag Traffic/Signaling Tail
3 57 1 26 1 57 3
Tail Synchronization Training Sequence Synchronization Tail
3 3 39 39 64
• Used to carry information on both control and traffic channels
• Mixture of data and overhead
• GSM defines 8 training sequences assigned in color code mode
• Both on the forward and reverse link
• Facilitates the synchronization of the MS to the network at the base
band
• Commonly referred to as S-burst
• Only on the forward link
• The same sync sequence is used in all GSM networks
Synchronization Burst
Normal Burst
Introduction to GPRS
Page 17 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Overview of GSM - Burst Types
• Used when the MS is accessing the
system
• Shorter in length – burst collision
avoidance
• Extended synchronization sequence
• Used only on the reverse link
• Supports MAHO
• Used to ensure constant power level of the broadcast control channel
• Only on the forward link
Dummy Burst
Access Burst
Tail Predefined Bit Sequence Tail
3 3
142
Tail Synchronization Access Bits Tail
8 41 36 3
• GSM mobiles use slotted
ALOHA to access the
system
• In the case of collision –
a hashing algorithm is
provided
Introduction to GPRS
Page 18 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Overview of GSM - Burst Types
• Sometimes referred to as the
F-burst
• Provides mobile with precise
reference to the frequency of
the broadcast control channel
• Inserting the F-bursts on the
control channel produces
spectral peak 67.7 KHz above
the central frequency of the
carrier
• Only on the forward link
• Spectral characteristics of the
control channel.
• The peak in the spectrum
allows for easier MS network
acquisition
Tail Fixed Bit Sequence (All zeros) Tail
3 3
142
f
c
f
c
+67.7 KHz frequency
Power Spectrum Density
BW = 200KHz
Introduction to GPRS
Page 19 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Overview of GSM - Physical Channels
Group Name Function Fwd.
Link
Rev.
Link
BCCH Broadcast control Yes No
FCCH Frequency correction Yes No
BCH
SCH Synchronization Yes No
PCH Paging Yes No
AGCH Access Grant Yes No
CCCH
RACH Random Access No Yes
SDCCH Standalone dedicated control Yes Yes
SAACH Slow-associated control Yes Yes
DCCH
FACCH Fast-associated control Yes Yes
TCH TCH Traffic data and voice Yes Yes
• A GSM physical channel can carry several different types of logical
channels
• Can be divided into two categories: traffic and signaling
• Signaling channels can be further categorized as:
– Broadcast
– Common Control
– Dedicated Control
Introduction to GPRS
Page 20 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Overview of GSM - Frame Hierarchy
• Different organization on the superframe level for different logical
channels
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 21 22 23 24 25
1 TDMA Frame
4.615 ms
26 Multiframe
120 ms
51 Multiframe
235.4 ms
51 x 26 Superframe or 26 x 51 Superframe
6s 120 ms
Hyperframe
3 h 28 min 53 s 760 ms
0 1 2 3 4 48 49 50
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2043 2044 2045 2046 2047
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 46 47 48 49 50
0 1 2 3 4 23 24 25
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Introduction to GPRS
Page 21 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Overview of GSM - Additional Features
• GSM supports additional features that enable a better spectrum
utilization and increased capacity:
– Timing Advance - TA
– Discontinuous Transmission - DTX
– Mobile Assisted Handover - MAHO
– Dynamic Power Control - DPC
– Hierarchical Cell Structure - HCS
– Frequency Hopping - FH
– Intracell handovers
Introduction to GPRS
Page 22 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Overview of GSM - Quiz!
• Name some of the components of the GSM architecture and briefly
explain their function
• What are the different types of bursts?
– _______________
– _______________
– _______________
– _______________
– _______________
• What are the different types of logical channels ?
– _______________, _______________, _______________
– _______________, _______________, _______________
– _______________, _______________, _______________
– _______________

Introduction to GPRS
Page 23 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Class Agenda
• Overview of GSM
• What is GPRS?
• Network Architecture
• Protocol Stack
• Air Interface
• Mobility Management
• Quality of Service
• Optimization and RF Planning
• Traffic Planning
• HSCSD, EDGE, and 3G Growth Path
Introduction to GPRS
Page 24 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
What is GPRS?
9.6
19.2
56
128
GSM IS-95 CDMA Analog Modem ISDN
9.6
57.6
160
384
GSM HSCSD GPRS EDGE
• 2G technologies were designed for
mobile telephony
• Landline services have higher data
rates than wireless counterparts
• Next step: mobile wireless data
services
• GPRS: General Packet Radio
Service
• GSM has distinctive approach
towards 3G
• Intermediate step refers to as 2.5 G
• Allows for smooth transition from
voice to data services
• Maintain upgrade costs to a
minimum
Introduction to GPRS
Page 25 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
What is GPRS?
Source: Ericsson’s Web Site Oct-00
S
u
b
s
c
r
i
b
e
r
s

(
M
)

0
900
300
600
96 98 00 02 03
• In voice networks, RF is the main limiting factor. In data
networks, RF and many other factors will affect the performance
for individual users
• Fixed network infrastructure performance
• Types of applications and service provision
• Number of users active in an area
Introduction to GPRS
Page 26 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
What is GPRS? - Circuit vs Packet Switch
• 2G technologies are circuit
switched
• Dial-up type connections
• A single user occupies a
channel for the entire
transmission
• Requires time-oriented billing
• GSM transmissions are bursty
• Bursty nature favors data
services


• GPRS is packet switched
technology
• More appropriate for data
services
• Continuous flow is not required
• Access is based on demand
only
• Several users can be
multiplexed
• Billing based on negotiated
QoS and usage



Introduction to GPRS
Page 27 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
What is GPRS? - Types of Data Services
9.6
128
1500
SMS WWW Audio Video
128
• Most popular Internet data
applications include:
– E-mail
– Web browsing
– File transfers
– Real time audio
– Streaming video
• Different services have different
throughput requirements
• GSM evolution is expected to
provide services at throughputs
similar to their landline
counterparts
Introduction to GPRS
Page 28 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
What is GPRS? - A 2.5 G Solution
• GPRS is a 2.5 G solution implemented over existing GSM network
• Theoretical data rates are up to 160 kbps
• GPRS makes a more efficient use of the air interface
• Supports point-to-point and point-to-multipoint transmissions
• GPRS will take over short message service (SMS) from GSM
signaling channels
• New QoS parameters:
– Precedence
– Reliability
– Delay
– Throughput
Introduction to GPRS
Page 29 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
What is GPRS? - Important Challenges
• There are several hardware and software
limitations that will decrease the expected data
rates significantly
• Mobile data will impose a demand for more IP
addresses. The existing version of IP is
already reaching saturation
• The idea that the market will accept mobile
data service with eagerness is still somewhat
questionable
• The 3G standards are already finalized and
implementation will follow shortly after 2.5 G
Introduction to GPRS
Page 30 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Class Agenda
• Overview of GSM
• What is GPRS?
• Network Architecture
– SGSN, GGSN
– GR, PCU
– Mobile Station
• Protocol Stack
• Air Interface
• Mobility Management
• Quality of Service
• Optimization and RF Planning
Introduction to GPRS
Page 31 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Network Architecture
• GPRS introduces new entities to support data packet
transmissions
• New entities are PCU, GSN, Border Gateway, and GPRS
register
GPRS Network Architecture
Introduction to GPRS
Page 32 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Network Architecture - SGSN
SGSN PCU
BSS
BSS
BSS
SGSN PCU
SGSN PCU
GGSN
• Serving GPRS support node
• Delivers data packets to the mobile
stations
• Each SGSN is assigned to a specific
service area
• Allows for very little change in the
BTS and BSC

