Literature review

AP Dr Lim Chap Sam School of Educational Studies Universiti Sains Malaysia cslim@usm.my

Questions to ponder
 WHY

do we need a literature review? do we need to do a literature review?

 WHEN 

HOW to write a critical review? & HOW to use literature review to support our thesis?

 WHEN

WHY do we need to do a literature review?
 No

one idea is really original

 Any

one idea is always built on or develop from another idea men think alike”

 “Great

WHY do we need to do a literature review? 3 reasons:

Avoid reinventing the wheel
– –

not to repeat what other people have done a waste of time, money and effort.

to learn from what others have done

and what else need to be expanded/further research upon

help to conceptualize our theoretical framework and conceptual framework.

based on others’ theories & methodology

WHEN do we need to do a literature review?
 At
– –

the beginning of the research project
Proposal Chapter 2, 1 & 3

 Constantly  When

update during the research

writing the discussion and conclusion chapters

HOW to write a critical review?
 writing

a review is NOT recording a list of literature or studies that you have read to show off how many literatures you have read a critical and careful examination of past studies and theories.

 NOT

 BUT

Avoid to write like this
Atan Long (1984) berpendapat bahawa ….. Kennedy (1996) pula berpendapat bahawa..... Chiero (1997) berpendapat bahawa....

-- not just writing who said what -- But to ‘digest’ what they said and -- present it in such a way that we used what they said to support what we are arguing or highlighting

But to write like this, example:
Tinjauan kajian yang berkaitan dengan sikap guru menunjukkan bahawa kebanyakan pendidik atau penyelidik (misalnya, Atan Long, 1984; Kennedy, 1996 or Chiero, 1997) mempunyai pendapat yang sama (atau beza) mengenai sikap guru. Atan Long (1984) berpendapat bahawa sikap guru adalah ……sedangkan Kennedy (1996) menganggap sikap guru kini lebih kepada…… Pendapat Kennedy disokong oleh Chiero (1997) bahawa……

More examples

Avoid to always begin a paragraph with a person’s name Use words or conjunctions such as ‘malahan’; ‘tetapi’, ‘whereas’; ‘however’; ‘similarly’ etc

Atan Long (1984) berpendapat bahawa …..... Tetapi pendapat beliau telah dibantah atau dipersoalkan oleh Kennedy (1996) yang mengatakan bahawa…. Chiero (1997) juga berpendapat sama bahawa....

Questions that help to examine critically while reading the literature

For each study, what are the objectives, sample, methodology and highlight of the finding? How many studies are doing the similar thing – in terms of sample, methods used? Are their findings consistent? Are their methods of data collection and analysis valid and reliable? What are the issues and problems that still need to research or identify or justify further?

Not a critical review:
Norzita (2004) dalam kajian mendapati min tahap kemahiran guru....... Johari Shasudin dan Baharudin Mustafa (1999) membuat kajian atas 160 orang guru....Dapatan kajian menunjukkan bahawa...... Kajian Norizan (2003) mendapati bahawa guru kurang mempunyai....... Tan (2002b) membuat kajian atas 4 buah sekolah telah mendapati.........
Just list all the related studies and their findings

How to make it critical?

To make it critical, we should :

1. identify and categorize the type of research studies that are related to the topic concerned.

2. summarize and highlight findings that are common to all.

3. display findings which are still contradicting and issues that are still need to be explored further

Better example
Kajian tempatan mengenai sikap guru boleh dibahagi kepada dua kategori, iaitu a) ___- dan b) ______. Didapati kebanyakan kajian memfokus kepada jenis pertama (misalnya, Norzita, 2004; Norizan, 2003). Kedua-dua kajian Norzita dan Norizan menjalankan kajian atas __________ dan dapatan mereka menunjukkan bahawa…………Bagi jenis kedua yang lebih menekankan kepada ............., kajian Tan (2002b) telah memaparkan bahawa……….Walaupun membuat kajian atas sample yang berbeza, Johari Shasudin dan Baharudin Mustafa (1999) telah pun menunjukkan bahawa……….. Tetapi, pada keseluruhannya, masih kekurangan kajian yang menyentuh tentang sikap guru dari segi……Oleh itu, satu kajian yang bertujuan ……. adalah sangat diperlukan pada masa kini.

WHEN to use literature review to support our thesis?

Statement of problem – Background of problem – What others have done, what not yet done? Theoretical framework – Related theories Methodology – Methods commonly used for the research – Justification of methods chosen Discussion chapter – Support/contrast the findings Conclusion

How to insert/use literature review in discussion

While discussing the results of our research,

need to link our findings to what other researchers have found, whether our findings coincide or contradict with theirs. need to use our review to support our argument or justification

Example:
Dapatan kajian ini menunjukkan bahawa……….. Hasil dapatan ini menyokong apa yang telah didapati oleh Tan (2002). Walaupun dalam kajian ini, peserta kajian adalah guru yang mengajar peringkat sekolah rendah sedangkan dalam kajian Tan adalah ......., didapati kedua-dua kajian memaparkan ........... Maka, ini memberi implikasi bahawa.......

Summary

Doing research is an on-going process.
– – –

We begin our research by reviewing other studies and related literatures. Then we go on to carry out our research. We collect data and analyze the data collected.

At the same time, we must not forget that many other people are also doing their research and contributing their results to the field of study that we are doing. Therefore, it is very important that we keep update our review of literature so that we are not ignorant about the research development of the related field that we are studying.

Good luck

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