WORK PSYCHOLOGY

PSYCHOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN WORK CONTEXT

ORIGINS
 2 DISTINCT ROOTS  FMJ-Fitting the Man to the Job and FJM-Fitting the Job to the Man Both concern with the relationship between man and work  The other root of work psychology may be loosely termed as ‗human relations‘. It is concerned with the complex interplay between individuals, group , organizations and work. Emphasizes on social factors that affect FJM & FMJ.

Nomenclature
 Work Psychology  Industrial Psychology  Organizational Psychology

 Vocational Psychology
 Managerial Psychology  Personnel Psychology

All integrated with OB & HRM

Individual psychology

 Alderfer held that individual thoughts and

behavior are individual‘s striving for superiority and power ,partly in compensation for his/her feelings inferiority- a product of one‘s creativity

Industrial and organizational psychology
is the scientific study of :  employees,  workplaces, and  organizations. Industrial–organizational psychologists contribute to an organization's success by improving the performance and well-being of its people. An I–O psychologist researches and identifies how behaviors and attitudes can be improved through • hiring practices, • training programs, and • feedback systems.

Industrial vs Organizational Psychology
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 Industrial Psychology (personnel psychology):  Personnel selection--individual differences of employees  Prediction of job performance.  Covers job analysis

 

and selection, training, performance appraisal.

distinguish what a successful worker from unsuccessful

Traditionally, correlational approach used for research (motivation, interview test)

Job performance = company ―bottom line‖

 Organizational Psychology (social life aspects applied to work):  Leadership  Not only job performance, but satisfaction, motivation, etc.  Traditionally experimental research method

Areas in which Work Psychology operates
 Selection & assessment  Training  Performance appraisal  Organizational change  Ergonomics  Vocational Choice &  Interpersonal skills  Equal Opportunities  Occupational safety &

Counselling

health  Work Design  Attitude Surveys  Well being and work

Common research and practice areas of Industrial Psychology

 Job Performance

 Job Analysis

 Personnel recruitment and selection  Judgment and decision making  Performance appraisal/management  Individual assessment ( Knowledge,

      

 


skills ability testing , personality assessment, work sample tests, assessment centers) Psychometrics Training & Training evaluation Organisational culture/climate survey Leadership styles and executive coaching

Work Motivation Job attitudes- Job satisfaction, commitment Org Citizenship & retaliation Work Life balance Human factors in decision making Job Design OD Group dynamics Ethics Diversity

Work Psychology is problem centred
 Thus there is no single dominant theoretical

perspective  Needs to be studied in the context of organization and social psychology

Theory and practice in work psychology
 A theory in psychology can be defined as an

organized collection of ideas which serves to predict what a person will do, think or feel. To be successful, it needs to specify the five elements.

5 ELEMENTS
1. The particular behaviors, thoughts or emotions in question. 2. Any differences between people in how much they

characteristically exhibit the behaviors, thoughts or emotions. 3. Any situational factors which might influence whether the behaviors, thoughts or emotions in question occur. 4. Any consequences of the interaction between 2 and 3 for the behaviors, thoughts or emotions. 5. Any ways in which the occurrence of particular behaviors, thoughts or emotions might feed back to produce change in 2 and 3.

HR Vs PSYCHOLOGY
HR
PSYCHOLOGY

 Is a process of bringing

 Is the study of human

people and organizations together so that the goals of each are met.

behavior. The study is not only how they behave, but why they behave as they do.

ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGY IN HR

ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGY IN SELECTION

 They study and suggests qualifications that a

particular type of person must possess.  It analyses various elements involved in a particular type of work.  It also comes up with an ideal person profile that the organization is looking for.

ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGY IN TRAINING:
They design and deliver training courses.
 Scientific human learning theories.  Training principles.

CAREER DEVELOPMENT

 Determines best career for a person by analyzing

his characters.  It suggests best ways to attain them in future.  It also suggests ways to shine in the present career by observing the qualities of the job.

ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGY IN PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL/PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT

 Determines the errors that may happen.  suggesting ways to overcome these errors:

1. providing evaluators with proper training. 2. arranging the evaluative format to minimize errors.  Suggests best rating procedures.

ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGY IN DIAGNOSIS:

 Understanding the needs of the employees.  Understanding the problem from their point of

view.  Helps in creating a feeling of ownership among employees.  Helps in creating a high morale among employees.

PSYCHOLOGY IN INTERVIEW:

 Designing standard interview methods.  Helps the HR‘s to determine the characters from

their behavior during interview.  To frame suitable questions for various stages of interview.

JOB ANALYSIS

WORK psychology has given seven methods: 1. Questionnaire. 2. Activity method. 3. Individual psychographic. 4. Time and motion study. 5. Skill analysis. 6. Job psychograph.

ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGY in MOTIVATION

 Helps HR to motivate individually by analyzing

everyone's characters.
 Helps in designing motivation programmes.

 Helps in training the executives to give proper

motivation to their employees.

ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGY IN REDUCING THE STRESS

The techniques developed by psychologist are: 1. Cultivate problem solving. 2. Avoid stressful situation. 3. Confront it. 4. Increase physical activity. 5. Find relaxing alternatives.

Work Psychology: Centrality of work to human existence
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 What do you do?  What are you?  Say something about yourself  How does one know when one is a ―success?‖ What is our cultural

measuring-stick?

Success = money Success = happy Happy = what you want What you want requires Rs

or accomplishing goal. Goal usually is professional.

Work is a source of…
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  

 

Identity Relationships outside the family. Obligatory activity  Provides structure to our days.  deadlines Autonomy--Independence  Provides money, products, & associated values. Opportunity to develop skills. Self-esteem  What would you do if you didn‘t have college or a job  You can afford to be lazy for a break, what about when no end in sight. Money

Implicit Themes of Work
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 Mentioned when work is discussed  Good Provider: Heavily influenced by social constructions of gender and gender identity.  Independence: ―Stand on one‘s own two feet.‖

Being separate from your parents

Success: ―Hard work pays off.‖  Self Respect: Hard work of any type has dignity; a person‘s worth is reflected in work.

Work Needs & Drives
 Development orientation  Learning orientation  Perception

 Cognition
 Motivation  Attitude formation & then  Action

Work Relationships
 Principle of Attraction and Application  Aggression leading to Conflicts  Inter Group dynamics

 Intra Group dynamics

Assumptions in Work Psychology
 Org needs to fulfill certain reasonable needs  Desirable to enhance effectiveness of human involvement  Desirable to enhance certain human values for work life balance  Disparities between these objectives and its fulfillment is the cause of

several human problems  Knowledge and insight of human behavior gained through psychological research and experience can minimise losses in human utilization and enhance employee involvement  Modus operandi of work psychology is to diagnose and identify both problems and opportunities to improve productiveness and satisfaction

Use of Individual Psychology at work
 The "industrial" side of I–O psychology has its

historical origins in research on individual differences, assessment, and the prediction of performance.

Principle of Attraction and Application
 FAMILIARITY  RECIPROCITY of ATTRACTION  SIMILARITY

PERSONALITY IN WORK CONTEXT  MEANING & DIMENSIONS  PSYCHOTHERAPY  WORK ADJUSTMENT  PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT TOOLS & TECHNIQUES;RATIONALE

PERSONALITY

 SET OF DISTINCTIVE TRAITS AND

DIMENSIONS THAT CAN BE USED TO CHARACTERISE PEOPLE

PERSONALITY Perspectives
 Dispositional-Trait Perspective  Biological Perspective  Psychoanalytic Perspective

 Learning Perspective
 Phenomenological Perspective  Cognitive Perspective

Difference between Disposition, Trait & Types
 A dispositional approach to personality emphasizes  ―qualities that people carry around with them, that are somehow part of them‖ (Carver & Scheier, 2000, p.54)  ―a person‘s inherent qualities of mind and character‖

 Personality traits are:  consistently found (across people and over time) dimensions of thinking, behavior and feeling  allow people individuals to be placed in a continuum with respect to different traits (e.g, introversion-extraversion, neuroticismemotional stability)
 Personality types refers to:  categoric descriptions of characteristic patterns of thinking, behavior and feeling e.g., (Type A personality vs. Type B personality)

Dispositional Perspective
 is the traditional, classic approach to the psychological

study of personality.  creates systems for classification and describing psychological characteristics for which people differ consistently between situations and over time.  The ―trait‖ approach most clearly emphasizes the dispositional perspective but another way to approach the concept of dispositions is to consider people as ―types‖ or alternatively to view people‘s dispositions in terms of their enduring motivational characteristics that vary in strength from person to person (i.e. their needs and motives).

Biological Basis of Human Behavior
The three main elements biology contributes to human behavior are: 1) self-preservation; basic physiological needs 2) the reason for self-preservation, reproduction; and – survival through evolution 3) a method to enhance self-preservation and reproduction, greed– survival through strategy

Biological Perspective
 There are three general thrusts to the biological

perspective:
  

Many personality characteristics are genetically determined Behavioural tendencies derive from our evolutionary history Human behaviour produced is by a complex biological system (e.g. hormones, neurotransmitters)

Psychoanalytic Perspective: Freud
 suggests that much of the explanation for human

behavior,
lies largely hidden in the unconscious, and  is the result of how a person negotiates conflicting, deeprooted desires and instincts. There is overlap with learning theory in that psychoanalytic theory see the early years of development as making a critical contribution to the adult psyche, depending on various psycho-sexual stages are resolved.

