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HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

PEOPLE MATTER THE MOST


Take our 20 best people away, and I will tell you that Microsoft would become an unimportant company Bill Gates, The only vital value an enterprise has is the experience, skills, innovativeness and insights of its people Leif Edvinsson, Swedish Intellectual Capital Guru

CULTIVATING PEOPLE
When the vision is one year cultivate flowers When the vision is ten years cultivate trees When the vision is eternity cultivate people

CHALLENGES FACED BY COMPANIES


1. CHANGES AND RAPID CHANGES 2. SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, CULTURAL, TECHNOLOGICAL 3. GLOBALIZATION 4. BUSINESS ETHICS 5. LIFESTYLE 6. CUSTOMERS EXPECTATIONS. 7.HRM IS CRITICAL TO ORGN GOALS AND PRODUCTIVITY

CHALLENGES FACED BY HRM


1. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT 2. MOTIVATION & EMPOWERMENT 3. CONFLICT MANAGEMENT 4. HIRING RIGHT THE FIRST TIME 5. IDENTIFY & DEVELOP LEADERSHIP SKILLS 6. TALENT MANAGEMENT

ECONOMIC CHANGES IMPACT WORK CULTURE


EXAMPLES 1. JOB CHANGES LABOUR TURNOVER 2. LONGER WORKING HOURS TAKING WORK HOME 3. HIRING PROCESS MORE ELABORATE 4. EMPLOYEES EXPECTING MORE N MOREFIRMS TRYING TO MATCH.

HUMAN RESOURCES
SUM TOTAL OF: 1. KNOWLEDGE 2. SKILLS 3. TALENTS 4. EXPERIENCE 5. CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION 6. APTITUDES

HOLISITIC DIMENSION
HUMAN FACTOR REFERS TO WHOLE CONSISTING 1. PHYSIOLOGICAL 2. PSYCHOLOGICAL 3. SOCIOLOGICAL 4. ETHICAL 5. INTELLECTUAL 6. SPIRITUAL

HRM IS AN ART AND SCIENCE


HRM is both the art of managing people by recourse to creative and innovative approaches; It is a science as well because of the precision and rigorous application of theory that is required.

MGT OF PEOPLE
Process of managing people in organizations in a structured and thorough manner Exstaffing, retention, pay and perks, Performance mgt, change mgt, etc

PERSONNEL MGT VS HRM


1. Personnel mgt is essentially workforce centered and HRM is resource centered 2. PM mgt style control and reactive problem solving ( reactive) HRM is more proactive approach 3. PM relies more on theory X whereas HRM relies more on theory Y

EVOLUTION OF HRM
CRAFT SYSTEM ( EGYPT N BABYLON) SCIENTIFIC APPROACH TO MGT ( FREDERICK TAYLOR 1856-1915) HUMAN RELATIONS APPROACH HAWTHORNE STUDIES BY ELTON MAYO AND FRITZ REOTHLISBERGER

FINDINGS OF HAWTHORNE STUDIES


1. ECONOMIC INCENTIVES ARE LESS POTENT 3. LEADERSHIP AND WORK GROUP PRESSURES INFLUENCE EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION N PERFORMANCE 4. ANY FACTOR INFLUENCING EMPLOYEE BEHAVIOUR IS EMBEDDED IN A SOCIAL SYSTEM

HUMAN RELATIONS CONCEPT


REFERS TO THE INTERACTION OF PEOPLE IN ALL WALKS OF LIFE IN SCHOOLS, COLLEGES, HOMES, BUSINESS, GOVT AND WORK PLACE HR R A SYSTEMATIC , DEVELOPING BODY OF KNOWLEDGE DEVOTED TO EXPLAINING THE BEHAVIOIUR OF INDIVIDUALS IN THE WORKING ORGN

HR FOCUS
PROGRAMS SET TO TAKE CARE OF THE FOLLOWING: 1. NEEDS OF EMPLOYEES 2. NEEDS OF TEAM MEMBERS 3. NEEDS OF THE CUSTOMER

FUNCTIONS OF HR
1. HR PLANNING SHORT N LONG TERM 2. ACQUISTION OF HR STAFFING WITH THE RIGHT MIX OF SKILLS AND COMPETENCIES 3. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT 4. BUILDING PERFORMANCE MGT SYSTEMS 5. REWARD SYSTEMS 6. HR INFORMATION SYSTEMS

EVOLUTION OF HRM IN INDIA


1. IMPACTED BY ITS OWN HISTORY AND CULTURE AS WELL AS MNCS 2. CASTE SYSTEM REMAINS A BASIC FRAME WORK 3. BRITISH IN INDIA BROUGHT INSIGHTS ON HOW TO MANAGE LABOUR AND WORK 4. TRADE UNIIONS 5. IMPACT OF WORLD WAR I AND II 6. IT REVOLUTION

HR PLANNING
PROJECTING FUTURE REQUIREMENTS AND DEV PLANS TOWARDS: RIGHT NUMBERS RIGHT SKILLS SET TECHNICAL AND NON TECHNICAL RIGHT PLACES RIGHT TIME RIGHT COST