• All mobile stations communicate to the SGSN in the area
• Provides authentication and ciphering
• Handles mobility management
• Introduction of the routing area - RA
• Also responsible for billing over the air interface
Introduction to GPRS
Page 33 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Network Architecture - GGSN
GGSN
GGSN GGSN
PDN
PDN
PLMN
PDN
• Gateway GPRS support node
• Allows the GPRS network to
communicate with external PDNs
• Routes all packet data units through
the corresponding SGSN
• Whereas the SGSNs can change
during cell reselections, the GGSN
remains the same during an ongoing
packet transaction
• Supports PTP and PTM
transmissions
• Responsible for billing related to
connections with external PDNs
Introduction to GPRS
Page 34 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Network Architecture - GR and PCU
• GPRS Register
– Database containing information about GPRS subscribers
• Packet Control Unit
– Manages and controls radio-related operations
– Converts frames coming from the SGSN into TRAU frames
– Compresses and decompresses frames
– PCU allows very few modifications to the BSS

Introduction to GPRS
Page 35 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Network Architecture - PCU
Locations
• Possibilities for location are similar to the TRAU
• From the resource utilization perspective, the best location for the
PCU is at the SGSN
• Conceptually, PCU still remains a part of the BSC
Introduction to GPRS
Page 36 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Network Architecture - Border
Gateway
Foreign
PLMN
BG BG GGSN GGSN
Home
PLMN
• Risk from hackers in external PLMNs
• Protect subscribers from security break-ins
• Border Gateway is implemented to provide a maximum level of
security
• Acts as a firewall to the GPRS network
• No guidelines for protection at the Gi interface
• Gi security is left open to equipment manufacturers
Introduction to GPRS
Page 37 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS
Class
Type
GSM and GPRS
Simultaneously
GSM or GPRS
Sequentially
GSM Only
GPRS Only
Class A Yes Yes Yes
Class B No Yes Yes
Class C No No Yes
• GPRS standard defines three mobile station classes
• Class A supports simultaneous circuit and packet switched
communications
• Class B supports packet and circuit switched sequentially
– Currently only Class B mobiles being developed
• Class C does not support parallel operation
• Operates in either packet or circuit mode only
• Low cost unit available for mass market deployment
Introduction to GPRS
Page 38 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Network Architecture - GSM and
GPRS
Introduction to GPRS
Page 39 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Network Architecture - Quiz!
• Name some of the components of the GPRS architecture and briefly
explain their function
• What are two types of GSNs?
– _______________
– _______________
• What are the different types of mobile classes ?
– _______________
– _______________
– _______________
• Which component allows for few changes at the BSS?
– _______________

Introduction to GPRS
Page 40 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Class Agenda
• What is GPRS?
• Network Architecture
• Protocol Stack
– OSI/ISO Model
– GPRS Protocol Stack
– GTP
– SNDCP and BSSGP
– RLC/MAC and LLC
• Air Interface
• Mobility Management
• Quality of Service
• Optimization and RF Planning
Introduction to GPRS
Page 41 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Protocol Stack - ISO/OSI Model
Session Layer
Transport Layer
Network Layer
Data Link Layer
Presentation
Layer
Physical Layer
Application
Layer
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Session Layer
Transport Layer
Network Layer
Data Link Layer
Presentation
Layer
Physical Layer
Application
Layer
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Network Layer
Data Link Layer
Physical Layer
Node A Node B Node C
peer-to-peer protocol
• International Telecommunications Union (ITU) and International
Standardization Organization (ISO) developed Open Systems
Interconnect (OSI)
• Allows for compatibility between different equipment manufacturers
Introduction to GPRS
Page 42 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Protocol Stack - ISO/OSI Model
Node A Node C
Application Layer
Presentation Layer
Session Layer
Transport Layer
Network Layer
Data Link Layer
Physical Layer
2 3 4 5 6 7 Info
Info
2
3
4
5
6 7
7 Info
Info
6 7 Info
5 6 7 Info
4 5 6 7 Info
5 4 5 6 7 Info
6 5 4 5 6 7 Info 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
2
3
4
5
6 7
7 Info
Info
6 7 Info
5 6 7 Info
4 5 6 7 Info
3 4 5 6 7 Info
2 3 4 5 6 7 Info 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Info
• Each layer adds its own
header to the message
• Same layer at destination
node removes its
corresponding header
• Physical layer delivers
message from one node to
the next
• In GSM, layer 1
corresponds to the air
interface
• GPRS layers fall between
OSI layers 2 and 3


Introduction to GPRS
Page 43 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Protocol Stack
Introduction to GPRS
Page 44 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Protocol Stack - GTP
• GPRS Tunneling protocol
– Allows communication between the GGSN and SGSN
– Data transfer is done via encapsulation and tunneling
– GTP header includes such as PDU type, QoS parameters, and
tunnel identifier (TID)
– TID differentiates PTP from PTM transactions
Introduction to GPRS
GTP PDU
N PDU
TCP/IP
Header
User Data
Network Layer
GTP Layer
GTP
Header
TID User Data
Page 45 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Protocol Stack - SNDCP & BSSGP
• Subnetwork Dependent Convergence Protocol
– Makes GPRS network transparent to the common subscriber regardless of
what application is running
– Responsible for converting network packet data units into GPRS suitable
format
– Multiplexing of SN packet data units over the LLC layer
– Segmentation and Desegmentation of SN packets into LLC packets
– Compression of the IP header information
• Base Station Subsystem GPRS
Protocol
– Routing between SGSN and PCU
– Provide radio related info for
RLC/MAC
– Routing goes via Network Relay
– Transparent transfer of LLC frames
– Convey QoS information