Learning Perspective
 The learning perspective  lies at the ‗nurture‘ end of the nature-nurture debate.  In terms of the person-situation debate, the learning perspective lies at the 'situation' end of the spectrum. Personality, from this point of view is an accumulated set of learned tendencies over a lifetime (Carver & Sheier, 2000). The learning perspective draws on the traditions of behaviourism as well as social psychology. Concepts you may have heard of relating to the social learning perspective include ‗modeling‘, ‗reinforcement‘, ‗social norms‘, etc. This perspective also implies that personality is ―susceptible to molding, grinding, and polishing by the events that from the person‘s unique and individual history‖

Phenomenological Perspective
The phenomenological perspective, sees humankind as being intrinsically good and selfperfecting. People are seen as being drawn towards growth, health, self-sufficiency, and maturity. This is a very OPTIMISTIC perspective which focuses on people‘s POTENTIAL. People are seen as growing and evolving naturally towards greater beauty and more completeness.  The major themes and underlying assumptions of this perspective are:  There is a ‗self‘ which has beautiful and unique form.  It is changing and growing. Everyone‘s self is unique.  Once we provide a nurturing outer and inner environment, growth towards our higher selves occurs naturally.  We have enormous potential, possibility, and choice.  Uniqueness of Individuals: we view the world from our own unique perspective and our subjective experience of reality is very important. Phenomenology means ―the subjective experience of individuals‖.  We can and must exercise our free will. Some people think that they don‘t have the capacity or ability to make life HAPPEN for themselves. Or they believe that past problems are insurmountable. Or they spend so much time regretting the past that they are blinded to the possibilities of the here and now and the future. This perspective takes the view that this is due to people losing sight of the free will they possess and not recognizing their own potential for change and growth.

Cognitive Perspective
 people are who they are because of the way they think, including how

information is attended to, perceived, analyzed, interpreted, encoded and retrieved. People tend to have habitual thinking patterns which are characterized as personality.  The cognitive perspective is that personality is a person's mental organization. In order to cope with all the information you receive from the world, including sensory information, you need to cope with, integrate and organise all the information the world throws at you. From this point of view, you are:  what you THINK  the way you PROCESS INFORMATION (including attending to, perceiving, interpreting, encoding and retrieving of information);  the way you SELF-REGULATE via cognitive monitoring and adjusting thoughts and behaviors. We are HOMEOSTATIC psychobiological creatures who try to self-regulate in order to progress towards GOALS.  The cognitive perspective is also often known as the informationprocessing model

Psychopathology
 study of mental illness, mental distress, and

abnormal/maladaptive behavior. The term is most commonly used in psychiatry where pathology refers to disease processes. Psychopathology should not be confused with psychopathy- a theoretical subtype of antisocial personality disorder.

Psychopathology
 Disorders characterized by abnormal emotions,

cognitions, behavior  Most often treated by psychiatrists, but also clinical psychologists and general practitioners (e.g., family doctors)  Incidence and prevalence in the population dependent on its socio-cultural orientation

Psychopathology: What‘s emotion & memory got to do with it?

 In most forms of psychopathology, abnormal

emotion, memory, or both are listed as symptoms  Stress or negative emotions are often a trigger for the onset of various forms of psychopathology

Disorders
 Depression  Anxiety  Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)  Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)  Panic Disorder (PD)  Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

How are the disorders classified?

 The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of

Mental Disorders IV (DSM IV) is the standard classification system of mental disorders  Diagnostic classification: depression or anxiety  Diagnostic criteria: symptom, duration descriptions  Descriptive test: diagnostic features, subtypes, culture, age, and gender features, etc.

DSM Classification
 Multiaxial Classification  Axis I: depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, etc.  Axis II: Personality disorders/mental retardation  Axis III: General medical conditions  Axis IV: Psychosocial & environmental problems  Axis V: Level of adaptive functioning

Difference between Depression & Anxiety
 If you find yourself experiencing excessive sadness and lack of

motivation for long periods of time, then you may be going through a depression. Depressed people are often lethargic due to fatigue and low mental energy.  Those suffering from a anxiety disorder tend to be more high strung, becoming excessively startled at the quietest of interruptions.  Major difference between depression and anxiety - one is marked by lethargy while the other is marked by excitability.  Anyone who is plagued with depression for a period of six weeks or longer will need to be treated with medication because they're experiencing a mood disorder. Another major difference between depression and anxiety - one is a mood disorder and the other is a psychiatric disorder ( if beyond GAD).

DSM-Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders
 Axis I: Most psychological disorders  Axis II: Personality disorders and mental

retardation  Axis III: General medical condition  Axis IV: Psychosocial and environmental stressors  Axis V: Global assessment of functioning

PSYCHOPATHOLOGY & SOCIAL

COMPETENCE
 Earlier studies suggest that social competence has a

higher predictive value for vocational outcome than psychopathology.  These studies, however, show methodological shortcomings, including the fact that the instruments used for assessing social competence, psychopathology and work performance are strongly interrelated.

Freudian theory: structure of human personality: Psychoanalytical Theory
 Id –unconscious instincts  Ego- conscious, rational self or intellect  Super ego – social rules or values that govern

behavior

Id, ego, and super-ego
 Id, ego, and super-ego are the three parts of

Freud‘s structural model of the psyche; they are the three theoretical constructs in terms of whose activity and interaction mental life is described. According to this model of the psyche, the id is the set of uncoordinated instinctual trends; the ego is the organised, realistic part; and the super-ego plays the critical and moralising role.[

Id
 The id is the only component of personality that is

present from birth and is:
is entirely unconscious  includes instinctive and primitive behaviors.  source of all psychic energy  driven by the pleasure principle for immediate gratification of all desires, wants, and needs. If these needs are not satisfied immediately, the result is a state anxiety or tension.

Ego
 The ego is the component of personality that is

responsible for dealing with reality.  According to Freud, the ego develops from the id and ensures that the impulses of the id can be expressed in a manner acceptable in the real world.

Ego
 The ego functions in both the conscious,

preconscious and unconscious mind.  The ego operates based on the reality principle which strives to satisfy the id's desires in realistic and socially appropriate ways.  The reality principle weighs the costs and benefits of an action before deciding to act upon or abandon impulses. The id's impulses may be satisfied through a process of delayed gratification-the ego will eventually allow the behavior, but only in the appropriate time and place.

Superego
 our internalized moral standards and ideals that

we acquire from both parents and society--our sense of right and wrong.  provides guidelines for making judgments..  There are two parts of the superego:

Ego Ideal includes the rules and standards for good behaviors. as approved of by parental and other authority figures. Obeying these rules leads to feelings of pride, value and accomplishment. Conscious includes information about things that are viewed as bad by parents and society leading to bad consequences, punishments or feelings of guilt and remorse.

Superego
 The superego acts to perfect and civilize our

behavior. It works to suppress all unacceptable urges of the id and struggles to make the ego act upon idealistic standards rather that upon realistic principles. The superego is present in the conscious, preconscious and unconscious

The Interaction of the Id, Ego and Superego

 With so many competing forces, it is easy to see how

conflict might arise between the id, ego and superego. Freud used the term EGO STRENGTH to refer to the ego's ability to function despite these dueling forces. A person with good ego strength is able to effectively manage these pressures, while those with too much or too little ego strength can become too unyielding or too disrupting.  According to Freud, the key to a healthy personality is a balance between the id, the ego, and the superego.

Human Personality: Urge Principle
2 basic urges:  EROS-urge to live, the life instinct  THANATOS- urge to die, death instinct

The Interaction of the Id, Ego and Superego

 When Id desires gratification of its urge, its energy is

drawn and expended by the ego.  Ego & Superego have no independent source of energy. In all action, there is  from one to another. The sum total energy is constant. This explains the principle of equilibrium in the psychic system comprising of id, ego and superego.

Healthy personality
 Ego that does an effective job of coping with the

urges of the id and restrictions of super ego
 

COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY

Theories in psychology
 Behavioral  Cognitive  Developmental

Theories of Personality DEVELOPMENT
 Behaviorist  Social Cognition  Personal Construct

 Humanistic

Behaviorist theories
 explain personality in terms of the effects external

stimuli have on behavior. It was a radical shift away from Freudian philosophy which explains that people's behavior is formed by processes such as operant conditioning (Skinner)

Behavioral Theories

 a theory of learning based upon the idea that all

behaviors are acquired through conditioning. –
   

Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Schedules of Reinforcement Stages of Change

Social Psychology Theories
 Social psychology is focused on helping us understand

   

and explain social behavior. Social theories are generally centered on specific social phenomena, including group behavior, prosocial behavior, social influence, love and much more. The Bystander Effect Conformity Obedience Leadership Theories Theories of Love

Social cognitive theories explains behavior as guided by cognitions (e.g.

expectations) about the world, especially those about other people. Cognitive theories are theories of personality that emphasize cognitive processes such as thinking and judging and can be determined by self efficacy, locus of control and attribution style theory

Personal Construct Psychology (PCP)
 Kelly derived a psychotherapy approach to uncover

individuals‘ own "constructs" (defined later) with minimal intervention or interpretation by the therapist

Humanistic theories
 emphasized people have free will and they play an

active role in determining how they behave. Accordingly, humanistic psychology focuses on subjective experiences of persons as opposed to forced, definitive factors that determine behavior.

Humanist Theories
 Humanistic psychology emphasized the basic     

goodness of human beings. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs A Closer Look at the Needs Hierarchy Self-Efficacy What Is Self-Actualization? Characteristics of Self-Actualized People

Cognitive Theories
 Focused on internal states, such as motivation,

problem solving, decision-making, thinking, and attention.
    


