CE 325 DIGITAL SIGNAL

PROCESSING
Lecture 4: Inverse z-transform
(Article 3.3)
The Inverse Z-Transform
 Formal inverse z-transform is based on a Cauchy integral
 Less formal ways sufficient most of the time
 Inspection method
 Partial fraction expansion
 Power series expansion

2
Inspection Method

 Make use of known z-transform pairs such as


 Example: The inverse z-transform of
3
| | a z
az 1
1
n u a
1
Z n
>
÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷
( ) | | | | n u
2
1
n x
2
1
z
z
2
1
1
1
z X
n
1
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷ >
÷
=
÷
( ) | | | |
| |
|
\ .
n
-1
1 1 1
X z = z <

x n = - u -n-1
1
2 2
1- z
2
Inverse z-Transform by Partial Fraction
Expansion
 Assume that a given z-transform can be expressed as



 Apply partial fractional expansion


 First term exist only if M>N
 B
r
is obtained by long division
 Second term represents all first order poles
 Third term represents an order s pole
 There will be a similar term for every high-order pole
 Each term can be inverse transformed by inspection
4
( )
¿
¿
=
÷
=
÷
=
N
0 k
k
k
M
0 k
k
k
z a
z b
z X
( )
( )
¿ ¿ ¿
=
÷
= =
÷
÷
=
÷
÷
+
÷
+ =
s
1 m
m
1
i
m
N
i k , 1 k
1
k
k
N M
0 r
r
r
z d 1
C
z d 1
A
z B z X
Partial Fractional Expression




 Coefficients are given as







 Easier to understand with examples

5
( )
( )
¿ ¿ ¿
=
÷
= =
÷
÷
=
÷
÷
+
÷
+ =
s
1 m
m
1
i
m
N
i k , 1 k
1
k
k
N M
0 r
r
r
z d 1
C
z d 1
A
z B z X
( ) ( )
k
d z
1
k k
z X z d 1 A
=
÷
÷ =
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) | |
1
i
d w
1
s
i
m s
m s
m s
i
m
w X w d 1
dw
d
d ! m s
1
C
÷
=
÷
÷
÷
÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
÷ ÷
=
Example: 2
nd
Order Z-
Transform
 Order of nominator is smaller than
denominator (in terms of z
-1
)
 No higher order pole

6
( )
2
1
z : ROC
z
2
1
1 z
4
1
1
1
z X
1 1
>
|
.
|

\
|
÷
|
.
|

\
|
÷
=
÷ ÷
( )
|
.
|

\
|
÷
+
|
.
|

\
|
÷
=
÷ ÷ 1
2
1
1
z
2
1
1
A
z
4
1
1
A
z X
( ) 1
4
1
2
1
1
1
z X z
4
1
1 A
1
4
1
z
1
1
÷ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
= |
.
|

\
|
÷ =
÷
=
÷
( ) 2
2
1
4
1
1
1
z X z
2
1
1 A
1
2
1
z
1
2
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
= |
.
|

\
|
÷ =
÷
=
÷
Example Continued
 ROC extends to infinity
 Indicates right sided sequence
7
( )
2
1
z
z
2
1
1
2
z
4
1
1
1
z X
1 1
>
|
.
|

\
|
÷
+
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷
=
÷ ÷
| | | | | | n u
4
1
- n u
2
1
2 n x
n n
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
Example #2
 Long division to obtain B
o
8
( )
( )
( )
1 z
z 1 z
2
1
1
z 1
z
2
1
z
2
3
1
z z 2 1
z X
1 1
2
1
2 1
2 1
>
÷
|
.
|

\
|
÷
+
=
+ ÷
+ +
=
÷ ÷
÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
1 z 5
2 z 3 z
2
1 z 2 z
1 z
2
3
z
2
1
1
1 2
1 2
1 2
÷
+ ÷
+ +
+ ÷
÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
( )
( )
1 1
1
z 1 z
2
1
1
z 5 1
2 z X
÷ ÷
÷
÷
|
.
|

\
|
÷
+ ÷
+ =
( )
1
2
1
1
z 1
A
z
2
1
1
A
2 z X
÷
÷ ÷
+
÷
+ =
( ) 9 z X z
2
1
1 A
2
1
z
1
1
÷ = |
.
|

\
|
÷ =
=
÷
( ) ( ) 8 z X z 1 A
1 z
1
2
= ÷ =
=
÷
Example #2 Continued
 ROC extends to infinity
 Indicates right-sides sequence
9
( ) 1 z
z 1
8
z
2
1
1
9
2 z X
1
1
>
÷
+
÷
÷ =
÷
÷
| | | | | | | | n 8u - n u
2
1
9 n 2 n x
n
|
.
|

\
|
÷ o =
10
Inverse Z-Transform by Power Series
Expansion
 The z-transform is power series


 In expanded form


 Z-transforms of this form can generally be inversed easily
 Especially useful for finite-length series
11
( ) | |
¿
·
÷· =
÷
=
n
n
z n x z X
( ) | | | | | | | | | |   + + + + ÷ + ÷ + =
÷ ÷ 2 1 1 2
z 2 x z 1 x 0 x z 1 x z 2 x z X
Inverse Z-Transform by Power Series
Expansion
 Example
12
( ) ( )( )
1 2
1 1 1 2
z
2
1
1 z
2
1
z
z 1 z 1 z
2
1
1 z z X
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
+ ÷ ÷ =
÷ + |
.
|

\
|
÷ =
| | | | | | | | | | 1 n
2
1
n 1 n
2
1
2 n n x ÷ o + o ÷ + o ÷ + o =
| |
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
=
=
= ÷
÷ = ÷
÷ =
=
2 n 0
1 n
2
1
0 n 1
1 n
2
1
2 n 1
n x

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