Introduction to GPRS
TCP/IP
Header
User Data
Network Layer
SNDCP Layer
SN-PDU
Header
Compressed Information Tail
SN-PDU
Header
Compressed Information Tail
Page 46 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Protocol Stack - LLC
• Logical Link Control
– Provides a logical reliable link between MS and SGSN
– Designed as independent as possible from the radio interface layers
– Encapsulation of SNDCP packet data units
– Ciphering procedures between MS and SGSN
– Detection and recovery of lost LLC packet data units
– Responsible for acknowledged/unacknowledged operation
Introduction to GPRS
Frame
Header
Radio Blocks
SNDCP Layer
SN-PDU
Header
Compressed Information Tail
SN-PDU
Header
Compressed Information Tail
FCS
LLC Layer
Frame
Header
Radio Blocks FCS
Frame
Header
Radio Blocks FCS
Page 47 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Protocol Stack - RLC / MAC
• RLC sublayer
– Transmission of data blocks across the air interface
– Retransmission of error data blocks using ARQ
• MAC sublayer
– Provides access to a given transmission medium
– Controls access signaling, medium sharing by multiple users
– Release operations over the radio channel
– Access is based on slotted ALOHA
– Performs mapping of RLC blocks onto the GSM physical channels
Introduction to GPRS
PC PC T T
RLC
Header
RLC/MAC Signaling
Information
USF BCS USF BCS
RLC/MAC
Layer
RLC Data
RLC Data Block RLC/MAC Signaling Block
Frame
Header
Radio Blocks FCS
LLC Layer
Frame
Header
Radio Blocks FCS
Frame
Header
Radio Blocks FCS
Page 48 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Coding Schemes
• GPRS defines four coding
schemes
• Only CS-1 is mandatory for the
BTS
• All coding schemes are
mandatory for the MS
• The higher the coding scheme,
the higher the throughput
• The higher the throughput, the
lower protection against errors
RLC
Header
RLC Data
160 Data Bits (depends on size RLC header) s
RLC
Header
RLC Data
240 Data Bits (depends on size RLC header)
RLC
Header
RLC Data
288 Data Bits (depends on size RLC header)
RLC
Header
RLC Data
400 Data Bits (depends on size RLC header)
s
s
s
CS-1
CS-2
CS-3
CS-4
Introduction to GPRS
1 TS 2 TS 3 TS 4 TS 8 TS
CS-1 9.05 kbps 18.1 kbps 27.15 kbps 36.2 kbps 72.4 kbps
CS-2 13.4 kbps 26.8 kbps 40.2 kbps 53.6 kbps 107.2 kbps
CS-3 15.6 kbps 31.2 kbps 46.8 kbps 62.4 kbps 124.8 kbps
CS-4 21.4 kbps 42.8 kbps 64.2 kbps 85.6 kbps 171.2 kbps
Page 49 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Radio Block Structure
• A packet transmission
is referred to as a
temporary block flow
(TBF)
• Each TBF is assigned a
temporary flow identity
(TFI)
• The TFI is located
inside the LLC header
information
• The TFI allows for
multiplexing several
users over the same
timeslot
• The TFI also allows to
assign priority classes
Introduction to GPRS
PC PC
Normal
Burst
Normal
Burst
Normal
Burst
Normal
Burst
Normal
Burst
Normal
Burst
Normal
Burst
Normal
Burst
T T
RLC
Header
RLC/MAC Signaling
Information
USF BCS USF BCS
Network Layer
SNDCP Layer
LLC Layer
RLC/MAC
Layer
RF Layer
RLC Data
approx 1.6 KB
1.5 KB or less
20 - 50 bytes
4 x 114 bits
RLC Data Block RLC/MAC Signaling Block
Frame
Header
Radio Blocks FCS
Frame
Header
Radio Blocks FCS
Frame
Header
Radio Blocks FCS
SN-PDU
Header
Compressed Information Tail
SN-PDU
Header
Compressed Information Tail
TCP/IP
Header
User Data
Page 50 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Protocol Stack - Quiz!
• Mention the seven different layers of the ISO/OSI reference model:
– _______________, _______________, _______________
– _______________, _______________, _______________
– _______________
• The GPRS protocol stack consists of the following protocols
– _______________, _______________, _______________
– _______________, _______________
• The maximum throughput achieved using CS-2 and two timeslots is:
– _______________
• Different packet transactions from different users can be identified via
the
– _______________