DEFINITION OF HR PLANNING
HR PLANNING IS THE PROCESS BY WHICH A MANANAGEMENT DETERMINES HOW AN ORGANIZATION SHOULD MOVE FROM ITS CURRENT MANPOWER POSITION TO ITS DESIRED MANPOWER POSITION ALWAYS REMEMBER - HRP FOCUS IS CLOSELY LINKED TO THE BUSINESS PLAN AND OBJECTIVES OF THE ORGN

WHY HR PLANNING
1. TO FULFUL ORGN OBJECTIVES 2. PEOPLE LEAVE, RETIRE OR DIE 3. FOR GROWTH REQUIREMENTS 4. TO CATER FOR CHANGING DYNAMICS 5. TO REDUCE WORKFORCE, REDEPLOY 6. SOMETIMES OUTSOURCING

PLANNING AT DIFFERENT LEVELS


1. NATIONAL LEVEL 2. STATE LEVEL 3. SPECIFIC INDUSTRY LEVELS EXAMPLE ENGINEERING, IT 4. INDIVIDUAL COMPANY

STEPS IN HR PLANNING
1. FORECASTING 2. CREATING AN INVENTORY OF THE PRESENT RESOURCES 3. IDENTIFYING PROBLEMS TO DETERMINE ADEQUACY QUANTITATIVELY N QUALITATIVELY 4. PLANNING TOWARDS SELECTING, TRG, DEV,UTILIZATION, TRANSFER, PROMOTION, MOTIVATION , COMPENSATION.

PROCESS OF HR PLANNING
1. DECIDING OBJECTIVES 2. ESTIMATING FUTURE ORGN STRUCTURE N REQUIREMENTS 3. AUDITING HUMAN RESOURCES INTERNALLY AND EXTERNALLY 4. PLANNING JOB REQUIREMENTS N JOB DESCRIPTIONS 5. BUILDING A PLAN

HR PLANNING SYSTEM
1. PURPOSE OF HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING 2. ESTIMATING/FORECASTING THE FUTURE MANPOWER REQUIREMENTS 3. AUDITING HUMAN RESOURCES ( SKILLS INVENTORY) 4. JOB ANALYSIS 5. DEVELOPING A HR PLAN

IMP. FACTORS IN THE HR PLAN


1. HIRE INTERNALLY OR EXTERNAL 2. SPECIFIC ROLES/COMPETENCIES N CAPABILITIES NEEDED 3. PLANNING FOR NEW SKILLS THRU TRG EXISTING STAFF OR HIRING 4. DURING RECESSION ETC, PLANNING FOR REDEPLOYMENT/REDUCTION 5. SUCCESSION PLANNING KEY POSITIONS

RECRUITMENT & SELECTION


RECRUITMENT IS A CHALLENGE FOR EVERY ORGN IT IS THE PROCESS OF SEARCHING FOR PROSPECTS AND STIMULATING THEM TO APPLY FOR JOBS IT IS ALL ABOUT THE RIGHT NUMBER, RIGHT KIND OF PEOPLE, AT THE RIGHT PLACES AT THE RIGHT TIME TALENT FOR THE ROLE/JOB AS ALSO FROM THE ORGN VALUES PERSPECTIVE

CAREFUL RECRUITMENT INDIA PERSPECTIVE


1. IT IS NOT EASY TO FIRE AN EMPLOYEE IT HAS SOCIETAL AND LEGAL IMPLICATIONS 2. CHANCES OF MISMATCHING THE JOB AND PERSON HIGHER ESP. WITH FICTITOUS INFORMATION.

FACTORS AFFECTING RECRUITMENT


1. SIZE OF THE ORGANIZATION 2. EMPLOYMENT CONDITIONS IN THE COUNTRY WHERE THE CO. IS LOCATED 3. AFFECTS OF THE PAST RECRUITING EFFORTS QUALITY HIRING 4. WORKING CONDITIONS, SALARY N PERKS OFFERED, RATE OF GROWTH 5. FUTURE EXPANSION 6. CULTURAL, ECONIMIC, LEGAL

SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT
1. INTERNAL 2. EXTERNAL

COMMON OUTSIDE SOURCES


1. ADVERTISING 2.PLACEMENT COMPANIES 3.JOB SITES 4. EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES 5. EMPLOYEE REFERRALS 6. SCHOOLS, COLLEGES 7. CASUAL, WALK IN APPLICANTS 8. VOLUNTARY ORGNS 9. CONTRACTUAL STAFFING

SELECTION TECHNIQUES
1. PRELIMINARY INTERVIEW 2. APPLICATION 3. CHECK OF REFERENCES 4. SKILL/PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS 5. EMPLOYMENT INTERVIEW/DEPTH 6. APPROVAL BY THE SELECTION COMMITTEE 7. MEDICAL EXAM 8. INDUCTION OR ORIENTATION