IQ Multiple Intelligences Perceptual organisation Attention Memory Left/Right Brain Dominance Cognitive Dissonance Theory

Developmental Theories
 Theories of development provide a framework for

thinking about human growth, development, and learning.
Freud's Theory of Psychosexual Development  Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development  Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development  Social Learning Theory  Attachment Theory  Parenting Styles

Defences
 All urges of id not manageable. Ego reaction may

lead to INHIBITION which may result in:
REPRESSION  DENIAL  RATIONALISATION  INTELLECTUALIZATION  PROJECTION  REGRESSION

Ego Defense Mechanisms

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

Repression Denial Reaction formation Projection Sublimation Displacement

Theory of Work Adjustment
 The Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA) describes

the relationship of the individual to his or her work environment.  TWA was developed as the guiding framework for a program of research in vocational psychology, and this is the area of its greatest application today.  TWA has led to the development of the instruments and materials as well as a series of research monographs

Main points of TWA
 Work is conceptualized as an interaction between an

individual and a work environment.  The work environment requires that certain tasks be performed, and the individual brings skills to perform the tasks.  In exchange, the individual requires compensation for work performance and certain preferred conditions, such as a safe and comfortable place to work.  The environment and the individual must continue to meet each other's requirements for the interaction to be maintained. The degree to which the requirements of both are met may be called correspondence.

Main points of TWA
 Work adjustment is the process of achieving and

maintaining correspondence. Work adjustment is indicated by the satisfaction of the individual with the work environment, and by the satisfaction of the work environment with the individual--by the individual's satisfactoriness.  Satisfaction and satisfactoriness result in tenure, the principal indicator of work adjustment. Tenure can be predicted from the correspondence of an individual's work personality with the work environment.  Work personalities and work environments can be described in terms of structure and style variables that are measured on the same dimensions.

PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT TOOLS & TECHNIQUES;RATIONALE

Personality Tests
 RATIONALE: successful employees possess a

particular personality structure and the scales reflective of that structure become the basis for selecting new employees.

PERSONALITY : terminology
 Personality psychology: is the theory and study of personality types,        

personality traits and individual differences Personality development ; the study of personality development over time Personality Alteration ; a theory often associated with cults or brainwashing Personality Disorders: a class of mental disorders that is characterized by long-lasting rigid patterns of thought and actions Personality Pathology: is characterized by adaptive inflexibility, vicious cycles of maladaptive behavior, and emotional instability under stress Personality Quiz: a series of questions (usually multiple-choice) intended to reveal something about the person who answers them Personality Tests : aim to describe aspects of an individual's character, thoughts, and feelings Personality Type: refers to patterns of relatively enduring characteristics of behavior and the psychological classification of different types of individuals Personality Traits: refer to attributes by which people may vary in relative terms, rather than their being divided into absolute types

Personality Tests: 2 major types
 Projective tests assume personality is primarily unconscious and assess an

individual by how he or she responds to an ambiguous stimulus, like an ink blot. The idea is unconscious needs will come out in the person's response, e.g. an aggressive person may see images of destruction.  Objective tests assume personality is consciously accessible and measure it by self-report questionnaires. Research on psychological assessment has generally found objective tests are more valid and reliable than projective tests. Examples of personality tests include:
       

Holland Codes Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Morrisby Profile Myers-Briggs Type Indicator NEO PI-R ProScan Survey Rorschach test Thematic Apperception Test

Personality Theories

 Personality psychology looks at the patterns of

thoughts, feelings, and behavior that make a person unique.
       

Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality Freud's Psychosexual Theory Trait Theory of Personality The "Big Five" Theory of Personality Murray's Psychogenic Needs Theory Neurotic Needs Defense Mechanisms Jung's Archetypes

ORGANISATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY  INDIVIDUAL AS THE FOCUS OF ORGANISATIONAL WORKING  GROUP BEHAVIOR  ORGANISATIONAL PROCESSES & DYNAMICS

What is meant by Org Psychology
 Study of relationship between organisations as well

as  Relationship of organisations to larger social structures such as society  Explains how 2 social concepts –org and work teams influence and shape the behavior of their members .

3 THEORIES OF ORGANISATIONS
 CLASSICAL THEORY begins with a statement of the basic

ingredients of any org and then addresses how the org should best be structured to accomplish its objectives. Based on 4 components:
system of differentiated activities  People  Cooperation towards goal  Authority and Using 4 major structural principles:  Functional  Scalar  Line/Staff and Span of Control principleb

3 THEORIES OF ORGANISATIONS
 NEOCLASSICAL recognizes the behavioral

/psychological issues that question the rigidness of classical theory

3 THEORIES OF ORGANISATIONS
 SYSTEMS THEORY asserts that an org system is

composed of 5 parts
    

Individuals Formal Organization Small groups Status & Role Physical setting

STRATEGIC APEX

TECHNOSTRUCTURE

MIDDLE LINE

SUPPORT STAFF

OPERATING CORE

ORG STRUCTURE
 5 coordinating mechanisms  Mutual adjustment  Direct Supervision  Standardisation of work processes  Standardisation of work output  Standardisation of skills and knowledge  5 basic parts of org  Strategic Apex  Middle line  Techno structure  Support staff

PSYCHOLOGICAL outcomes of
 Restructuring  Downsizing  Reengineering

 Redeployment

Components of Social System
 Roles- expectations of others about appropriate behavior in

a specific position: ROLE PERCEPTION-Role Identity, Role Overload, Role Overlap, Role Expectancy, Role Ambiguity  Norms-shared group expectations about appropriate behavior wherein ―oughtness‖ and ―shouldness‖ are prescriptions of behavior . 3 step process –(i) define & communicate (ii) group monitor & judge whether norm followed & (iii) reward conformity and punish non conformity  CULTURE

CONCEPT OF NORMS
 NORMS AT INDIVIDUAL LEVEL-Rules of behavior  NORMS AT GROUP LEVEL Organized, shared ideas, regulations, sanctions  INVISIBLITY OF GROUP NORMS could be functional or dysfunctional

TYPES OF NORMS
 Affective relationships  Control, decision making  Status acceptance relationships

 Achievement success relationships

Kind of norms
 Written rules-code of conduct  Explicitly stated norms  Non explicit, informal norms

 Norms beyond awareness

NORM DEVELOPMENT
GROUP MEMBER’S SCRIPTS
Similar

similar
MEMBER’S

I Interactions confirm each member’s interpretation & are not problematic

Different Initial interactions smooth but latent disagreement requires development of group based understanding

DEFINITION
OF NEW

Initial interactions trigger devpt of SITUATION group understanding but have to work together to appreciate & understand current situation different

Initial interactions frustrating Elaborate discussions necessary

DEFINITION OF ORGANIZATION CULTURE
 ―The way we do things here‖  Dominant & coherent set of shared values, beliefs,

systems ,symbols …shared by employees  A groups developed method to cope with problems of external adaptation & internal integrationcollective understanding

INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF ORG CULTURE
 When an organization takes on institutional

permanence, acceptable modes of behavior become largely self-evident to its members.

 

Takes on a life of its own Quite apart or irrespective of any member Acquires permanence

Institutionalization: A Forerunner of Culture

What Is Organizational Culture? (cont‘d)

UNIFORM CULTURE???
 DOMINANT CULTURE- shared by majority

of employees  SUB CULTURE- within departments, levels or geographical locations  CORE VALUES-primary or dominant values accepted throughout organization

What Is Organizational Culture? (cont‘d)

What Is Organizational Culture? (cont‘d)
 Culture Versus Formalization  A strong culture increases behavioral consistency and can act as a substitute for formalization.

 Organizational Culture Versus National Culture  National culture has a greater impact on employees than does their organization‘s culture.  Nationals selected to work for foreign companies may be atypical of the local/native population.

DEGREE OF VARIATION
 STRONG- WEAK
 FORMALISATION –NTERNALISATION  ORG –NATIONAL CULTURE

What Do Cultures Do?

Culture’s Functions:
1. Defines the boundary between one organization and others.

2. Conveys a sense of identity for its members.
3. Facilitates the generation of commitment to something larger than self-interest.

4. Enhances the stability of the social system.

BENEFITS /IMPACT ON BEHAVIOR

 REDUCED EMPLOYEE TURNOVER  SENSE OF IDENTITY  FACILITATES GENERATING ORG COMMITMENT >

INDIVIDUAL SELF INTEREST  ENHANCES SOCIAL SYSTEM STABILITYSENSTIZATION & CONTROL MECHANISM TO SHAPE ATTITUDES & BEHAVIOR OF EMPLOYEES

What Do Cultures Do?

Culture as a Liability:
1. Barrier to change 2. Barrier to diversity 3. Barrier to acquisitions and mergers

Keeping Culture Alive
 Selection  Concerned with how well the candidates will fit into the organization.  Provides information to candidates about the organization.  Top Management  Senior executives help establish behavioral norms that are adopted by the organization.  Socialization  The process that helps new employees adapt to the organization‘s culture.

Stages in the Socialization Process

Entry Socialization Options

• Formal versus Informal • Individual versus Collective

• Fixed versus Variable
• Serial versus Random • Investiture versus Divestiture

EXHIBIT

18-3

How Organization Cultures Form

ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY

ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY
 ―Environmental

psychology is concerned both with psychological effects of the physical environment and with effects of human action on the sociophysical environment.‖  Example of studying impact of physical environment on psychological processes – Noise in the urban environment

Environmental psychology
 is an interdisciplinary field focused on the interplay

between humans and their surroundings.  defines the term environment broadly encompassing :
(i)natural environments, (ii) social settings, (ii) built environments, (iv) learning environments, and (v)informational environments.
 problems involving human-environment interactions, whether global

or local, based on a model of human nature that predicts the environmental conditions under which humans will behave in a decent and creative manner. With such a model one can design, manage, protect and/or restore environments that enhance reasonable behavior, predict what the likely outcome will be when these conditions are not met, and diagnose problem situations.