Introduction to GPRS
Page 51 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Class Agenda
• Network Architecture
• Protocol Stack
• Air Interface
– GPRS Logical Channels
– The Master Slave Concept
– The 52-Multiframe
– Timing Advance
– Power Control
• Mobility Management
• Quality of Service
• Optimization and RF Planning
• HSCSD, EDGE, and 3G Growth Path
Introduction to GPRS
Page 52 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Air Interface
• Air interface continues to be
limiting factor in terms of capacity
• GPRS shares the same interface
with GSM
• Recall GSM has 200 kHz and eight
TS
• GPRS utilizes multiplexing and
dynamic channel allocation to use
the air interface more efficiently
• Some channels can be configured
for data traffic and others for voice
traffic
• Channels are reconfigured
accordingly based on demand
GPRS Air Interface
Introduction to GPRS
Physical
Layer
MAC
RLC
RFL
MAC
RLC
MS BSS
RLC - Radio Link Control
MAC - Medium Access Control
RFL - Radio Frequency Link
MS - Mobile Station
BSS - Base Station Subsystem
Page 53 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Logical Channels
• Signaling and traffic channels are also required for GPRS
• A new family of packet data channels PDCHs has been defined
• Some of the existing GSM signaling channels can still be used for
GPRS
• The GPRS mobile still requires to listen to the GSM broadcast
channel for GPRS channel information
Group Channel Direction Function
PBCH PBCCH FL Broadcast
PPCH FL Paging
PRACH RL Random Access
PAGCH FL Access Grant
PCCCH
PNCH FL Group Notification
PDTCH FL / RL Traffic
PACCH FL / RL Associated Control
PTCH
PTCCH FL / RL Timing Advance
Introduction to GPRS
Page 54 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS 52-Multiframe
• Each radio block is transmitted over 4 TDMA frames
• Resource allocation is done in terms of blocks for both uplink and
downlink
• A 52-Multiframe consists of:
– twelve blocks for PDCHs signaling and traffic
– two timing advance frames
– two idle frames (for neighbor list and power control)
– 12 x 4 +2 + 2 = 52 frames
0
Block 0 Block 1 Block 2
T
A
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Block 3 Block 4 Block 5 I
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
Block 6 Block 7 Block 8
T
A
27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39
Block 9 Block 10 Block 11 I
40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51
TA - Timing Alignment Frame
I - Idle Frame
Introduction to GPRS
Page 55 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS 52-Multiframe
• The PDCHs are mapped and organized into a 52-Multiframe
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 21 22 23 24 25.5
0 1 2 3 4 49 50 51
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 21 22 23 24 25
1 TDMA Frame
4.615 ms
26 Multiframe
120 ms
51 Multiframe
235.4 ms
Hyperframe
3 h 28 min 53 s 760 ms
0 1 2 3 4 48 49 50
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2043 2044 2045 2046 2047
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 46 47 48 49 50
0 1 2 3 4 23 24 25
52 Multiframe
240 ms
51 x 26 Superframe or 26 x 51 Superframe or 25.5 x 52 Superframe
6s 120 ms
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Introduction to GPRS
Page 56 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Master-Slave Concept
BCCH CCCH
TS
Option 1 (use all PDCHs)
Option 2 (use BCCH or PBCCH)
Option 3 (use BCCH, CCCH or PBCCH, PCCCH)
PDTCH PDTCH PDTCH
T
A
PDTCH PDTCH PDTCH I PDTCH PDTCH PDTCH
T
A
PDTCH PDTCH PDTCH I
PCCCH PDTCH PDTCH
T
A
PDTCH PDTCH PDTCH I PDTCH PDTCH PDTCH
T
A
PDTCH PDTCH PDTCH I
PBCCH PDTCH PDTCH
T
A
PDTCH PDTCH PCCCH I PCCCH PDTCH PDTCH
T
A
PDTCH PDTCH PDTCH I
2
4
6
3
5
7
1
0
• One physical channel
(frequency and timeslot) can
be used for signaling and
control
• Remaining channels are
used for GPRS traffic
channels - PDTCHs
• If no master channels are
used, GPRS will rely on
GSM signaling channels
• As demand for voice
increases, slave channels
can be released
• If Master PDCH is released,
mobiles must retune to GSM
broadcast channel
Master Slave Concept
Introduction to GPRS
Page 57 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Timing Advance - Uplink
0
1
2 3
4 5
6 7
8 9
10 11
12 13
14 15
8 x 52-multiframe = 416 frames
TAI = 0 - 15
• The PTCCH/U is divided into 16
subchannels with eight 52-
multiframes
• The 16 subchannels can be
assigned to 16 different active
mobile stations
• Every PTCCH/U has a cycle of 1.92
s
• Active mobile stations will transmit
one access burst with TA=0 to the
BTS once per eight 52-multiframes
within their subchannel
• Based on the PTCCH/U message,
the BTS can recalculate the timing
advance value
Introduction to GPRS
Page 58 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Timing Advance - Downlink
One TA message in 4 normal bursts
for up to 16 MS
0 1
3 4
• Each mobile is assigned a timing advance index (TAI) value via the
PTCCH/D
• The TA message sent on the downlink can convey timing advance
information for up to 16 mobile stations
• The timing advance message contains the TAI values associated with
each mobile station
• Since the message requires 4 frames, it is carried within four
consecutive TA frames
Introduction to GPRS
Page 59 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Timing Advance - Example
• Example: An uplink temporary block flow (TBF) is
initiated between a mobile station and a serving base
station. The total file size is 80 kilobits and is transmitted
using CS-1. The base station assigns the mobile station
a timing advance index (TAI = 3). Assuming a constant
data rate and no block retransmissions, how many timing
advance messages are required from the mobile during
this transmission.
– 1 frame =
– 1 block =
– A 52-multiframe =
– Time between identical TAIs =
– Total transmission time =
– Number of timing advances =
Introduction to GPRS
Page 60 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Power Control - MS Power Classes
Class Max Power
(dBm)
Min Power
(dBm)
Power
Increments
2 39 5 18
3 37 5 17
4 33 5 15
5 29 5 13
Class Max Power
(dBm)
Min Power
(dBm)
Power
Increments
1 30 0 16
2 24 0 13
3 36 0 19
• Power control is used to minimize the transmit power and still
maintain a reliable link
• GSM power control is done by the BTS based on RXLEV and
RXQUAL
• GPRS power control is performed by the mobile based on several
parameters including:
– Maximum allowed Tx power
– Received Signal Level - RSL
– Mobile station power class
• Several mobile station power
classes have been defined for
GSM 900 and DCS 1800
respectively
Mobile Station Power Class GSM 900
Mobile Station Power Class DCS 1800
Introduction to GPRS
Page 61 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Power Control - Power Control
Calculation
• The formula for power control calculation as defined by ETSI (GSM
03.64 version 8.50)
) ), 48 ( min( max
0
P C Pch
CH
+ × ÷ I ÷ I = o
I
0
= 39 dBm for GSM 900 and 36 dBm for DCS 1800
I
CH
= mobile and channel specific power control parameter. It is sent to the mobile in any
resource assignment message. The values range from 0 to 62 dB in 2 dB increments
based on interference measurements of the BTS. At any time during a packet transfer,
the network can send new ICH values to the mobile on the downlink PACCH
o e |0,1| = is a system parameter. Its default value is broadcast on the PBCCH.
Furthermore, the mobile and channel specific values can be sent to the mobile together
with I
CH

C = received signal level at the mobile
Pmax = maximum allowed transmit power in the cell

Introduction to GPRS
Page 62 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Power Control - Example
• A GSM-1800 Class 3 mobile station is engaged in power
control. The network parameters are o=0.5, and I
CH
= 4.
The mobile reported C is –85dBm. What is the transmit
power Pch ?
) ), 48 ( min( max
0
P C Pch
CH
+ × ÷ I ÷ I = o
Introduction to GPRS
Page 63 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Air Interface - Quiz!
• What are the different types of GPRS logical channels ?
– _______________
– _______________, _______________, _______________
– _______________, _______________, _______________
• GPRS packet data channels are mapped onto a new structure called
________________
• The Uplink PTCCH is divided into _____ subchannels
• One timing advance message on the downlink is transmitted over
_____ normal bursts and contains a timing advance index for up to
_____ users
• In GSM, power control is done at the ____________. In GPRS,
power control is done at the _____________.