KINDS OF INTERVIEW
1. PRELIMINARY INTERVIEW 2. STRESS INTERVIEW 3. DEPTH INTERVIEW 4. PATTERNED INTERVIEW COMBINATION OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT QUESTIONING

CERTAIN OTHER IMPORTANT FACTORS


1. BASIC CHARACTER TRAITS 2. ATTITUDE 3. MOTIVATION LEVEL 4. MATURITY LEVEL

INDUCTION
CONCERNED WITH INTRODUCING OR ORIENTING NEW EMPLOYEE TO THE ORGN.SOME OF THE AREAS COVERED ARE : 1. OVERVIEW , HISTORY, IMP STORIES 2. VISION, MISSION N VALUES STATEMENT 3. HR POLICIES 4. ROLE AND RESPONSIBILITY 5. CULTURE OF THE ORGN

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT


Why training: 1. To complete the tasks well 2. To enhance skills levels 3. To add to existing knowledge levels 4. To prepare for higher positions 5. Help orgn to cope with change dynamics

DEFINITION OF TRAINING
It is a learning process that involves the acquisition of knowledge, sharpening of skills, concepts, rules, or changing of attitudes and behaviors to enhance the performance of employees. Training is activity leading to skilled behavior.

KEEP LEARNING CONTINUOUSLY


Anyone who stops learning is old, whether at twenty or eighty. Anyone who keeps learning stays young. - Henry Ford There is only one corner of the universe you can be certain of improving and that's your own self. - Aldous Huxley

ROLE OF TRAINING

IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING
1. IT IS AN INVESTMENT OPTIMAL UTILISATION OF RESOURCES - MAKING EMPLOYEES MORE EFFECTIVE 2. ENHANCES PRODUCTIVITY 3. DEVELOP AND BUILD CAREERS 4. INCREASE SKILLS SET AND MARKET WORTH, JOB SECURITY 5. ENHANCES TEAM WORK, MORALE N COOPERATION, LOYALTY 6. LESS OF SUPERVISION, LESS OF ACCIDENTS 7. HEALTHY WORK ENVIRONMENT WHICH HELPS ACHIEVE ORGN GOALS

OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING
1. ACQUIRING INTELLECTUAL/JOB RELATED KNOWLEDGE 2. ACQUIRING SKILLS SET 3. ACQUIRING MANAGERIAL SKILLS

TNA TRAINING NEED ANALYSIS


1. ORGANIZATION ANALYSIS 2. TASK ANALYSIS 3. INDIVIDUAL ANALYSIS

ORGANIZATION ANALYSIS
DETAILED ANALYSIS OF 1. OBJECTIVES LONG TERM AND SHORT TERM OF ORGN AND STAFF 2. ORGN STRUCTURE 3. HUMAN RESOURCES - INVENTORY 4. ORGN CULTURE 5. FUTURE BUSINESS PLANS

ESSENTIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR ORGN ANALYSIS


1. ADEQUATE QUANTITY OF STAFF 2. QUALITY OF STAFF PERFORMANCE AS PER STANDARDS 3. CONDUCIVE WORKING ENVIRONMENT

TASK ANALYSIS
1. DETAILED EXAMINATION OF EACH JOB, ITS COMPONENTS, VARIOUS OPS AND CONDITIONS FOCUS IS ON TASK 2. STANDARD OF PERFORMANCE ( SOP) 3. METHODS LITERATURE REVIEW,JOB PERFORMANCE, JOB OBSERVATION, DATA ANALYSIS, TIME AND MOTION STUDIES ETC

INDIVIDUAL ANALYSIS
FOCUS IS ON THE INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYEES, ABILITIES AND INPUTS REQD FOR JOB PERFORMANCE, INDIVIDUAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN TERMS OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION


1. OBSERVATION AT PLACE OF WORK 2. INTERVIEWS WITH SUPERIORS N EMPLOYEES 3. COMPARITIVE STUDY OF GOOD VS AVERAGE EMPLOYEES 4. PERSONNEL RECORDS 5. PRODN REPORTS 6. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 7. JOB KNOWLEDGE, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS ETC

EXECUTION OF TRG PROGRAMS


RESPONSIBILITY OF THE FOLLOWING STAKEHOLDERS: 1. TOP MGT 2. HRM DEPT 3. MANAGERS WHO SUPPORT AND HELP IMPLEMENTATION 4. EMPLOYEES WHO PROVIDE FEEDBACK, REVISION, SUGGESTIONS..