Environmental Psychology

 Environmental Psychology does not emphasize the interactional

processes among people, which form the subject matter of other branches of Psychology.  follows the systems approach which has become the modern approach in several branches of science. It is holistic and naturalistic and studies the adaptation of organisms to their settings. Organisms are studied as part of the ecosystem, stressing the balance and interdependence of organisms and the `environment. This field of science took shape during the 1960s  The importance of the field has increased in recent years owing to the increased concern with the environment resulting from the pollution problems, problems posed by population explosion, depletion of natural resources and the felt need to conserve wilderness.

Concepts of Environmental Psychology
 Behavioral Geography studies the cognitive maps

of the individual regarding his environment. It traces environmental values, meanings and preferences.  Behavioral maps are prepared relating activities to surroundings. Lines to represent direction of movement, colors to represent time spent and so on are techniques used in the preparation of such maps. Behavior maps can be prepared for exploratory behavior, neighborhood feelings, etc.  Environmental aesthetics studies preferences in terms of aesthetic judgements.

Influence of Environment on Behavior: Country culture
 The characteristic personality make-up of persons in

a country is shaped by the nature and type of environment to which they are subjected for long periods of time.  Racial differences in personality can to a large extent be traced to the influence of different environments to which people of different races have been subjected for generations

Influence of Environment on Behavior: Climate influences temperament.

The cold climate presumably makes people `Rajasik'. The possibility of freezing induces insecurity and in a cold place one has to keep working to warm up the body. People in a cold region have to plan ahead. hoard food and firewood and make warm clothes and footwear for winter. The hostile and scarce environment makes people aggressive and aggressiveness necessitates artificial moral control. People in such environments develop linear intelligence and they become practical, their approach to the environment being characterized by one of aggression, competition, exploitation and manipulation. It is said that science and technology are the result of this kind of approach to the environment. In contrast, people in a very warm climate are likely to be `Thamasik'. This kind of temperament is characterized by laziness and inertia. In a very hot place, it is unpleasant to keep working, because of perspiration and fatigue. In the tropics, the seasons do not change much and resource extraction is easy throughout the year. This kind of climate makes for an attitude of surrender and the approach to the environment is marked by fear and superstition. The moderate climate is most conducive for the `Sathwik' temperament. This is characterized by an awareness of oneself and the relationship of the environment to one's adjustment. Consequently the Sathwik approach involves living in harmony with the environment. The insight into the role of the environment in our well being leads to a felt need to conserve the natural environment. The Sathwik temperament is holistic, intuitive and well balanced.

ERGONOMICS
 The term ―ergonomics‖ is derived from two Greek

words: ―ergon‖, meaning work and ―nomoi‖, meaning natural laws. Ergonomists study human capabilities in relationship to work demands.

ERGONOMICS
 HUMAN FACTORS PSYCHOLOGY and is the study

of the interface between individuals and their work environment  ENVIRONMENT may be a work tool or piece of equipment or spatial surroundings in which work is conducted

Relevance of Ergonomics
 Computer- Human interactions at workplace  Safety & Accidents

Approaches to reducing accidents
 Personnel Selection approach  Ergonomic Approach  Personnel training Approach

Ergonomic Approaches to work design
 ANTHROPROMETRIC APPROACH  BIOMECHANICAL APPROACH  PHYSIOLOGICAL APPROACH

ANTHROPROMETRIC APPROACH
 ANTHROPOMETRY is the study of people‘s

physical dimensions characterised by measurements categorised by demographic variables like gender, age and ethnicity because of their relationship to variables being measured.  The compilation of anthropometric measurements becomes the basis for equipment design, used in either work or leisure

BIOMECHANICAL APPROACH
 BIOMECHANICS defined as the application of

mechanical principles ( such as levers and force) to the analysis of body-part structure and movement.  Concerned with the effect of movement and force on human muscles, tendons and nerves.  Focus is how the conduct of work effects these body parts and, in turn, the best way to design work to minimise stress, pain or fatigue.

PHYSIOLOGICAL APPROACH
 Focuses on the underlying systemic aspects of the

body, such as circulation, respiration, and metabolism.  From this perspective, work is designed with regard to such parameters as oxygen flow, blood flow, heart rate and blood pressure

Office Ergonomics

Office Work & Human/Computer Interactions

 Work station design

 Posture
 Keyboards  Software/human interactions

 Human Behavior

POSTURE
 In recent years, ergonomists have attempted to

define postures which minimize unnecessary static work and reduce the forces acting on the body based on the following ergonomic principles:
All work activities should permit the worker to adopt several different, but equally healthy and safe postures  Where muscular force has to be exerted it should be done by the largest appropriate muscle groups available.  Work activities should be performed with the joints at about mid-point of their range of movement. This applies particularly to the head, trunk, and upper limbs.

Good Working Postures
•Hands, wrists, and forearms are straight, in-line and roughly parallel to the floor. •Head is level, or bent slightly forward, forward facing, and balanced. Generally it is in-line with the torso. •Shoulders are relaxed and upper arms hang normally at the side of the body. •Elbows stay in close to the body and are bent between 90 and 120 degrees. •Feet are fully supported by floor or footrest.

•Back is fully supported with appropriate lumbar support when sitting vertical or leaning back slightly.
•Thighs and hips are supported by a well-padded seat and generally parallel to the floor.

•Knees are about the same height as the hips with the feet slightly forward.

Hazard Prevention

Neutral positioning Workstation design Work/rest periods Task rotation Exercise

What is neutral positioning?
 Non-stressed postures
 Relaxed, right angles at  Knees, hips and elbows  Wrists straight rather than flexed (down) or extended (up)  Lower and upper back supported

Work Process
Task Organization

 

Impacts repetition Prolonged periods of activity Medical awareness & training

Work Environment
 Lighting  Glare  Ventilation  Noise

Workstation Design
        

Chairs Monitors Keyboards Pointer/Mouse Wrist/Palm Support Document Holders Desks Telephones Footrests

Elements of good work station design
 Adjustable chairs  Keyboard height and angle

Avoid sharp edges
Glare, poor contrast, etc. are risk factors

 Monitor height and angle

Chairs
 Ideas about correct posture go back to 1884  Upright vs. backward leaning, pressure on

disks, lower back  Chair provides support for upper and lower back

Chairs
Need to be adjustable in many different directions
Height  Tilt of seat pan  Angle of back  Provide lumbar support  Adjustable arms  Capacity, seat width

Ergonomic Chairs
Small Seat Minimal
Chair Specifications Seat Height Backrest Contour Seat Size

Seat Height: 16.5" - 21.5" Backrest: 19.5"W x 22.5"H 10 Standard Adjustments Seat Size: 19"W x 17"D
•Pneumatic Seat Height •Seat Angle or Tilt •Seat Angle Tension Control •Backrest Angle •Backrest Height •Backrest Depth •Inflatable Lumbar •Armrest Height •Armrest Rotation/Swivel •Armrest Width

Monitors

 Viewing Distance:
 Viewing Angle:

20‖-40‖ 15-20 degrees below horizontal

 Viewing Time
 Viewing Clarity

Keyboards
The objective is to keep the hands and wrists in as ―neutral‖ a position as possible Adjustments, may include tilting or not tilting the keyboard, wrist rests in front of the keyboard, and repositioning the entire body Alternative shapes of keyboards may help:
    

Split Tented/Angled Negative Slope Supportive Scooped

Keep in mind Keyboard Placement – Height & Distance Design & Use

Wrist/Palm Supports
 Not all studies of wrist rests show positive effects
Use of wrist rest causes the fluid pressure in the carpal tunnel to rise, sometimes significantly  Use of convex wrist rests, which concentrate pressure in a small area, are less desirable than broad, flat ones  Benign cysts apparently have been caused by constant pressure on the wrist

 Typists should use them during keying pauses,

not during keying, in order to have free hand and arm movement and to reduce the amount of time the wrist is compressed

Desks
 Work Surface Depth  Location of Frequently Used Devices Should be

Located in Repetitive Access Zone

Recommended Zones for Workplace Components

Telephones
 Head sets can help avoid neck and shoulder strain

for telephone use.

Work/rest periods

An element of a good prevention strategy
Provide regular breaks by inserting a different kind of task into the routine Some studies recommend 5 minutes of rest per hour of typing Other studies recommend 15 minutes of rest per four hours of work.