Introduction to GPRS
Page 64 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Class Agenda
• Network Architecture
• Protocol Stack
• Air Interface
• Mobility Management
– Mobility Management States
– GPRS Attach
– Mobile Originated Transfer
– Mobile Terminated Transfer
– Cell Selection/Reselection
• Quality of Service
• Optimization and RF Planning
• HSCSD, EDGE, and 3G Growth Path
Introduction to GPRS
Page 65 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Mobility Management States
• Mobility management states
apply for both the mobile and
the SGSN
• Idle: Mobile is powered on but
not attached to GPRS
• Standby: Mobile is powered on
and attached to GPRS. No
packet transfer is in progress.
Routing area updates are sent
as needed.
• Ready: The mobile is currently
engaged in packet transfer or
recently terminated a packet
transfer. The Ready state is
determined by a timer. No
need to page a mobile in
Ready state
GPRS Mobility Management States for MS
Introduction to GPRS
Idle
Ready
Standby
Ready-Timer
Expiry
PDU
Transfer
GPRS
Detach
GPRS
Attach
PDU
Transfer
Page 66 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Attach Process
• Process of registration of the mobile into the GPRS network
• Occurs when mobile is first powered on and can occur afterwards
based on network settings
• Mobile registers directly with the SGSN
• Information Exchanged
– IMSI or P-TMSI
– TLLI
– RA, LA
– Power class mark
– Type of
registration
(GSM, GPRS)
– Authentication
– Ciphering
Introduction to GPRS
Page 67 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS PDP Context Activation
• The mobile need to activate a packet data protocol context before it
can transmit or receive information
Introduction to GPRS
Page 68 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Mobile Originated Transfer
• A mobile initiates a transfer on
the random access channel
RACH or PRACH
• One phase access: Network
provides immediate packet
channel assignment message
with reserved PDTCHs for
uplink
• Two phase access: Network
provides immediate packet
channel assignment message
with only one single radio block
reservation. Mobile sends a
more detailed packet resource
request. Network responds with
message that contains reserved
resources
Introduction to GPRS
Page 69 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS - TFI, USF and CV
Downlink
Block 0
Not Used
Block 1
Not Used
Block 2
MS 2
T
A
Block 3
MS 2
Block 4
MS 1
Block 5
MS 1
I
Block 6
MS 1
Block 7
MS 1
Block 8
MS 3
T
A
Block 9
MS 3
Block 10
MS 3
Block 11
MS 4
I
Block 0
PBCCH
Block 1
USF 2/1
Block 2
USF 2/1
T
A
Block 3
USF 1/4
Block 4
USF FREE
Block 5
USF FREE
I
Block 6
USF FREE
Block 7
USF 3/1
Block 8
USF 3/1
T
A
Block 9
USF 3/1
Block 10
USF 4/1
Block 11
USF 7
I
Uplink
• Temporary flow identity (TFI) and uplink state flag (USF) allow for
multiplexing of several users on downlink and uplink directions
respectively
• TFI is a 5-bit header that uniquely identifies a packet data transfer
(TBF)
• The same TFI can be assigned to different PDCHs on the uplink and
downlink
• USF is a 3-bit value (000 to 111), where 000 indicates “FREE”
• Each mobile listens to its assigned USF on the downlink and will
transmit one or up to four blocks on the uplink depending on the
amount of reserved blocks
• Uplink also contains a countdown value (CV) to indicate blocks
remaining
Introduction to GPRS
Page 70 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Acknowledged/Unacknowledged
Mode
• RLC layer can be set to mode of
operation
• Unacknowledged mode offers no
means for error detection
• Acknowledged mode uses ARQ for
error detection
• Message type ACK/NACK contains
a bitmap of received blocks
(UL/DL)
• Recipient sends ACK/NACK
message after receiving a packet
transfer
• Correct blocks are “1”, incorrect
blocks are “0”
• Erroneous blocks are retransmitted

GPRS Mobility Management States
Introduction to GPRS
Page 71 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Mobile Terminated Transfer/Cell
Reselection
• Mobile terminated transfer
– The Countdown Value is used on the uplink to determine the end of
a TBF
– The Final Block Indicator is used in the downlink to indicate the end
of a TBF
• Cell reselection
– There are no handovers in GPRS, mobile performs cell reselection
– In GSM, cell reselections are performed when mobile is in idle
mode
– GSM uses C1 and C2 algorithms for cell reselection
– GPRS Cell reselections can be network or mobile controlled
– GPRS uses C31 and C32 algorithms for cell reselection
– C31 is based on selecting the best GPRS server in the area
– C32 allows for cell ranking when HCS is implemented
– C31 and C32 allow for a more efficient cell planning of GPRS
networks
– There are three modes of operation for cell reselection: NC0, NC1
and NC2
Introduction to GPRS
Page 72 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Mobility Management - Quiz!
• What are the different mobility management states ?
– _______________, _______________, _______________
• In order to register to the GPRS network, the mobile station must
perform a ________________
• In order to engage in a packet transfer, the mobile station must
perform a ________________
• The two options for mobile originated transfer are:
– __________________
– __________________
• For downlink multiplexing, the ________ is used
• For uplink multiplexing, the ________ is used
• Errors in transmitted blocks are notified to the transmitting party via
the _____

Introduction to GPRS
Page 73 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Class Agenda
• Network Architecture
• Protocol Stack
• Air Interface
• Mobility Management
• Quality of Service
– Precedence Class
– Throughput
– Delay Class
– Reliability Class
• Optimization and RF Planning
• Traffic Planning
Introduction to GPRS
Page 74 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Quality of Service - Precedence Class
Precedence
Precedence
Name
Interpretation
1 High Priority
Service commitments shall be maintained ahead of
precedence classes 2 and 3
2 Normal Priority
Service commitments shall be maintained ahead of
precedence class 3
3 Low Priority
Service commitments shall be maintained after
precedence classes 1 and 2
• Under normal network conditions, all users have equal access.
• During network congestion, users with a higher priority level shall be
served before users with a lower priority
• A user with lower priority will suffer higher delay times and packet
losses
• Three precedence class are defined
Introduction to GPRS
Page 75 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Quality of Service - Peak Throughput
• Peak throughput refers to the
maximum data rate for
packets to be transferred
across the network
• There is no guarantee that this
maximum data rate can be
achieved or sustained for any
time period
• Peak throughput is measured
in octets per second
• Values are shown in bits per
second for easier clarification
• Network may limit the
subscriber to the negotiated
peak throughput regardless of
additional capacity
Peak Throughput
Class
Peak Throughput
(octets per second)
1 Up to 1,000 (8 kbps)
2 Up to 2,000 (16 kbps)
3 Up to 4,000 (32 kbps)
4 Up to 8,000 (64 kbps)
5 Up to 16,000 (128 kbps)
6 Up to 32,000 (256 kbps)
7 Up to 64,000 (512 kbps)
8 Up to 128,000 (1024 kbps)
9 Up to 256,000 (2048 kbps)
Introduction to GPRS
Page 76 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Quality of Service - Mean Throughput
Mean Throughput
Class
Mean Throughput
(octets per hour)
1 Best effort
2 100 (~0.22 bps)
3 200 (~0.44 bps)
4 500 (~1.11 bps)
5 1,000 (~2.2 bps)
6 2,000 (~4.4 bps)
7 5,000 (~11.1 bps)
8 10,000 (~22 bps)
9 20,000 (~44 bps)
10 50,000 (~111 bps)
11 100,000 (~0.22 kbps)
12 200,000 (~0.44 kbps)
13 500,000 (~1.11 kbps)
14 1,000,000 (~2.2 kbps)
15 2,000,000 (~4.4 kbps)
16 5,000,000 (~11.1 kbps)
17 10,000,000 (~22 kbps)
18 20,000,000 (~44 kbps)
19 50,000,000 (111 kbps)
• Average rate at which data
is expected to be
transferred across the
GPRS network
• Measured in octets per
hour
• Displayed in bits per
second for easier
clarification
• GPRS network may limit
the subscriber to the mean
throughput regardless of
additional capacity
• A best effort throughput
can be negotiated based
on need and availability
Introduction to GPRS
Page 77 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Quality of Service - Delay
Delay (maximum values)
SDU size: 128 octets SDU size: 1024 octets
Delay Class Mean Transfer
Delay
(sec)
95 percentile
Delay
(sec)
Mean Transfer
Delay
(sec)
95 percentile
Delay
(sec)
1.(Predictive) < 0.5 < 1.5 < 2 < 7
2.(Predictive) < 5 < 25 < 15 < 75
3.(Predictive) < 50 < 250 < 75 < 375
4.(Best Effort) Unspecified
• ETSI has defined the maximum values for mean delay and 95
percentile delay that a packet may encounter while transferred over
the GPRS network
• Delay class does not include delays caused by networks outside the
PLMN
• Delay is defined based on the transfer of a service data unit (SDU)
• Two SDU sizes are specified: 128 octets and 1024 octets