DIFFERENT PURPOSES OF LEARNING


ACCORDING TO DOUGLAS MCGREGOR THE PURPOSES OF LEARNING ARE - ACQUIRING: 1. INTELLECTUAL KNOWLEDGE 2. MANUAL SKILLS 3. PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS

TYPES OF TRAINING
1. INTERNAL ON THE JOB TRAINING, IN HOUSE PROGRAMES 2. EXTERNAL GOVT, NGOS, CONSULTANTS, EDUCATIONAL MGT INSTITUTES NOTE : TRG DEPT PREPARES A TRAINING BUDGET

OBJECTIVES OF INDIVIDUAL TRAINING


1. DEMONSTRATION OF VALUE COMPLETE GRASP OF IDEAS, CONCEPTS, OR PROCEDURES VISUALLY 2. ENGAGING DEVELOPING INTEREST 3. APPEAL TO THE SENSES

VARIOUS METHODS OF TRAINING


1. ON THE JOB TRAINING 2.VESTIBULE/CLASSROOM TRG 3. APPRENTICE PROGRAMME 4. WORK SIMULATION 5. KNOWLEDGE BASED METHODS LECTURES, SEMINARS, WORKSHOPS.. 6. EXPERIENTIAL METHODS

EXPERIENTIAL METHODS
THE EMPHASIS IN THIS CATEGORY IS ON ACHIEVING GROUP PROCESSES AND DYNAMICS, A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF ONESELF AND OTHERS

MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT
ED OR MD IS AN ATTEMPT AT IMPROVING INDIVIDUALS MANAGERIAL CAPABILITIES AND EFFECTIVENESS THROUGH A PLANNED DELIBERATE PROCESS OF LEARNING

MANAGERIAL SKILLS HAVE COME UNDER THE SPOTLIGHT


PEOPLE DONT LEAVE ORGANIZATIONS THEY LEAVE MANAGERS EMPLOYEE RETENTION IS ONE OF THE KEY METRIC TO TRACK MANAGERIAL EFFECTIVENESS

END RESULTS OF MD
1. IMPROVEMENT IN TECH PERFORMANCE 2. BETTER SUPERVISION N LEADERSHIP 3. INTER-DEPARTMENT COOPERATION 4. IMPROVING ORGN STRUCTURE 5. MOTIVATION ESP OF JUNIORS 6. HIGHLIGHTING INDIVIDUAL WEAKNESS 7. ATTRACTING QUALITY PEOPLE 8. FACILATING PROMOTION FROM WITHIN

OUTPUT VARIABLES
1. KNOWLEDGE CHANGE 2. ATTITUDE CHANGE 3. BEHAVIOURAL CHANGE 4. PERFORMANCE CHANGE 5. END OPERATIONAL RESULTS

TRAINING IS IMPACTED BY
FORMAL ORGN STRUCTURE LEADERSHIP CLIMATE CULTURAL FACTORS REWARD SYSTEM..

EVALUATION OF TRG EFFECTIVENESS


1. REACTION DID THE TRAINEE LIKE THE SESSION ? WAS IT WORTHWHILE? 2. LEARNING DID HE LEARN THE PRINCIPLES, SKILLS ETC 3. BEHAVIOUR CHANGE ON THE JOB 4. RESULTS WHAT ARE THE FINAL RESULTS OF TRG- QUALITY OF WORK ETC 5. TIME SERIES ANALYSIS AFTER N BEFORE 6. STRUCTURED INTERVIEW WITH IMMEDIATE SUPERVISOR

TOWARDS EFFECTIVE TRG


1. SPECIFIC TRG OBJECTIVES 2. PLANNING AND PREPARATION 3. BENEFITS EXPLAINED TO TRAINEES 4. DETERMINE WHETHER TRAINEES HAVE THE INTELLIGENCE, MATURITY N MOTIVATION TO SUCCESSFULLY COMPLETE THE TRG 5.ORGN CONDITIONS BE CONDUCIVE TO LEARNING ENVIRONMENT

EFFECTIVE TRG
COMBINATION OF TRG METHODS PERSONAL INVOLVMENT AND PARTICIPATION OF TRAINEES FLEXIBILITY BE ALLOWED IN JUDGING THE RATES OF PROGRESS ASSISTANCE TO TRAINEE WHEN HE ENCOUNTERS LEARNING OBSTACLES REGULAR CONSTRUCTIVE FEEDBACK

CONCEPT OF EMPLOYEE GROWTH


1.TO ENHANCE PRODUCTIVITY 2. TO CONTROL ATTRITION RATES 3. PREVENT JOB BURN OUT AND OBSOLESCENSE 4. TO OVERALL IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF EMPLOYEES WORK TALENT MANAGEMENT SO THAT THEY ARE BUILDING THEIR CAREERS

KEY INITIATIVES BY ORGNS


1. CAREER PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT 2. PROMOTIONS AND INTERNAL JOB POSITIONING 3. SUCCESSION PLANNING 4. TALENT MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES FOCUSED ON GROWTH OF EMPLOYEE

CAREER PLANNING
CAREER PLG IS A DELIBERATE ATTEMPT BY AN INDIVIDUAL TO BECOME MORE AWARE OF THEIR SKILLS, INTEREST, VALUES, OPPORTUNITIES AND CONSTRAINTS TO IDENTIFY CAREER RELATED GOALS AND ESTABLISH PLANS TOWARDS ACHIEVING THEM

DYNAMICS OF CAREER PLG


1. HOW INDIVIDUALS PLAN AND IMPLEMENT THEIR CAREER GOAL 2. HOW ORGNS DESIGN AND IMPLEMENT THEIR CAREER DEVELOMENT PROGRAMS

CAREER DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITES


1. SELF ASSESSMENT TOOLS 2. INDIVIDUAL COUNSELLING 3. INFORMATION SERVICES 4. INITIAL EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS 5. ORGN ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS 6. DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS ( JOB ROTATION, IN-HOUSE TRAINING, TUITION REFUND PLANS, MENTORING..

