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“A community which takes satan rather than Allah as its patron and assault nature to the extend of altering Allah's creation, will face obvious and tangible loss and its ultimate abode will be (an environmental) hell from which it will find no escape.” (Al-Quran, 4:117-119)
WHAT IS POLLUTION ?
The word comes from Latin word ”POLLUTUS’ which means MADE FOUL, UNCLEAN or DIRTY Anything added to air, water, soil, or food that threatens the health, survival capability, or activities of living things. Material that causes pollution is called pollutants
Definition from EQA (Act 127) Any direct or indirect alteration of the physical, thermal, chemical or biological properties of any part of the environment by discharging, emitting or depositing environmentally hazardous substances, pollutants or wastes, so as to affect any beneficial use adversely , to cause a condition that is hazardous or potentially hazardous to public health, safety or welfare, or to animals, birds, wildlife, fish or aquatic life, or to plants or to cause contravention of any condition, limitation or restriction to which a license under this Act is subject.
DEFINITION “Any physical, biological or chemical change in water quality that adversely affects living organisms or makes water unsuitable for desired uses”
(Saigo, Cunningham, Environmental science, Mc Graw- Hill)
WATER POLLUTION IS MAINLY CAUSED BY:
Domestic waste Agriculture waste Industrial waste Marine pollution – oil spill
TYPES OF WATER POLLUTANTS
Acids Toxic matter Agricultural chemical Pathogens Organic matter Salt Sediment
SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION 1. POINT SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION
Discharge of pollution from specific locations Identifiable because it comes from specific locations Can be monitored / regulated E.g. Industrial discharge (wastewater, chemicals, factories) and sewage treatment plants that emit fluids of varying quality directly into water supply.
2. NON – POINT SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION
Cannot be traced into any one point of discharge. Very hard to monitor Eg. Agriculture runoff ( chemicals, pesticides, sediments) urban runoff, roadway runoff.
RESULT FROM HUMAN ACTIVITIES THAT CAUSED WATER POLLUTION Results by product of economic and social activities (producing crops, comfortable homes , providing energy, manufacturing products) that give impacts to aquatic ecosystem.
Sediments – from agriculture, mining, forests cutting & construction sites. Nutrient oversupply (Eutrophication), the growth of unwanted weeds- from sewage treatment plants, fertilizer runoff, domestic runoff. Toxic chemicals in water body – leaching from lawns, gardens & agriculture fields.
EFFECTS OF WATER POLLUTION TO THE ENVIRONMENT
Human health – poisoning from drinking water of untreated sewage, poisonous food animals where they accumulate toxin from environment and human consume these food. Unbalanced river / lake ecosystems that can no longer support full biological diversity. Deforestation from acid rain Eutrophication
WATER POLLUTION CONTROL
Point sources solution Divert effluent from the waste streams and treat or filter it before it enters the environment. e.g. septic tank, primary & secondary sewage treatment
Non point sources solution Euthrophication - Harvesting excessive plant growth; unwanted weeds can be eliminated by chemical treatments.
Sediments - Construction and mining sites- sediment traps, destabilize the exposed area with grass immediately - Preserving wetlands Urban runoff - Encourage to recycle waste oil and to minimize use of fertilizers and pesticides. - Regular street sweeping - reduce contaminants Agriculture - Applying precisely determined amounts of fertilizers - Use slow-release fertilizers - Plant buffer zones of permanent vegetation between cultivated field and nearby surface water
Air is one of the major environmental elements that is crucial to life on Earth. Air exists everywhere on the surface of the Earth and clean air represents a basic need that allows humans and all organisms to breathe. Air is made up of a mixture of gases, namely 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and 1% other gases (carbon dioxide, argon and others). Clean air is odourless, colourless and non-toxic.
DEFINITION Substances which, when presents in the atmosphere can adversely affect the health of humans, animals and plants or microbial life, damage materials or interfere with the enjoyment of life and the use of property.
The air pollution have been predicted in the Quran: “Watch for the day when the sky will bring forth visible smoke that will engulf.”
WHAT IS AIR POLLUTANTS? Chemical or physical changes brought about by either natural processes or human activities, resulting in air quality degradation. MAJOR AIR POLLUTANTS Total suspended particulate/ suspended particulate matter Sulphur oxides (SOx) Carbon monoxides (CO) Hydrocarbons (HC) Photochemical oxidants (Ox) SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION Natural sources Human-caused air pollution
NATURAL SOURCE OF AIR POLLUTION
Volcanoes erupt ash, acid mists, hydrogen sulfide and other toxic gases Decaying vegetation releases reactive sulfur compounds Forest fire creates cloud of smoke into the air Trees/ bushes emit volatile organic compounds which cause blue haze Bacterial metabolism of decaying vegetation in swamp area.