Introduction to GPRS
Page 78 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Quality of Service - Reliability
Reliability
Class
GTP Mode
LLC Frame
Mode
LLC Data
Protection
RLC Block
Mode
Traffic Type
1 Acknowledged Acknowledged Protected Acknowledged
Non real-time
traffic, error
sensitive
application that
cannot cope with
data loss
2 Unacknowledged Acknowledged Protected Acknowledged
Non real-time
traffic, error-
sensitive that can
cope with
infrequent data
loss
3 Unacknowledged Unacknowledged Protected Acknowledged
Non real-time
traffic, error
sensitive
application that
can cope with
data loss,
GMM/SM, and
SMS
4 Unacknowledged Unacknowledged Protected Unacknowledged
Real-time traffic,
error-sensitive
application that
can cope with
data loss
5 Unacknowledged Unacknowledged Unprotected Unacknowledged
Real-time traffic,
error non-
sensitive
application that
can cope with
data loss
Introduction to GPRS
Page 79 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Quality of Service - Reliability
Reliability
Class
Probability
of Lost
Packets
Probability
of Duplicate
Packets
Probability
of Out of
Sequence
Packets
Probability
of Corrupt
Packets
Example of Application
Characteristics
1 10e –9 10e –9 10e –9 10e –9
Error sensitive, no error
correction capability, limited
error tolerance capacity
2 10e –4 10e –5 10e –5 10e –6
Error sensitive, limited error
correction capability, good
error tolerance capacity
3 10e –2 10e –5 10e –5 10e –2
Not error sensitive, error
correction capability and/or
very good error tolerance
• Reliability class defines the probability of:
– Loss packets
– Out of sequence packets
– Duplicate packets
– Corrupted packets
Introduction to GPRS
Page 80 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Class Agenda
• Air Interface
• Mobility Management
• Quality of Service
• Optimization and RF Planning
– GSM Metrics
– GPRS Metrics
– Measurement Model
– RF Performance, Signal Quality, Data Performance
• Traffic Planning
• HSCSD, EDGE, and 3G Growth Path
• Conclusions
Introduction to GPRS
Page 81 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Network Optimization Process
• Identify RF and fixed network parameters that impact network
performance
RxLev
RxQual
BCH Pwr
BLER
C/I
Throughput
Packet Delay
Re-Connects
DNS Lookup
Packet Failure
Drive
Test
Data
Problem
Problem
ID
RF
Problem
E
v
a
l
u
a
t
i
o
n
A
c
t
i
o
n
s
Introduction to GPRS
Page 82 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GSM Metrics - RXLEV and RXQUAL
• Reported as a quantized value RXLEV: RXLEV = RSL[dBm] + 110
• Minimum RXLEV: -110, MAX RXLEV = -47
• Downlink measurements for both serving cell and up to 32 neighbors
• Up to 6 strongest neighbors are reported back to BTS through
SACHH
• Only on the serving channel
• Reported as a quantized value
RXQUAL
• For a good quality call RXQUAL <
3
• Measurements are averaged
before the handover processing
• If DTX is active, the measurements
are performed over the subset of
SACCH that guarantees
transmission
Introduction to GPRS
RXQUAL BER
0 Less than 0.2
1 0.2 to 0.4
2 0.4 to 0.8
3 0.8 to 1.6
4 1.6 to 3.2
5 3.2 to 6.4
6 6.4 to 12.8
7 Above 12.8
Page 83 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GSM Metrics - C/I, Neighbor Lists and Call
Stats
| | dB log 10 /
1
_
_ _
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
¿
=
N
i
i R
Cell Serving R
P
P
I C
• Co-channel: Undesirable signal attributed to reuse of the same
frequency
• Adjacent: Undesirable signal attributed to bleed over from frequency
components
• Neighbor lists: Assigned based on strongest signals for handover
purposes
• Call Statistics:
– Dropped Calls
– Blocked Calls
Introduction to GPRS
Page 84 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Metrics - Throughput
• Rate at which data is transferred in either uplink or downlink (kbps)
• Can be measured as raw or effective
• Different applications require different throughputs
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
Time
T
h
r
o
u
g
h
p
u
t

(
k
b
p
s
)
TX Throughput RX Throughput
Introduction to GPRS
Page 85 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Metrics - Throughput Example
• A downlink TBF has been negotiated using CS-2.
Calculate the effective throughput if the negotiated
reliability is Class 1, assuming that the probability of
retransmitted blocks is 40%. Also calculate the raw
throughput if the negotiated reliability class is Class 4 (no
error protection). Refer to Section for the reliability
classes.
0
)] (Re 1 [ R p R
TX TX
÷ =
Introduction to GPRS
Page 86 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Metrics - Reliability
SDU Status Problem Solution
Lost
Retransmissions at the application
layer that result in a decrease in
throughput and an increase in
delay
1. Optimize the coding scheme
allocations
2. Optimize the RF link
performance
Corrupt
Errors in data transmissions that
can produce billing discrepancies
1. Optimize the reliability class
assignments
2. Optimize the RF link quality
Out-of-sequence
The application layer must
reorganize SDUs, increasing its
processing time. This will result
in increased delay
1. Optimize the routing paths
and network node buffers
Duplicate
The application layer must correct
for duplicate SDUs, increasing its
processing time. This will result
in increased delay
1. Identify layer or interface
generating duplicates and
troubleshoot
• ETSI reliability classes allow the engineer to benchmark performance
against different types of applications
• Optimizing the RF link is first step towards correcting packets
• Duplicate packets are usually due to problems in the IP network
Introduction to GPRS
Page 87 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Metrics - Reliability
• Drive test measurement equipment can easily compute the probability
of blocks in error (BLER) received by a mobile
-100
-90
-80
-70
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
Time
C