Task Rotation
Alternate other kinds of office tasks, such as filing, copying
Caution:

May be just as repetitive as typing and use the same motions and muscles

However,

more productive and feel less like an interruption than ―just a break

Task Rotation & Breaks
Some companies have actually installed software that ―shuts down‖ the system for regular breaks Other companies have organized or signaled breaks

These can be aggravating, as they interrupt a task in progress

Eye Strain
Eyestrain is the most common complaint from computer users  Intensive use

 Inadequate or detrimental lighting and monitor

Software Interactions Distance to monitor Ambient lighting Glare

conditions
  

 Pre-existing eye conditions, including those you

may not be aware of  Stress

Eye Strain
A study conducted by Cornell University

Showed that there was an increase in the number of cases of repetitive stress injuries after new and hard to use software was introduced
Especially if there were multiple screens or fields on the monitor simultaneously

Eye Strain
Prevention
  

Task rotation Get a professional eye examination Control the lights & the monitor
Enough light on documents  Eliminate glare  Rearrange the workstation  Anti-glare screen

Solving Office Ergonomic Problems
 Evaluate non-work stressors  Evaluate work stressors
Use checklists  Use workers‘ compensation claim data  Use personal interviews/discomfort surveys  Conduct job safety analysis

 

Observation Measurements

 Implement solutions
 Provide Employee Training

PHYSIOLOGICAL ADJUSTMENTS IN THE WORK CONTEXT

PHYSIOLOGICAL ADJUSTMENTS IN THE WORK CONTEXT
 Work and psychological well being  Work life balance and its work psychology

implications  Work maladjustment & psychological adjustments  Work dysfunctions & other work related & organizational adjustment problems  Strategies to manage & promote org & employee well being; individual methods to promote psychological heath at work place

Environmental Influences on Mental Health
 OPPORTUNITY FOR

 

 

CONTROL of activities and events OPPORTUNITY FOR SKILL USE PRESENCE OF GOALS & CHALLENGES generated by environment ENVIRONMENTAL VARIETY ENVIRONMENTAL CLARITY

 AVAILABILITY OF

MONEY  PHYSICAL SECURITY  OPPORTUNITY FOR INTER PERSONAL CONTACT  VALUED SOCIAL POSITION

MENTAL HEALTH: COMPONENTS
 AFFECTIVE WELL BEING  COMPETENCE  AUTONOMY

 ASPIRATION
 INTEGRATED FUNCTIONING

Psychological well-being
 Psychological well-being resides within the

experience of the individual (Campbell et.al. 1976). It is person‘s evaluative reaction to his or her life— either in terms of
life satisfaction (Cognitive evaluations) or  affect (ongoing emotional reaction). variables that influence peoples‘ evaluations of their Psychological well-being do vary across culture.

2 Philosophical Perspectives
 Hedonism ( happiness) that leads to the Theory of

Subjective Well Being ( SWB)  Eudaemonism ( self actualisation) that leads to the Theory of Psychological Well Being (PWB)

SWB & PWB
 Both theories aim to describe how people evaluate their

lives but each gives emphasis to different aspects  SWB defines evaluations on the basis of 3 elements  Judgments of positive effect  Judgments of negative effect  Overall life satisfaction  PWB is based on 6 elements
  

Judgments of self acceptance * positive relations with others Personal growth * environmental mastery Purpose of life * autonomy

STRESS
 Derived from latin word: stringere , meaning to draw

tight  Person‘s response to disturbance  Cannon studied response as ―fight or flight‖

Hans Selye‘s 3 stages
 Alarm reaction  Resistance  Exhaustion

Stress process: Cummings & Cooper
 Individuals , for the most part keep their thoughts ,

emotions and relationships with the world in a ―steady state‖  Each person's emotional and physical state has a ―range of stability‖  An individual‘s behavior aimed at maintaining a steady state makes up his or her ―adjustment process‖ or coping strategies

Cooper Cummings framework
Adjustment processes, Coping strategies

Steady state

Threat

Stress

SUCCESS

Threat Steady state

Stress

Failure to cope

Continued stress

SOURCES OF CONFLICT
 RELATIONSHIPS AT WORK  Relationships with superiors  Relationships with subordinates  Relationships with colleagues  CAREER DEVELOPMENT  Job security  Retirement  Job Performance  ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE & CLIMATE

SOURCES OF STRESS
 INTRINSIC TO JOB
   

 ROLE IN


 

Working conditions Shift work Long hours Risk & danger New Technology Work Load Work underload

ORGANISATION
   

Role ambiguity Role Conflict Personality variables Responsibility

STRESSThe adverse reaction people have to excessive

pressure or other types of demand placed on them”

 PRESSURE: can be a

positive state if managed correctly  Pressure will be present in all jobs in one form or another.  Pressure and challenge, even when high, can be motivating and stimulating.

 STRESS: can be

detrimental to health.  When an individual feels pressure at a time when they cannot cope, or in some cases too little pressure or challenge, this can lead to stress.  The ability to cope with stress differs from person to person and it will depend on the individual how they react to stress.

Properties of person as stress mediators Type A/B Self esteem Locus of Control Stressors in Org life

Response to stress

Physiologicals •Cardiovascular Properties of person Consequences Physical PERCEPTION 7 •Biochemical Org antecedents as stress mediators & Of stress •Noise •Gastrointestinal of stress •Light COGNITION •Musculoskeletal •Health &illness •Stress •Vibration Psychological •Org effectivenes Markers •Performance in Depression •Org size Other life roles Psychosocial Anxiety •Work schedule •Role ambiguity Job satisfaction •Role Conflict Behavioral Properties of situation •Role overload Turnover as stress mediators absenteeism Supervisor social support Coworker social support

Stress and work-life balance
 Symptoms of stress are manifested both physiologically

and psychologically. Persistent stress can result in cardio vascular disease, sexual health problems, a weaker immune system and frequent headaches, stiff muscles, or backache. It can also result in poor coping skills, irritability, jumpiness, insecurity, exhaustion, and difficulty concentrating. Stress may also perpetuate or lead to binge eating, smoking and alcohol consumption.  Traditional stress-management programs placed the responsibility of reducing stress on the individual rather than on the organization-where it belongs.  No matter how healthy individual employees are when they start out, if they work in a dysfunctional system, they‘ll burn out.

Costs in the workplace
 JOB SATISFACTION  BURNOUT  JOB PERFORMANCE

 ABSENTEEISM
 ATTRITION  LITIGATION  HEALTH COSTS

Work Adjustment or Occupational mental health
 is about adjustment or maladjustment of employees in

the context of work organizations  Individual‘s occupational health cannot be separated from the individual‘s personal adjustment nor from the org health nor from the environment in which both individual & org exist & function  Thus it is necessary to understand the interaction between employees & their org because the degree of adjustment /maladjustment is not caused only by the situation or individual personality traits but may instead be the type of congruence/fit between individual and the work situation

Occupational Mental Health
 Occupational Mental Health is the scientific study of

the causes, symptoms and characteristics of individuals, groups, org, management, work situation and the external environment that leads to and support various forms of maladjustment and the study of the treatment, management and utilization of problem of rehabilitated workers

Work Dysfunctions
 Work Dysfunctions are psychological conditions in

which significant impairment in the capacity to work may be caused by either attributes in the individual or by the interaction between individual and the work environment  This approach includes psychiatric disorders or psychopathology and work dysfunctions related to employee attitudes, perceptions, feelings and behavior that determine an individual‘s personal effectiveness, success and happiness

Strategies to manage & promote org & employee well being
 Development of an organizational health center

(OHC) to improve both organizational and individual health as well as help workers manage job stress.  Innovations included labor-management partnerships, suicide risk reduction (there had previously been elevated suicide risk at the complex), conflict mediation, and occupational mental health support.  Stress and Wellness Committee (SWC) which solicited ideas from workers on ways to improve both their well-being and productivity.

Work life balance (WLB)& its work psychology implications
 WLB from an employee‘s perspective is the

maintenance of balance between responsibilities at home and at work  Employees view the benefits or working conditions provided to help employees balance the family and work domains as work life benefits  WLB strategies in an org include policies covering flexi working hours, child & dependent care, family & parental leave

WLB
 Work-life balance is a broad concept including

proper prioritizing between career and ambition on one hand, compared with pleasure, leisure, family and spiritual development on the other.  As the separation between work and home life has diminished, this concept has become more relevant than ever before.

Work Life Conflict ( WLC)
 WLC on the other hand is defined as a form of inner

role conflict in which role pressures from the work and other life domains are mutually incompatible in some respect, whereby participation in one role is made more difficult by participation in the other  It covers impact of family life on work as well as impact work has on individual stress, relationships and family well being

Gender differences regarding work-life balance
 Many women feel additional stress when they must

decide what they feel is best for their families or what is best for their career  Work-life balance concerns of men and women are alike  Work-life balance issues and their influence on children

SECTION 4
WORKPLACE DIVERSITY
D I V E R S I T Y M O S A I C : M E A N I N G & S O U R C E S N A T I O N A L C U L T U R E & F U N C T I O N I N G O F O R G A N I Z A T I O N S R O L E O F A N I N D I V I D U A L I N D I V E R S I T Y P R E R E Q U I S I T E S F O R E F F E C T I V E F U N C T I O N I N G O F A

DIVERSE WORKFORCE PERFORMANCE

P R O M O T I O N O F D I V E R S I T Y T O E N H A N C E O R G M A N A G E M E N T O F D I V E R S I T Y T O P R E S E R V E P E R F O R M A N C E

Workplace diversity

 Workplace diversity refers to the extent to which

an organization is culturally diverse.
 An organization‘s culture tends to determine the

extent to which it is culturally diverse.