SUCCSSION PLANNING
SENIOR EXECUTIVES PERIODICALLY REVIEW THEIR MANAGERIAL STAFF AND CRITICAL POSITIONS TO DETERMINE SEVERAL BACK UP PLANS BASED ON HR FORECASTS THIS INCLUDES REVIEW OF DATA OF ALL POTENTIAL CANDIDATES AND CAN BE DONE EITHER AS AN INFORMAL OR FORMAL PROCESS

FACTORS IN SUCCESSION PLG


1. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL RECORDS 2. PAST POSITIONS , SKILLS SET AND EXPERIENCE 3. AREA OF EXPERTISE 4. CAREER PATHS 5. VALUES AND ATTITUDES

BENEFITS OF A FORMAL SUCCESSION PLANNING


1. CLEAR CONTEXT TO STRATEGIC BUSINESS PLANNING 2. REDUCES RANDOMNESS 3. IT IS SYSTEMATIC AND SCIENTIFIC 4. ENABLES IDENTIFICATION OF HIGH POTENTIAL N FUTURE LEADERS 5. PROVIDES EARLY WARNING AND IF NECESSARY FOR LATERAL HIRING 6. HELPS PLAN FOR INTERNAL PROMOTION OPPORTUNITY

OTHER CAREER PROGRAMS


WORK FAMILY PROGRAMS RELOCATION ASSISTANCE HIRING SPOUSE WORK LIFE BALANCE SEMINARS FLEXIBLE WORK SCHEDULES OUTPLACEMENT PROGRAM ( DURING RECESSION RESKILLING ETC) SPECIAL PROGRAMS FOR WOMEN, MINORITIES N EMPLOYEES WITH DISABILITIES

CAREER DEV. PROGRAMS N LONG TERM BENEFIT


1. MUST BE INTEGRATED WITH EXISITING PROGRAMS 2. WELL COMMUNICATED 3. REVIEW IS NECESSARY 4. PROGRAMS MUST POSITIVELY IMPACT INDIVIDUAL AND ORGN EFFECTIVENESS BOTH IN THE SHORT TERM AND LONG TERM

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
Since my last report, this employee has reached rock bottomand has started to dig Sets low personal standardsand then constantly fails to achieve them This employee should go farand the sooner the better

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
IT IS AN ORGANIZED SET OF ACTIVITIES TO REGULARLY AND SYSTEMATICALLY EVALUATE EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND ENSURE ITS ALIGNMENT TO BUSINESS GOALS. ORGANIZATIONS LINK PERFORMANCE TO REWARDS AND INCENTIVES

PERFORMANCE
PERFORMANCE REFERS TO A SET OF OUTCOMES PRODUCED DURING A CERTAIN TIME PERIOD EXAMPLE SALES EX. WOULD HAVE SOME TARGET ANNUAL FIGURES

PERFORMANCE AND ORGN CHART


If you want to manage people effectively, help them by making sure the org chart leaves as little as possible to the imagination. It should paint a crystal-clear picture of reporting relationships and make it patently obvious who is responsible for what results. Jack Welch,

CONCEPT OF EMPLOYEE REVIEW


1. DEFINE PERFORMANCE 2. MEASURE PERGORMANCE 3. FEEDBACK AND COACHING

VALIDITY OF PMS FRAMEWORK


1. IT SHOULD MEASURE IMP.JOB CHARACTERISTICS 2. ENCOMPASS WHOLE JOB 3. MEASURE WHAT IT CLAIMS TO MEASURE 4. IT DOES NOT ASSESS OTHER CONSTRUCTS BESIDES PERFORMANCE 5. BASED ON SOUND JOB ANALYSIS

BENEFITS OF PMS
1. PMS AFFORDS A FAIR PROCESS THAT ALLOWS BENCHMARKING THE EMPLOYEE AND CALIBRATE PERFORMANCE VS OTHERS 2. FACILITATES PRAISE AND FEEDBACK 3. PERFORMANCE LINKED REWARDS INCENTIVE OR MONETARY BONUS

RELIABILITY OF THE ASSESSMENT TOOL


TAKE CARE OF INTER-RATER RELIABILITY GUARD AGAINS SUBJECTIVE EVALUATION

OTHER ASPECTS
FREEDOM FROM BIAS PRACTICALITY BE SIMPLE USE TECHNOLOGY

TYPES OF APPRAISAL METHODS


TRAIT BASED APPRAISAL BEHAVIOUR BASED APPRAISAL RESULTS BASED APPRAISAL

INDIVIDUAL EVALUATION METHODS


1. GRAPHIC RATING SCALE 2. FORCED CHOICE USED BY SUPERIORS, PEERS, SUBORDINATES OR A COMBINATION 3. ESSAY EVALUATION 4. MBO ( KRA, KPA, TGTS, COMMITMENTS USING SMART FRAME) 5. CRITICAL INCIDENT TECHNIQUE