V
a
l
u
e
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
B
L
E
R
C Value Rx BLER
Introduction to GPRS
Page 88 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Metrics - Delay
• Delay is specified for two SDU sizes: 128 octets and 1024 octets
• Smaller SDUs travel faster and with less delay than larger SDUs
• A good method to measure delay is by configuring a test server at the
Gi interface and timestamp each SDU with GPS measurements
• Delay can also be computed from any other node inside or outside
the PLMN
Introduction to GPRS
Page 89 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Measurement Model
Measurement Model
Data
Performance
Signal Quality
RF
Performance
Application
Layer
GPRS Layers
Test Mobile
Reports
RF Scanning
Receiver
• Data Performance:
– Application layer end-to-end tests
– GPRS Layers information collected by the phone
• Signal Quality: Phone reported parameters
• RF Performance: Scanning Receiver
Introduction to GPRS
Page 90 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Measurement Model
Application
Layer
End-to-End Data Performance
GPRS Layers
Physical Layer
Application
Layer
GPRS Layers
Physical Layer
GPRS Layers Data Performance
RF Link Quality Performance
• Hierarchical layer diagram based on ISO/OSI reference model
Introduction to GPRS
Page 91 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Measurement Model
• Collected measured data can be post-process and analyzed with
commercial tools
Agilent OPAS 32 Post-processing and analysis tool
Shows uplink &
downlink application
layer throughput along
with coding schemes in
use for each link
Introduction to GPRS
Page 92 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Measurements - BLER versus C/I
0.001
0.01
0.1
1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
C/I
B
L
E
R
CS1
CS2
CS3
CS4
• Block Error Rate (BLER) can be directly tied to the quality of the RF
link, typically measured in terms of C/I
Introduction to GPRS
Page 93 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Measurements - BLER Example
• Calculate the effective Rx throughput for a mobile station
that operates under C/I of 10dB and uses coding scheme
CS-1. How long will it take to download a 150Kb data
file?
0
)] ( 1 [ R BLER p R
RX
÷ =
• Total Download Time =
Introduction to GPRS
Page 94 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Measurements - Signal Quality
Layer 1
Radio
Resource
(RR Info)
RLC / MAC
Layer
LLC / SNDCP
Layers
GMM / SM
Information
BCCH TCH - ARFCN Multislot Class
Ack/Unack
Mode
Service State
(Idle, Standby,
Ready)
BSIC MAIO
Number of
Timeslots
SAPI
P-TMSI, TLLI
values
RXQUAL HSN MS Output Power Ciphering Info
Routing Area
Identifier
RXLEV MA List Ack/Unack Mode
Header
Compression
SM state
(PDP active,
inactive, etc.)
Timing
Advance
Coding Scheme
Data
Compression
Tx Power TFI number
Neighbors TBF status
• Phone reported measurements include Layer 1, Layer 2 and Layer 3
parameters
• Provide valuable information about the performance of the network
Introduction to GPRS
Page 95 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Measurements - Drive Test Tool
• Commercial GPRS tools can collect most GPRS related information
Agilent E7475 GPRS Drive Test Software
Introduction to GPRS
Page 96 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Measurements - Data Performance
Type of service Conversational Streaming Interactive Background
Delay Tolerance Low High Medium High
Jitter Tolerance Low Low Medium High
Data rate
requirement
Small to large High Low to medium Low
Data symmetry Symmetrical Asymmetrical Asymmetrical Asymmetrical
Reliability
Tolerance
High High Low Low
Typical
Applications
Circuit switched
telephony
Audio-video
broadcasting
E-commerce
and WWW
File transfer
and e-mail
• GPRS measurements provide information below the application layer
and allows the engineer to detect the cause of problems that are
hidden to the user
• Application layer measurements describe the performance that the
user perceives depending on the application being tested
• Real-time applications can be simulated and tested
Introduction to GPRS
Page 97 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Measurements - End-to-End
Process
• End-to-end test process is best approach towards measuring
performance at the application layer
• Client - Server configuration
• On the uplink, the mobile sends packets over the GPRS network. A
test server measures the performance and reports results back to the
mobile
• On the downlink, the test server sends packets over the GPRS
network. The test mobile measures performance and stores the
results


Introduction to GPRS
Page 98 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
GPRS Network Optimization Challenges
• GPRS deployment is still in its beginning
stages
• Many questions regarding the performance
metrics are yet to be answered
• As networks grow and more solutions arise a
more defined methodology will be developed
• As of today, GPRS radios are not capable of
frequency hopping
• Many GSM networks are already suffering
congestion problems with voice traffic. GPRS
will add more to the problem
• Today only Class B mobiles are available
commercially
• Only coding schemes 1 and 2 are being
implemented in trials

Sagem OT 96MGPRS
Motorola GPRS Timeport
Introduction to GPRS
Page 99 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Network Optimization - Quiz!
• What are some GSM performance metrics ?
– _______________, _______________, _______________
• What are some GPRS performance metrics?
– ______________,________________,________________
• Packets in error can be
– ______________
– ______________
– ______________
– ______________
• The GPRS measurement model tests for
– ______________
– ______________
– ______________
Introduction to GPRS
Page 100 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Class Agenda
• Protocol Stack
• Air Interface
• Mobility Management
• Quality of Service
• Optimization and RF Planning
• Traffic Planning
– Estimation of GPRS Data Capacity
• HSCSD, EDGE, and 3G Growth Path
• Conclusions
Introduction to GPRS
Page 101 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Traffic Planning in GPRS
• GPRS over GSM creates a mixture of traffic types - voice & data
• Peak combined traffic does not necessarily coincide with either voice
or data busy hour
Total traffic
Data traffic
Voice traffic
Total peak traffic
Peak voice traffic
Peak data traffic
Time
Traffic volume
Introduction to GPRS
Page 102 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Traffic Planning in GPRS
• Proper dimensioning of GPRS over GSM requires:
– Peak circuit switched traffic in erlangs
– Peak data traffic in Kb/sec
– Circuit switched traffic load during total peak
– Packet switched traffic load during total peak
• Coding scheme usage depends on quality of radio channel
• The lower the coding scheme the higher the protection
• Traffic dimensioning assumes high loading and high interference,
therefore CS-1 is used for estimates
Coding Scheme Code type [15] Data rate [Kb/sec]
CS-1 1/2 convolutional 9.05
CS-2 2/3 convolutional 13.4
CS-3 3/4 convolutional 15.6
CS-4 no coding 21.4
Introduction to GPRS
Page 103 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Traffic Planning in GPRS - Example
• Consider a GSM/GPRS base station designed to support the
aggregate data throughput of 40Kb/sec using coding scheme CS-1.
Assume that 50% of users with the cell site's coverage area operate
under favorable RF conditions that allow them to use coding scheme
CS-2. Estimate the aggregate throughput that can be supported by
the base station.