The Increasing Diversity of the Workforce and the Environment
Diversity

Dissimilarities/differences among people in:
age,  gender, sexual orientation  race, ethnicity,  religion,  socioeconomic background, and  capabilities/disabilities

DIVERSITY MOSAIC: Sources of Diversity in the Workplace

Diversity Concerns
5181

 The ethical imperative for equal opportunity

 Effectively managing diversity can improve

organizational effectiveness  There is substantial evidence that diverse individuals continue to experience unfair treatment

Diversity Concerns
5182

 Glass ceiling  alludes to the invisible barriers that prevents minorities and women from being promoted to top corporate positions  Age-Gen X & Gen Y

Workforce Diversity: Gender
5183

 Women in the Work Place  U.S. workforce is 46% percent female  Women‘s median weekly earnings are $572 compared to $714 for men  Women hold only 16% of corporate officer positions

Workforce Diversity: Capabilities and Disabilities
Disability Issues

 

Providing reasonable accommodations for individuals with disabilities Promoting a nondiscriminatory workplace environment Educating the organization about disabilities and AIDS

Workforce Diversity: Religion
Accommodation for Religious Beliefs

 

Scheduling of critical meetings Providing flexible time off for holy days Posting holy days for different religions on the company calendar

Workforce Diversity: Socioeconomic Background

 Socioeconomic background – refers to a

combination of social class and income-related factors

Workforce Diversity: Socioeconomic Background
 Socioeconomic diversity requires that managers

be sensitive and responsive to the needs and concerns of individuals who might not be as well off as others

Workforce Diversity: Sexual Orientation
Sexual Orientation Issues
 

Employment and workplace discrimination Provision of same-sex partner benefits

Critical Managerial Roles
 Managers have more influence than rank-and-

file employees  When managers commit to diversity, it legitimizes diversity efforts of others

Critical Managerial Roles
 Top-management

commitment and rewards for the support of diversity are critical ingredients for the success of diversity management initiatives

Critical Managerial Roles
 Effective management of diversity hinges on two

factors

Minorities start out at a slight disadvantage due to the ways in which they are perceived by others in the organization Research suggests slight differences in treatment can cumulate and result in major disparities over time

The Ethical Imperative to Manage Diversity Effectively

Distributive Justice

A moral principle calling for the distribution of pay raises, promotions, job titles, interesting job assignments, office space, and other organizational resources to be based on meaningful contribution that individuals have made and not personal characteristics over which they have no control.

The Ethical Imperative to Manage Diversity Effectively

Procedural Justice

A moral principle calling for the use of fair procedures to determine how to distribute outcomes to organizational members.

Procedural Justice
Exists when managers: 1) carefully appraise a subordinate‘s performance 2) take into account any environmental obstacles to high performance 3) ignore irrelevant personal characteristics

Managing Diversity Effectively Makes Good Business Sense

What a Diversity of Employees Provides
A variety of points of view and approaches to problems and opportunities can improve managerial decision making.  Diverse employees can provide a wider range of creative ideas.  Diverse employees are more attuned to the needs of diverse customers.  Diversity can increase the retention of valued organizational members.  Diversity is expected/required by other firms

Benefits of diversity in the workplace
 Better decision making  Improved problem solving  Greater creativity and innovation, which leads to

enhanced product development, and more successful marketing to different types of customers

Question?
What is the process through which people interpret what they see, hear, and touch? A. Perception B. Imperception C. Intuition D. Selective listening

Perception
Perception

The process through which people select, organize, and interpret what they see, hear, touch, smell, and taste to give meaning and order to the world around them.

Perception
Overt Discrimination

 

Knowingly and willingly denying diverse individuals access to opportunities and outcomes in an organization Unethical and illegal Violation of the principles of distributive and procedural justice Subjects firm to lawsuits

How to Manage Diversity
Steps in Managing Diversity Effectively
Secure top management commitment  Strive to increase the accuracy of perceptions  Increase diversity awareness  Increase diversity skills  Encourage flexibility  Pay close attention to how organizational members are evaluated  Consider the numbers

Discussion Question?
5201

What is the most important step in managing diversity? A. Secure top management commitment B. Increase diversity awareness C. Encourage flexibility D. Pay close attention to how organizational members are evaluated

How to Manage Diversity
Steps in Managing Diversity Effectively
Empower employees to challenge discriminatory behaviors, actions, and remarks  Reward employees for effectively managing diversity  Provide training utilizing a multi-pronged, ongoing approach  Encourage mentoring of diverse employees

Diversity Awareness Programs
 Provide members with accurate information

about diversity  Uncover personal biases and stereotypes  Assess personal beliefs, attitudes, and values and learning about other points of view  Develop an atmosphere in which people feel free to share their differing perspectives  Improve understanding of others who are different

How to Manage Diversity
Mentoring A process by which an experienced member of an organization provides advice and guidance to an less experienced member and helps them learn how to advance in the organization and in their career.

Sexual Harassment
Forms of Sexual Harassment

Hostile work environment
Occurs when organizational members are faced with an intimidating, hostile, or offensive work environment because of their sex  Interferes with their ability to perform their jobs effectively

 the monolithic organization -the amount of

Development on cultural diversity 3 types

structural integration (the presence of persons from different cultural groups in a single organization) is very minimal.  the plural organization has a more heterogeneous membership than the monolithic organization and takes steps to be more inclusive of persons from cultural backgrounds that differ from the dominant group  multicultural organization not only contains many different cultural groups, but it values this diversity.

Challenges of diversity in the workplace
 Managing a diverse work population in terms of Role

perception. Managing diversity is more than simply acknowledging differences in people  miscommunication within an organization.  Cultural bias which may include both prejudice and discrimination  Assimilation into the dominant organizational culture is a strategy that has had serious negative consequences for individuals in organizations and the organizations themselves. Those who assimilate are denied the ability to express their genuine selves in the workplace; they are forced to repress significant parts of their lives within a social context that frames a large part of their daily encounters with other people

Managing workforce diversity
 Managing diversity in the workplace implies

negotiating interaction across culturally diverse groups, and contriving to get along in an environment characterized by cultural diversity  The key to managing a diverse workforce is increasing individual awareness of and sensitivity to differences of race, gender, social class, sexual orientation, physical ability, and age". There are several ways to go about creating the multicultural organization that performs extremely well

Diversity Mosaic
 Diversity Mosaic provides a comprehensive set of tools and

information to establish a lasting, long-term organizational change initiative. While incorporating the important aspects of hiring and training, Diversity Mosaic also provides a start-to-finish process—plus all the tools required—to create an organizational culture that values diversity and is truly inclusive.  This resource covers the entire process from assessing the need for a program to measuring progress on clearly defined goals. For organizations that have been working on diversity for some time, this resource provides a method of tying together the various aspects of the initiative and filling in any missing pieces.  Diversity Mosaic is fully customizable, so you can supplement the process with your own ideas or use the process ―as-is.‖

NATIONAL CULTURE

Hofstede in his famous IBM based research inmore than fifty countries identified five characteristics of national cultures: (6)

Hofstede's four (now five-factor) model has been used as the basis of many research projects and articles on cross-cultural issues.

1. Power distance- hierarchical distance between boss and subordinate. 2. Uncertainty avoidance- desire to control the future, common in traditional & authoritarian societies. 3. Individualism- the opposite of collectivism and extended family. 4. Achievement orientation- connected to ambition, desire to achieve vs. focusing on interpersonal relationships. 5. Long term orientation versus short term orientation

NATIONAL CULTURE
 National culture can be defined as ―the collective mental

programming‖ of a society.  The nature of national culture will have significant implications for the organization, its management and its human resource development within the prevailing local and environmental context.  The taking of an ethnocentric or single-nation-oriented approach to other cultures is likely to be inappropriate. Organizations from one national background will need to make due allowance for the existence and relative influence of the different national cultures of the countries into which they enter as international or multinational operators.

Psychological impact of change

 Individual dimensions  Work dimensions

 Societal Dimensions

Individual dimensions
 Emotions at workplace; need to consider employees

as people first , who assume several roles in life, one of which is in an employment context; emotions produce negative & positive work outcomes  Adaptable employees reflected through personality tests which predict ―will do‘‘ component of behavior rather than ―can do‖  Genetic influences on work Behavior

Work dimensions
 Technology & individual‘s capability to adapt to

changing work designs  Groups at work  Lifelong learning-learning a living

Societal Dimensions
 Economic Competition  Values  Time

INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY TESTING & ASSESSMENT

Psychological Test & Inventories

 Only right or

 There are no

wrong answers

right or wrong answers

Psychological Assessment as Predictors
 Predictor: any variable used to forecast a criterion. In

work psychology, predictor of job performance may be indexed as productivity  Goodness of measurement:2 psychometric criterion: reliability and validity. If a predictor is not both reliable and valid it is useless.

Reliability
 Consistency or stability of a measure. A measure

should yield the same estimate on repeated use when the measured trait has not changed.  An estimate though may be inaccurate , but a reliable measure will always be consistent

Reliability assessment: acceptable reliability quotient(+.70)
 Test retest reliability  Equivalent form Reliability  Internal consistency Reliability

 Inter Rater Reliability ( Conspect reliability)  A test used for individual prediction should be much more reliable than a test used for group prediction)

Personnel selection methods : 4 primary standards
 Validity  Fairness  Applicability

 Cost of implementation

Validity
 Refers to consistency and stability of measurement.