BARS
BEHAVIOURALLY ANCHORED RATING SCALES ALSO CALLED BES BEHAVIOURAL EXPECTATION SCALE MGRS GIVE DESCRIPTIONS OF ACUTUALLY GOOD N BAD PERFORMANCE N HR SPECIALISTS GP INTO CATEGORIES EX. 5 TO 10 MGR CHOOSES THE MOST APPROPRIATE BASED ON THE PERFORMANCE

MULTIPLE PERSON EVALUATION METHODS


1. RANKING 2. PAIRED COMPARISON 3. FORCED DISTRIBUTION 4. 360 DEGREE APPRAISAL ( CIRCLE CONSISTS OF FEEDBACK SOURCES WHICH CONSISTS OF MGRS, PEERS, SUBORDINATES, CUSTOMERS AND ONES SELF

COMPENSATION MGT
INCLUDES THE FOLLOWING:WAGE AND SALARY ADMN JOB EVALUATION WAGE - STRUCTURES, SURVEYS, CHANGES AND ADJUSTMENTS PROFIT SHARING CONTROL OF COMPENSATION COSTS AND OTHER RELATED PAY ITEMS

WAGES AND SALARIES


SALARIED WHITE COLLAR, ADMINISTRATIVE, PROFESSIONAL AND EXECUTIVE EMPLOYEES WAGE EARNERS HOURLY, NONSUPERVISORY OR BLUE COLLAR

FACTORS TOWARDS RAISING EFFECTIVENESS


1. ATTRACT AND RETAIN THE TALENT AN ORGN NEEDS 2. MOTIVTION 3. PERFORMANCE DRIVEN CULTURE 4. COMPENSATION/SALARY SYSTEMS MUST LINK TO THE OVERALL ORGN GOALS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE COMPANY

MANAGING WAGES
MAIN PURPOSE IS TO ESTABLISH EQUITABLE SALARY AND WAGE PROGRAMS DESIGN AND IMPLEMENT AN EQUITABLE LABOUR-COST STRUCTURE

DIFFERENT THEORIES
1. SUBSITENCE THEORY 2. STANDARD OF LIVING THEORY 3. RESIDUAL CLAIMANT THEORY 4. WAGE FUND THEORY 5. DEMAND N SUPPLY THEORY 6. PURCHASING POWER THEORY 7. BARGAINING THEORY OF WAGES

ILO
CLASSIFIED WAGES:AMOUNT NECESSARY 1. FOR MERE SUBSISTENCE 2. FOR HEALTH AND DECENCY 3. PROVIDE A STANDARD OF COMFORT

CLASSIFICATION OF WAGES IN INDIA


1. MINIMUM WAGES 2. FAIR WAGE 3. LIVING WAGE

MINIMUM WAGES ACT 1948


PROVIDES FOR BARE SUSTENCE OF LIFE ALSO FOR THE PRESERVATION OF THE EFFICIENCY OF WORKERS BY WAY OF EDUCATION, MEDICAL CARE AND OTHER AMENITIES

FAIR WAGE
IT IS THE WAGE WHICH IS ABOVE THE MINIMUM WAGE BUT BELOW THE LIVING WAGE LOWER LIMIT IS THE MINIMUM WAGE AND UPPER LIMIT IS THE CAPACITY OF THE INDUSTRY TO PAY NOTE ACTUAL WAGES WILL DEPEND ON VAROUS FACTORS- PRODUCTIVITY, PLACE OF INDUSTRY IN ECONOMY ETC

LIVING WAGE
THIS IS THE ULTIMATE GOAL IN THE WAGE POLICY LIVING WAGE WAS TO PROVIDE A STD OF LIVING THAT WOULD ENSURE NOT ONLY GOOD HEALTH FOR THE WORKER AND FAMILY AS WELL AS A MEASURE OF DECENCY, COMFORT, EDUCATION FOR HIS CHILDREN AND INSURANCE

WAGES R INFLUENCED BY SOCIAL, LEGAL N ECONOMIC FACTORS


1. COLLECTIVE BARGAINING 2. VOLUNTARY ARBITRATION 3. WAGE LEGISLATION 4. CONCILIATION 5. ADJUDICATION 6. WAGE BOARDS..

MANAGING BENEFITS
1.LEGAL AND LOCAL LAWS 2. POSITION OF BENEFITS IN THE TOTAL COMPENSATION STRATEGY 3. ARE BENEFITS MEETING THE NEEDS N EXPECTATIONS OF EMPLOYEES AND DEPENDENTS 4. COMPETITIVE 5. CONSISTENT WITH LONG TERM STRATEGIC BUSINESS OBJECTIVES

