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Analyzing Quantitative Data

Profesor Madya Dr. Mokhtar Ismail
Data analysis is a component of
scientific method
Steps in scientific method
1. Defining the problem.
2. Formulating hypothesis.
3. Collection and analysis of data.
4. Decision (rejection or retention of
5. Repeated verification.
What is the major role of the steps
in scientific method?
• For making generalization of research
findings from the sample to the population
with the help of statistical theory on
significance testing
Why do we need to understand
the rationale of significance
testing ?
Because it helps us choosing
relevant statistical tests
Lets take a look at an example of
a significance testing procedure
Lets assume our Dean’s
hypothesis: Our students’ GPA of
last semester was 2.75
She can collect thousands of
samples of for example 200
students for each sample and
compute the mean
In research she needs only one
sample to make conclusion
If she gets one sample and the
mean is 2.85 (x bar= 2.85). Is it
generalizable to the population?
How to make it generalizable? By
the the help of CLT in order to
say the sample is representative
In other words we want to say:
we are 95% confidence that the
sample represents the population
We have to make use the
property of normal distribution
because of CLT
At 95% confidence interval the
value of z scores are plus/minus
1.96 where the area is 2.5% at
both ends
When we get a sample we
compute the mean and see
whether or not it falls within the
How do we do that? We use z
score. Which is a deviation unit in
terms of standard error
We call this test statistic. We
compare test statistic with critical
Whether the CI span the test
statistic? If it does, we say that
we are 95% confidence that the
sample represent the population
Hypothesis testing is the other
side of the same coin
We have the null hypothesis
which says that there is no
significant difference between
sample and population mean
We want to reject the null
hypothesis: We want to say that
CI does not span the
hypothesized value
If we can do that we can say that
the sample is representative
If our Dean has GPA of each
student, she does not have to do
this research. She could have got
the mean by averaging from all
Key issue is the choice of
relevant test statistic for research