Valid measure yields correct estimates of what is being assessed.  Reliability is inherent in the measuring device, but validity depends on the use of a test.  Refers to test‘s appropriateness for predicting or drawing inferences about criteria

Validity assessment
 Criterion Validity which can be concurrent or

predictive

Concurrent- how well a predictor can predict a criterion at the same time or concurrently  Predictive- how well a predictor can predict a futuristic criterion performance
 Content Validity involves the degree to which a

predictor covers a representative sample of behavior being assessed  Construct validity is the linkage between what is measured by the test and the theoretical construct

Psychological Testing
 Tests and Psychological Testing refer to the family of

Tests and inventories which may include assessment of :

  

Intellect Aptitude Ability Interest potentiality

Types of Test
 Speed ( easy but timed) versus Power Test

( (

difficult not timed)  Individual( one at a time) versus Group Tests several at the same time)  Paper and pencil versus Performance Test

Types of Test
 Intelligence ( IQ)  Emotional resilience and maturity (EQ)  Mechanical aptitude

 Sensory/Motor ability
 Personality inventories  Integrity tests

 Physical Abilities Testing
 Multiple Aptitude Test batteries  Computerised Adaptive Testing

PERSONALITY INVENTORIES
 TRAITS  VALUE ORIENTATION  INTEGRITY

 APTITUDE TEST BATTERIES

INTERVIEWS
 Structured: Ability, personality, attitude or Role Job

fit related  Situational: experience based questionsor situational simulations

INTERVIEWS
 Most commonly used selection method  Most valid  Illusion of good judgement by selectors: illusion of validity  Demonstration effect of person

ASSESSMENT CENTERS

 Group oriented standardized series

of activities that provide a basis of judgments or predictions of human behavior believed or known to be relevant to work performed in organizational settings

ASSESSMENT CENTER APPROACH : 4 Characteristics
 Managerial level –evaluation for promotion, transfer

or training  Groups of 10-20: appraise individuals against performance of others in a group  Several raters do the evaluation  Multiple appraisal methods used

ASSESSMENT CENTERS: utility
 Identifying potential successors  Selecting high talent people

 May not predict actual performance.

Predict advancement rather than performance

ASSESSMENT CENTERS: validity
5 reasons  Actual criterion for job  Subtle criterion also included and performance supervisor‘s bias removed  Self Fulfilling Prophecy  Primary determinant is Performance consistency  Based on Managerial intelligence

Other contemporary tests
 Work samples  Situational interviews  Biographical information

 Letters of recommendation
 Statement of purpose  Drug Testing

 Graphology
 Polygraphy

Selection Method IQ Mechanical aptitude Sensory/motor Personality Physical ability

Validity moderate moderate moderate moderate High

Fairness Moderate High High High Moderate

Applicability High Moderate Low Moderate Low

Cost Low Low Low Moderate Low

interviews
Assessment center Work sample Situational exercises Biographical LOR

moderate
High High Moderate High Low

Moderate
High High Moderate -

High
Moderate Low Low High High

Moderate
High High Moderate Low Low

PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY
INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES & WORK PERFORMANCE  BIOGRAPHICAL  PERSONALITY  VALUES  ATTITUDE

BIOGRAPHICAL
 AGE  GENDER  PLACE OF ORIGIN( Social Cognition/Modelling)

 EDUCATION( Freudian development-emotional-

mental)  Work experience /profession ( Holland typologyopenness to experience-security/stability)  Family size/structure ( IPE/group interaction)

Achieving Personality-Job Fit

Personality Types • Realistic • Investigative • Social • Conventional • Enterprising • Artistic

Holland’s Typology of Personality and Congruent Occupations

Relationships among Occupational Personality Types

Personality: Its Basic Nature and Key Issues

Personality - the unique and relatively stable pattern of behaviors, thoughts, and emotions shown by an individual Role of Personality in Organizational Behavior - knowledge, skills, and ability determine whether a person can do the job - personality determines whether a person wants to do the work Interactionist perspective - behavior results from a complex interplay between personality and situational factors Person-job-fit - extent to which individuals possess the traits required for specific jobs
Personality Measurement Objective tests - questionnaires and inventories that measure various aspects of personality - most widely used measurement method - normative available as a basis for comparison Essential requirements Reliability - consistency in measurement Validity - test measures what it claims to measure

Work-Related Aspects of Personality

Big Five Dimensions of Personality - most fundamental traits Conscientiousness - degree of diligence, perseverance, and organization - related to job performance across many occupations - related to absenteeism Extroversion-introversion - degree of gregarious, assertiveness, and sociability - related to performance in jobs that required interpersonal interaction Agreeableness - degree of cooperativeness and warmth Emotional stability - degree of calmness , self-confidence, and sense of security - related to job performance across many occupations Openness to experience - degree of creativeness, curiosity, and culture - related to success in training

Work-Related Aspects of Personality (cont.)

Tendencies Toward Feeling Good or Bad Mood states - temporary feelings based on current conditions Positive affectivity - tendency to experience positive moods and feelings in many settings and under many different conditions - overall sense of well-being; experience other people and conditions in a positive light Negative affectivity - tendency to experience negative moods in many settings and under many different conditions - individuals and teams with negative affective tone do not perform as well as those with positive affective tone
The Type A Behavior Pattern - a pattern of behavior involving high levels of competitiveness, time urgency, and irritability Type B behavior pattern - a pattern of behavior characterized by a casual, laid-back style - Type A - overall edge in job performance, especially tasks involving time pressure or solitary work; impatient with coworkers - Type B - perform better on complex tasks that require accuracy rather than speed

Why Type A’s Often Don’t Make It to the Top

The Top!

Increased health risks

Irritability, conflict with others

Poor decision making

Type A’s

VALUES & ATTITUDES
 VALUES -BASIC CONVICTIONS

PERSONAL- SOCIABLE MODE OF CONDUCT JUDGEMENTAL HAS CONTENT & INTENSITY ATTTRIBUTE

•ATTITUDES- BASED ON BELIEFS
EVALUATIVE & GUIDES BEHAVIOR

IMPORTANCE OF VALUES
To understand behavior, knowledge of values are important because it is the foundation of the understanding of attitudes & motivation as well as influence individual‘s perception

SOURCES OF VALUES
 Family, friends, teachers, society  Therefore relatively stable and enduring as a result

of the way it was originally learned  Learning pattern of values assures their stability and endurance

Values

Types of Values –- Rokeach Value Survey

Values

Types of Values –- Rokeach Value Survey

Values in the Rokeach Survey

Values in the Rokeach Survey (cont’d)

Dominant Work Values in Today‘s Workforce

Values, Loyalty, and Ethical Behavior

Ethical Values and Behaviors of Leaders

Ethical Climate in the Organization

Hofstede‘s Framework for Assessing Cultures

Hofstede‘s Framework (cont‘d)

Hofstede‘s Framework (cont‘d)

Hofstede‘s Framework (cont‘d)

Hofstede‘s Framework (cont‘d)

The GLOBE Framework for Assessing Cultures

• Assertiveness • Future Orientation

• Gender differentiation
• Uncertainty avoidance • Power distance • Individual/collectivism • In-group collectivism • Power orientation • Humane orientation

ATTITUDE
 Source-like values

acquired from parents, teachers, peers,environment  Components Cognition (thinking) Affective(feeling), Behavioral Intentions(action ) Valence

 Attitude theories
» Job satisfaction

( Attitude to job) » Job involvement ( Identification with job) » Job commitment (Identification with org & goal)

Attitudes

AFFECTIVE: Emotions- Why Emotions Were Ignored in OB
 The ―myth of rationality‖  Organizations are not emotion-free.  Emotions of any kind are disruptive to organizations.  Original OB focus was solely on the effects of strong negative emotions that interfered with individual and organizational efficiency.

What Are Emotions?

Affect

A broad range of emotions that people experience.

Emotions
Intense feelings that are directed at someone or something.

Moods
Feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus.

What Are Emotions? (cont‘d)

Felt versus Displayed Emotions

Emotion Dimensions
 Variety of emotions  Positive  Negative

 Intensity of emotions  Personality  Job Requirements
 Frequency and duration of emotions  How often emotions are exhibited.  How long emotions are displayed.

Emotion Continuum
 The closer any two emotions are to each other on the

continuum, the more likely people are to confuse them.

Gender and Emotions
 Women  Can show greater emotional expression.  Experience emotions more intensely.  Display emotions more frequently.  Are more comfortable in expressing emotions.  Are better at reading others‘ emotions.  Men  Believe that displaying emotions is inconsistent with the male image.  Are innately less able to read and to identify with others‘ emotions.  Have less need to seek social approval by showing positive emotions.

External Constraints on Emotions

Organizational Influences

Cultural Influences

Individual Emotions

OB Applications of Understanding Emotions
 Ability and Selection  Emotions affect employee effectiveness.  Decision Making  Emotions are an important part of the decision-making process in organizations.  Motivation  Emotional commitment to work and high motivation are strongly linked.  Leadership  Emotions are important to acceptance of messages from organizational leaders.

OB Applications of Understanding Emotions
 Interpersonal Conflict  Conflict in the workplace and individual emotions are strongly intertwined.  Deviant Workplace Behaviors  Negative emotions can lead to employee deviance in the form of actions that violate established norms and threaten the organization and its members.
Productivity failures  Property theft and destruction  Political actions  Personal aggression

Work-Related Aspects of Personality (cont.)

Self-Efficacy - an individual’s beliefs concerning her/his ability to perform specific tasks successfully - components Magnitude - level of performance believed possible Strength - confidence in ability to perform at that level Generality - extent to which feelings of self-efficacy extend across situations - development Direct experience - feedback from past performance Vicarious experience - observing the success of others - formal training based on these elements can increase feelings of self-efficacy

Work-Related Aspects of Personality (cont.)

Self-Monitoring - the extent to which individuals adapt their behavior to specific situations, primarily to make the best possible impression on others Work performance - high self-monitors do better in jobs requiring boundary spanning activities Career success - high self-monitors tend to be promoted more often Interpersonal relationships - form less stable relationships Social chameleons - viewed as manipulative Machiavellianism - a willingness to manipulate others for one’s own purposes in a ruthless manner Characteristics - glib and charming - little remorse about harming others - display little empathy Job success - not related to performance on jobs with a great deal of autonomy where coworkers can avoid the clutches of high Machiavellianism individual - high Machiavellianism individuals are more successful in loosely structured organizations

Work-Related Aspects of Personality (cont.)