COMMON METRICS USED


1. ANNUAL COST OF BENEFIS FOR ALL EMPLOYEES 2. COST PER EMPLOYEE PER YEAR 3. PERCENTAGE COST OF PAYROLL 4. PERCENTAGE COST OF TOTAL COSTS NOTE THERE IS NO SCIENTIFIC WAY OF ASCERTAINING EMPLOYEE BENEFITS IMPACT ON FACTORS SUCH AS EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION, RETENTION ETC

JOB EVALUATION
THE PROCESS OF ANALYSIS AND ASSESSMENT OF JOBS TO ASCERTAIN RELIABILY THEIR RELATIVE WORTH, USING THE ASSESSMENT AS A BASIS FOR A BALANCED WAGE STRUCTURE FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPT IS TO BE ABLE TO OBJECTIVELY ASSESS THE WORTH OF THE JOB WRT THE SKILLS AND CAPABILITIES THAT IS REQUIRED TO EXECUTE IT

JOB EVALUATION SYSTEMS


DEPEND ON THE FOLLOWING: 1. JOB ANALYSIS ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS WHAT, HOW, WHY, SKILLS ,EDN, TRG, RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER JOBS, PHYSICAL DEMANDS, ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS 2. JOB DESCRIPTION WRITTEN RECORD OF DUTIES,RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDITIONS OF THE JOB

JOB EVALUATION METHODS


1. NON- QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION MEASURES (A) RANKING SYSTEM (B) JOB-CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 2. QUANTATIVE EVALUATION : (A) POINT SYSTEM (B) FACTOR COMPARISON SYSTEM

COMPETENCY
COMPETENCY IS DEFINED AS A CAPACITY THAT EXISTS IN A PERSON THAT LEADS TO A BEHAVIOUR THAT MEETS THE JOB DEMANDS WITHIN PARAMETERS OF ORGANIZATIONAL AND THAT IN- TURN BRING ABOUT DESIRED RESULTS

COMPETENCY MAPPING
COMPETENCIES ARE BASED ON: 1. KNOWLEDGE 2. SKILLS DEMONSTRATION OF EXPERTIS 3. MOTIVE RECURRENT THOUGHT THAT DRIVES BEHAVIOUR, ATTITUDE, VALUE AND SELF IMAGE 4. TRAITS GENERAL DISPOSITION TO BEHAVE IN A PARTICULAR WAY

COMPETENCY FRAMEWORK HELPS


1. ONE UNIVERSAL SET OF COMPETENCIES FOR ALL POSITIONS 2. BUILDS A COMMON LANGUAGE/FRAME OF REFERENCE 3. MERIT OF EACH POSITIONS/INDS 4. EASIER COMPARISON 5. ALIGNMENT TO A COMMONE CULTURE

LINKING COMPETENCY TO HR SYSTEMS


1. RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION 2. PERFORMANCE MGT 3. TRG NEEDS 4. CAREER PLANNING 5. COMPENSATION PHILOSOPHY 6. SUCCESSION PLANNING

MORALE
IN GENERAL IT REFERS TO ESPRIT DECORPS FEELING OF ENTHUSIASM, ZEAL, CONFIDENCE IN INDIVIDUALS OR GPS THAT THEY WILL BE ABLE TO COPE WITH THE TASKS ASSIGNED TO THEM RESULT OF HIGH MORALE IS HIGH EFFICIENCY AND PRODUCTIVITY

GOOD VS POOR MORALE


MORALE IS A STATE OF MIND AND EMOTIONS AFFECTING THE ATTITUDE AND WILLINGNESS TO WORK , WHICH IN TURN AFFECT IND. N ORGN OBJECTIVES SUM TOTAL OF SEVERAL PSYCHOLOGICAL QUALITIES DISLIKE OF JOB, INSUBORDINATION ETC ARE INDICATORS OF POOR MORALE

THREE CATEGORIES - MORALE


1. OFF THE JOB SATISFACTION EXPECTED FROM WORK SUCH AS INCOME, STATURE, SECURITY .. 2. ON THE JOB SATISFACTION OPPORTUNITY FOR GROWTH ETC 3. PERSONAL SATISFACTION EXPERTISE, OPPORTUNITY FOR FURTHER ADVANCEMENT ETC

SIGNALS OF LOW MORALE


1. EMPLOYEE UNREST GRAPEWINE 2. HIGH RATE OF ABSENTEEISM 3. TARDINESS 4. HIGH ATTRITION RATES 5. GRIEVANCES 6. DISCIPLINE ISSUES 7. FATIGUE AND MONOTONY

IMPROVING MORALE
1. JOB ENRICHMENT 2. FLEXI WORKING HOURS 3. ROTATION OF JOBS 4. PROFIT SHARING AND INCENTIVE SCHEMES 5. TEAM BUILDING 6. DEVELOPING WORK GROUPS 7. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

SOME METHODS FOR MEASURING MORALE


1. GENERAL IMPRESSION OF MGR 2. GUIDED INTERVIEW 3. UNGUIDED INTERVIEW 4. COMBINATION OF 2 & 3 5. COMPANY RECORDS AND REPORTS 6. LISTENING IN BY A TRAINED OBSERVER 7. SURVEY QUESTIONANAIRE METHOD