HUMAN-CAUSED AIR POLLUTION
Primary pollutants – those released directly from the source into the air in a harmful form (particulates, CO, Nox, Sox and lead). Secondary pollutants – modified to a hazardous form after they enter the air or formed by chemical reactions as components of the air mix and interact (ozone, photochemical oxidants, sulfuric and nitric acids). Fugitive emissions – emission that does not go through a smokestack. E.g. dust from soil erosion, building constructions and rock crushing.
Effects and Causes of Air Pollution Polluted air can cause health problems and damage to the environment such as:
Health problems affecting all living things Acid rain Greenhouse effect Thinning of the ozone layer in the stratosphere Global warming Haze
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL
Transportation Hydrocarbon control Emission control devices Raise parking fees Industrial process Using particular removal such as bag filter and electronic precipitator Stationary fuel combustion Oil companies are required to offer alternative fuels, such as methanol or ethanol, hydrogen or compressed natural gas.
Measures Taken by the Government in Handling Issues and Challenges Concerning Air Quality Management
Airborne surveillance programme to monitor and detect sources of air pollution like open burning, smoke and gas emissions from factories; Area Watch and Sanction Inspection (AWASI) programme to conduct patrolling and observation of excessive black smoke emission from exhausts of vehicles; Control of Black Smoke Emission from Diesel and Petrol Vehicles Campaign carried out along highways and main roads throughout the country
In mid-August 2005 several locations in mainland Malaysia declared air quality emergencies as smoke from burning in Indonesia wafted across the Strait of Malacca and blanketed the country with haze. This image, created using data collected by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA’s Aura satellite, shows the density of the smoke on August 10, 2005. Red-colored areas show where smoke was thickest.
The DOE carried out National Haze Action Plan
National Haze Action Plan is a guideline formulated and used by the federal government since 1999 to handle the haze problem. For example, when the air pollution index (API) indicates an unhealthy level (101-200) for more than 72 hours, the DOE will prohibit all open burning, the Health Department will issue a statement to the public to take precautions to safeguard their health, and the Department of Meteorology will conduct cloud-seeding operations. When the API reading reaches 300, the Central Committee for Management and Disaster Relief is galvanised into action and the State and National Safety Operations Room remains open 24 hours a day. The Ministry of Education will order schools to be closed when the API reading reaches 400. A haze emergency will be declared by the Prime Minister when API reading exceeds 500.
The Industrial Revolution, the growth of cities, and the demand for transportation made the world even noisier. With the modern world so dependent on and enchanted with noise-producing and noise-related systems the ambient noise level is rapidly accelerating. This growth in noise has led to research examining the impact of noise on the lives and activities of reasonable people. The result suggests noise is hazardous to good mental and physical health.
WHAT IS NOISE POLLUTION? Sounds that are often annoys us, unpleasant or unwanted.
How Noise Pollution is Measured
Noise and sound are measured in decibels. A decibel number of 65, for example, would cause distraction and is considered “intrusive.” This is about the level of your average, everyday traffic. 80 decibels is considered annoying and is approximately the loudness of an alarm clock. Neither one of these is dangerous to your hearing, but can impair your ability to sleep. A decibel level of around 88 would occur in city traffic or in industrial work. Individuals exposed to this noise level for a lengthy period of time may experience actual hearing damage. Once the decibel level goes above 80, prolonged exposure such as eight hours or more may cause increased tension, fatigue, changes in breathing, blood circulation and of course, loss of hearing. Sound at the level of 135 decibels is beyond annoying and intrusive, it becomes simply painful and can damage your hearing.
1. Transport noise Road noise comes from cars, buses, lorries, van & motorbike.
Social noise Neighborhood noise- Amplified music, dogs, domestic activities, car repairs. Industrial noise From factory or by building works. - much more problem to people working in a factory, will suffer permanent hearing damage and report annoyance from general public.
NOISE POLLUTION SOLUTION Transport noise
Sound reflector wall that are : a) High concrete wall or b) Louvered wall to be built between residential area and highway road as a reflector. Bumper as to avoid racing along special road or residential area. Planting zone as a barrier between spaces
Social noise -neighborhood Layout housing arrangement for car parking spaces, resident have to few minutes walk away from residential area. Landscape design such as planting, fountain to avoid hearing noise from road Double glazing and better insulated walls to reduce noise
Zoning and planning layout by following the guidelines of government Finding a new technology on machine by engineers to avoid noise pollution.
Precision Machinery Enclosure
Low Decibel Room (Below 40dBA)
High noise machinery enclosure (From130dBA, reduced to Below 80dBA)
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