Achievement Motivation - strength of an individual’s desire to excel, to succeed at difficult tasks, and to do them better than others Attraction to difficult tasks - high need achievers prefer tasks that are moderately challenging and of intermediate difficulty Managerial success - high need achievers tend to be: - promoted more rapidly - less inclined to delegate - more interested in performance feedback - more interested in merit-based pay than in seniority-based pay

Achievement Motivation and Task Preference

High

Low Need for Achievement

Task Preference

High Need for Achievement

Low Easy Difficult

Task Difficulty

Work-Related Aspects of Personality (cont.)

Individual Differences in Times of Day When People Feel Alert - are both real and important when it comes to job performance

Morning persons - feel most energetic and alert early in the day
Evening persons - feel most energetic and alert late in the day

Time of Day and Academic Performance

Early classes
3.3 3.27 3.2 3.1 3.0 2.9 2.8 3.18

Late Classes

Morning persons do better in early classes.
Evening persons do better in late classes
2.78 2.78 3.07

2.7 2.6 2.5

Morning Students

Evening Students

Intellectual Abilities

Cognitive Intelligence - ability to understand complex ideas, adapt effectively to the environment, learn from experience, engage in various forms of reasoning, and overcome obstacles - information processing Practical Intelligence - adeptness at solving practical problems of everyday life Tacit knowledge - knowledge about how to get things done - action oriented - allows one to achieve personal goals - acquired without help from others Emotional Intelligence - cluster of skills relating to the emotional side of life - ability to recognize and regulate our own emotions, to influence others, to self-motivate, to form effective long-term relationships Other Cognitive Abilities

Physical Abilities

Types of Physical Abilities Strength - capacity to exert physical force Flexibility - capacity to move one’s body in an agile manner Stamina - capacity to endure physical activity for prolonged periods Speed - the ability to move quickly - many jobs require blend of physical and intellectual abilities - companies are introducing measures to promote the health and well-being of employees performing physical tasks

Types of Attitudes

The Theory of Cognitive Dissonance

Desire to reduce dissonance
• Importance of elements creating dissonance • Degree of individual influence over elements • Rewards involved in dissonance

Measuring the A-B Relationship
 Recent research indicates that the attitudes (A)

significantly predict behaviors (B) when moderating variables are taken into account.

Moderating Variables
• Importance of the attitude • Specificity of the attitude • Accessibility of the attitude • Social pressures on the individual • Direct experience with the attitude

Self-Perception Theory

An Application: Attitude Surveys

Sample Attitude Survey

Job Satisfaction
 Measuring Job Satisfaction  Single global rating  Summation score

 How Satisfied Are People in Their Jobs?  Job satisfaction declined to 50.7% in 2000  Decline attributed to:
Pressures to increase productivity  Less control over work

The Effect of Job Satisfaction on Employee Performance

 Satisfaction and Productivity  Satisfied workers aren‘t necessarily more productive.  Worker productivity is higher in organizations with more satisfied workers.  Satisfaction and Absenteeism  Satisfied employees have fewer avoidable absences.  Satisfaction and Turnover  Satisfied employees are less likely to quit.  Organizations take actions to cultivate high performers and to weed out lower performers.

Responses to Job Dissatisfaction

How Employees Can Express Dissatisfaction

Job Satisfaction and OCB
 Satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB)

Satisfied employees who feel fairly treated by and are trusting of the organization are more willing to engage in behaviors that go beyond the normal expectations of their job.

What Is Perception, and Why Is It Important?

• People’s behavior is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself. • The world as it is perceived is the world that is behaviorally important.

PERCEPTION
 PERCEPTION IS A COGNITIVE PROCESS THAT LETS A PERSON

MAKE SENSE OF STIMULI FROM THE ENVIRONMENT.  STIMULI COME FROM PEOPLE,EVENTS,PHYSICAL OBJECTS & IDEAS.  PROCESS- INPUTS TO THE PERSON & SELECTION OF INPUTS TO WHICH THE PERSON ATTENDS. A PERSON‘S PERCEPTUAL PROCESS LEARNS FROM REPEATED EXPOSURE TO STIMULI &. STORES RECALLABLE IMAGES WHICH. PROCESS INPUTS LATER.THIS PERCEPTUAL PROCESS HELPS HIM ADAPT TO A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT .

Factors That Influence Perception

PERCEPTUAL SELECTION
External  Size  Intensity  Contrast  Motion  Repetition  Novelty  Familiarity Internal  Personality- Field independent/depende nt  Learning  Motivation

SELF PERCEPTION
 SELF CONCEPT-belief about oneself & determined by how 

  

they see behavior of others. Perceptual & Cognitive. SELF ESTEEM-positive & negative judgements about themselves.Feeling about self perception. Self perceived competence and self image of people. SELF AWARENESS-Private & Public self consciousness measured by personal & external standards. SELF PRESENTATION-behavioral strategies used to affect other people’s impression. SELF EFFICACY- Self perception of how one would cope with a situation, Same as self esteem but situation specific.

 Values may be central but even more central are

VALUES IN LINE WITH SELF CONCEPT

the beliefs that maintain one‘s conception of these beliefs  Pertains to one‘s identity, one‘s abilities, strengths & weaknesses  Inconsistency between one‘s values & one‘s self concepts brings less central value into line with one‘s self concept

PERSON PERCEPTION
 PRIMACY EFFECT
 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSON

 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERCEIVER
 SITUATION OR CONTEXT WITHIN WHICH

PERCEPTION TAKES PLACE

PEOPLE PERCEPTION
 Attribution theory-explains how we judge people

differently depending on what meaning we attribute to a given behavior, whether it is internally or externally caused & whether there is any distinctive pattern, consistency, or consensus  Frequently used shortcuts-selective perception, projection of similar attributes, stereotyping, halo effect

Social Identity Theory

Social Perception

 Social Perception: The process of combining,

integrating, and interpreting information about others to gain an accurate understanding of them.  Attribution: The process through which individuals attempt to determine the causes behind others‘ behavior.

Correspondent Inferences

Judgments about people’s dispositions, traits, and characteristics, that correspond to what we have observed of their actions.

Causal Attribution
 Causes of Behavior:  Internal: Explanations based on actions for which the individual is responsible.  External: Explanations based on situations over which the individual has no control.

 Kelley’s Theory of Causal Attribution:

The approach suggesting that people will believe others‘ actions to be caused by internal or external factors based on three types of information: consensus, consistency, and distinctiveness.

Kelley‘s Theory of Attribution

 Consensus: Information regarding the extent to

which other people behave in the same manner as the person being judged.  Consistency: Information regarding the extent to which the person being judged acts the same way at other times.  Distinctiveness: Information regarding the extent to which a person behaves in the same manner in other contexts.

Kelley‘s Theory of Attribution

Organizational Applications

 Performance Appraisal: The process of

evaluating employees on various work-related dimensions.

An inherently biased process

 Impresssion Management: Efforts by

individuals (esp. in employment interviews) to improve how they appear to others.  Corporate Image: The impressions that people have of an organization.

Applicant Impression Management

Specific Applications in Organizations
 Employment Interview  Perceptual biases affect the accuracy of interviewers‘ judgments of applicants.  Performance Expectations  Self-fulfilling prophecy (pygmalion effect): The lower or higher performance of employees reflects preconceived leader expectations about employee capabilities.  Performance Evaluations  Appraisals are subjective perceptions of performance.  Employee Effort  Assessment of individual effort is a subjective judgment subject to perceptual distortion and bias.

The Link Between Perceptions and Individual Decision Making

Perceptions of the decision maker

Outcomes

Assumptions of the Rational DecisionMaking Model

1. Problem clarity 2. Known options 3. Clear preferences 4. Constant preferences 5. No time or cost constraints 6. Maximum payoff

Steps in the Rational Decision-Making Model

The Three Components of Creativity

How Are Decisions Actually Made in Organizations

How Are Decisions Actually Made in Organizations (cont‘d)
 How/Why problems are identified  Visibility over importance of problem
Attention-catching, high profile problems  Desire to ―solve problems‖

Self-interest (if problem concerns decision maker)

 Alternative Development  Satisficing: seeking the first alternative that solves problem.  Engaging in incremental rather than unique problem solving through successive limited comparison of alternatives to the current alternative in effect.

Making Choices

Making Choices

Decision-Style Model

Organizational Constraints on Decision Makers
 Performance Evaluation  Evaluation criteria influence the choice of actions.  Reward Systems  Decision makers make action choices that are favored by the organization.  Formal Regulations  Organizational rules and policies limit the alternative choices of decision makers.  System-imposed Time Constraints  Organizations require decisions by specific deadlines.  Historical Precedents  Past decisions influence current decisions.

Cultural Differences in Decision Making
 Problems selected  Time orientation  Importance of logic and rationality

 Belief in the ability of people to solve problems
 Preference for collect decision making

Ethics in Decision Making
 Ethical Decision Criteria  Utilitarianism

Seeking the greatest good for the greatest number.

 

Rights Justice

Imposing and enforcing rules fairly and impartially.

Ethics in Decision Making
 Ethics and National Culture  There are no global ethical standards.  The ethical principles of global organizations that reflect and respect local cultural norms are necessary for high standards and consistent practices.

BEHAVIORAL INTENTIONS MODEL

Beliefs about behavior Outcome relationships

Attitude towards behavior

Perceived Situational or Intentional constraints

Intentions

Behavior

Beliefs about group & societal norms

Perception of norms

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