MOTIVATION
MOTIVATION CONCERNS WITH THE WILL TO WORK ACT OF STIMULATING SOMEONE TO TAKE A DESIRED COURSE OF ACTION TO GET A DESIRED REACTION MOTIVATION IS A PROCESS STIMULUS INITIATING BEHAVIOR ..A SUSTAINED ACTIVITY.CHANNELIZING THE ACTIVITY IN A GIVEN COURSE

EMPLOYEES PERFORMANCE
P = f( S,M) S= SKILLS M = MOTIVATION KEY TO UNDERSTAND MOTIVTION LIES IN THE MEANING AND RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN NEEDS, DRIVES AND GOALS

MOTIVTION CYCLE
Needs creates behaviour to reach goals Goals creates new needs

THEORY X ASSUMPTIONS
(1) most people dislike work and will avoid it to the extent possible, therefore (2) they must be continually coerced, controlled, and threatened with punishment to get the work done, and (3) they have little or no ambition, prefer to avoid responsibility, and choose security above everything else.

THEORY Y ASSUMPTIONS
(1) physical and mental effort are natural and most people (depending on the work environment) find work to be a source of satisfaction, (2) they generally, on their own motivation, exercise self-control, self-direction, creativity, and ingenuity in pursuit of individual and collective (company) goals, (3) they either seek responsibility or learn to accept it willingly, (4) their full potential is not tapped in most organizations.

HERZBERGS THEORY

HYGIENE AND MOTIVATORS

EXPECTANCY THEORY
When deciding among behavioral options, individuals select the option with the greatest motivation forces (MF). The motivational force for a behavior, action, or task is a function of three distinct perceptions: Expectancy, Instrumentality, and Valance. The motivational force is the product of the three perceptions: MF = Expectancy x Instrumentality x Valence

VIE THEORY - PERCEPTIONS


Expectancy probability: based on the perceived effortperformance relationship. It is the expectancy that one's effort will lead to the desired performance and is based on past experience, self-confidence, and the perceived difficulty of the performance goal. Example: If I work harder than everyone else in the plant will I produce more? Instrumentality probability: based on the perceived performance-reward relationship. The instrumentality is the belief that if one does meet performance expectations, he or she will receive a greater reward. Example: If I produce more than anyone else in the plant, will I get a bigger raise or a faster promotion? Valence: refers to the value the individual personally places on the rewards. This is a function of his or her needs, goals, and values. Example: Do I want a bigger raise? Is it worth the extra effort? Do I want a promotion?

DISCIPLINARY POLICY
1. Location of Responsibility 2. Proper formulation and communication 3. Rules & Regulations be reasonable 4. Equity 5. Disciplanary action be taken in private 6. Promptness in taking action 7. Innocence is presumed 8. Get the facts 9. Action in a non-threatening atmosphere 10. After action is taken back to square one 11. Negative motivation be handled positively

FEW IMP. PRINCIPLES DISCIPLINE


1. ENLIST CO-OPERATION N COLLABORATION OF STAFF REPS 2. FREQUENT COMMUNICATION 3. UNIFORMITY NO EXCEPTION 4. PENALTIES CLEARLY STATED 5. PREVENTIVE RATHER THAN PUNITIVE 6. PROVISION FOR APPEAL AND REVIEW

GROUP DYNAMICS
BENEFITS OF GROUPS:1. ENHANCED PERFORMANCE 2. EMPLOYEE NEEDS FULFILLED 3. QUALITY DECISIONS 4. ORGN ENHANCEMENTS INNOVATION, IMPROVED PROCESSES 5. GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS

CHARACTERISTICS OF A GP
1. ALL GPS HAVE LEADERS 2. ALL GPS HAVE FOLLOWERS 3. ORGN GOALS 4. HAVE IDEAS ABOUT WHAT IT TAKES TO ACHIEVE GOALS 5. COMMUNICATION INTER AND INTRA 6. ATTEMPT TO SATISFY IN SOME FORM MEMBER NEEDS ( FRIENDSHIP, SUPPORT, LOVE, SECURITY)

TYPES OF GROUPS
FORMAL INFORMAL BOTH GROUPS HAVE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGE

STAGES OF GP FORMATION
1. FORMING ( UNCERTAINITY, CONFUSION) 2. STORMING (CONFLICT ..CONFRONTATION 3. NORMING ( SETTLING DOWN) 4. PERFORMING ( EXECUTION) 5. ADJORNING ( RELEVANT IN PROJECTS)

FACTORS THAT AFFECT GP BEHAVIOUR IN WORK


1. PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT PLANT, EQUIPMENT, LAYOUT. 2. PSYCHO- SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT WORKER ROLES, ATTITUDES, REWARDS, SUPERVISORY PRACTICES, STRUCTURE .

TOWARDS ENHANCING TEAM EFFECTIVENESS


1. TEAM BUILDING 2. COLLABORATION 3. LEADERSHIP 4. CULTURAL/GLOBAL ISSUES