• The aggregate throughput can be calculated as:
| | Kb/sec _________ =
agg
R
Page 104 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Traffic Planning in GPRS
• A GSM radio can hold eight timeslots
• Some of the timeslots are dedicated for signaling
• One trunk in GSM is defined as one timeslot on the radio transceiver
• Based on number of trunks and required Grade of Service (GOS), the
amount of traffic loading can be calculated using the traditional Erlang
B traffic model
Number of
transceivers
Number of time
slots available for
traffic
Voice capacity at
GOS of 1% [E]
Voice capacity at
GOS of 2% [E]
1 6 1.91 2.28
2 14 7.35 8.20
3 22 13.65 14.90
4 30 20.34 21.93
Page 105 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Traffic Planning in GPRS
• To estimate the maximum aggregate data traffic that can be
supported per GSM/GPRS sector, the following is assumed:
– Coding scheme is CS-1
– Threshold throughput per time slot is 5Kb/sec
– Dominant type of data service is WWW browsing with Pareto
distribution
• Average throughput per timeslot can be calculated as
s q q s
s
av
T T
R
T T
T
R R
+
=
+
=
1
0
0
Introduction to GPRS
• Where
– R
av
= Threshold throughput
– R
0
= Data rate of coding scheme
– T
s
= Service time
– T
q
= Waiting time in queue
Page 106 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Traffic Planning in GPRS
• Using Allen-Cunneen’s formula and the Pareto characteristics of
different data traffic types, we can estimate the erlang data capacity
of a GPRS site
Introduction to GPRS
| |
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) | |
2
1
0
2
0 0
2
0
1
1
1
2
1
2
,
1
÷
÷
÷
÷
·
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ ·
÷
÷
·
÷
+ =
n
m
n
m
n
m D D
D D C
av x x
x x
x
x
n n
n
a C
a C E
R
R
• Where
– = shape parameter for the Pareto distribution
– = minimum message length
– = maximum message length
– = average data traffic load in erlangs
– = average number of time slots available for GPRS service,
– = Erlang C delay formula | |
D D C
a C E ,
D
a
D
C
n
0
x
m
x
Page 107 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Traffic Planning for GPRS
• Typical values of the Pareto distribution shape parameter
Data traffic type n
WWW 1.1-1.5
Ethernet 1.1-1.4
FTP 0.9-1.4
E-mail (SMTP) 1.18-1.48
Rlogin and Telnet 1.1-1.4
Parameter Symbol Value
Threshold throughput
av
R 5 Kb/sec
Pareto distribution shape
parameter
n
1.1
Minimum message size
0
x 1 Kb
Maximum message size
m
x 1.6 Mb
• To illustrate the traffic dimensioning concept, consider the following
set of parameters
Page 108 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Traffic Planning for GPRS
• Using the previous
equation and the
information from the
previous tables, the
following information can
be computed
• The information from the
table below generates the
curves shown to the right
GOS of 2% GOS of 1 %
# TX # TS Voice
traffic
[E]
# Data
trunks
Data
traffic
[E]
agg
R
[Kb/sec]
Voice
traffic
[E]
# Data
trunks
Data
traffic
[E]
agg
R
[Kb/sec]
1 6 2.28 3.72 1.54 13.91 1.91 4.09 1.85 16.74
2 14 8.20 5.80 3.13 28.33 7.35 6.65 3.84 34.75
3 22 14.90 7.10 4.25 38.50 13.65 8.35 5.29 47.87
4 30 21.93 8.07 5.08 45.93 20.34 9.66 6.40 57.92
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
220
240
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Circuit switched traffic [erlang]
A
g
g
r
e
g
a
t
e

G
P
R
S

t
h
r
o
u
g
h
p
u
t

[
K
b
/
s
e
c
]
1 TX (6 TS) 2 TX (14 TS) 3 TX (22 TS) 4 TX (30 TS)
GOS of 2%
GOS of 1%
Page 109 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Traffic Planning in GPRS - Example
• Determine the number of GSM radios at the GSM/GPRS site required
to support at least 7.5 erlangs of voice traffic at 2% GOS and an
aggregate CS-1 packet data throughput of 80Kb/sec. If 50% of the
users are in area of C/I that allows for CS-2 coding, what is the
available aggregate throughput?

0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
220
240
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Circuit switched traffic [erlang]
A
g
g
r
e
g
a
t
e

G
P
R
S

t
h
r
o
u
g
h
p
u
t

[
K
b
/
s
e
c
]
1 TX (7 TS) 2 TX (14 TS) 3 TX (22 TS)
(9.7 E, 80 Kb/sec)
(7.5 E, 95 Kb/sec)
Introduction to GPRS
| | Kb/sec _________ =
agg
R
• The aggregate
throughput can be
calculated as:

Page 110 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Traffic Planning in GPRS - Case Study
• Consider a GSM provider trying to role out the GPRS service within
urban core area. We will assume that the traffic is following a fairly
uniform geographical distribution and that the most dominant traffic
type is WWW browsing. Other relevant data is given below:
Parameter Value
Amount of spectrum 5 MHz
Reuse strategy N = 4/12
Peak circuit switched load 420 E
Site configuration 3-sectored
Introduction to GPRS
• Determine the following:
– Number of sites necessary for handling the circuit switched voice at
2% GOS
– Aggregate GPRS capacity per site (for CS-1 coding scheme)
– If the system is to provide aggregate capacity of 2.5Mb/sec while
serving the peak voice traffic load, how many sites need to be
installed?
Page 111 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Traffic Planning in GPRS - Case Study
• Analysis:
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Circuit switched traffic [erlang]
A
g
g
r
e
g
a
t
e

G
P
R
S

t
h
r
o
u
g
h
p
u
t

[
K
b
/
s
e
c
]
GPRS Throughput Curve for 2TX
95 . 5 =
v
D
A
R
Introduction to GPRS
=
ARFCN
N
=
CELL
N
=
agg
R
> ·
v CELL
a N
> ·
D CELL
R N
s
v
D
a
R
=
CELL
N
=
agg
R
Page 112 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
Class Agenda
• What is GPRS?
• Network Architecture
• Protocol Stack
• Air Interface
• Mobility Management
• Quality of Service
• Optimization and RF Planning
• Traffic Planning
• HSCSD, EDGE, and 3G Growth Path
• Conclusions
Introduction to GPRS
Page 113 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
HSCSD, EDGE and 3G Growth Path
EDGE
SMS, Data (9.6Kbit/s)
UMTS
2 Mbit/s
GPRS
171.2 kbit/s
HSCSD
60 kbit/s
Bandwidth
Technology
384 kbit/s
9.6 kbit/s
1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
Introduction to GPRS
Page 114 Agilent Restricted GPRS Slides (Rev A).ppt
HSCSD, EDGE and 3G Growth Path
GSM 2+
9.6 Kb/sec
HSCSD
64 Kb/sec
GPRS
114 Kb/sec
EDGE
384 Kb/sec
UMTS
2Mb/sec
1999
3Q
2000
1Q
2001
1Q
2002
2Q
2003
Timeline
Data
Rates
HSCSD - High Speed Circuit Switched Data
GPRS - General Packet Radio System
EDGE - Enhanced Data GSM Environment
UMTS - Universal Mobile Telephone Service
GPRS
160 kbps
EDGE
384 kbps
UMTS
2 Mbps
HSCSD
64 kbps
GSM 2+
9.6 kbps
• High Speed Circuit Switch
Data
– Existing GSM
structure
– Combines multiple
TS
– Software upgrade at
BTS
• Enhanced Data for GSM
Evolution
– Uses 8PSK
modulation
– Provides higher data
rates than GPRS
– Major changes to
GSM
• UMTS - FDD
– 3G solution for GSM
– Up to 2Mbps data
rates

Introduction to GPRS

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