SCIENCE OF DA’WAH & ITS METHODS

T.O.C
o Definition of “Da’wah” and “Islam” o Conception of Islamic Da’wah o Jihad, Amr Ma’ruf and Nahy Munkar and their relationship with da’wah

o Foundations of da’wah

Definition of “Da’wah” & “Islam”

“Da’wah”
Technical Meaning : o derived from – verb (da’a) o Infinitive noun / verbal noun – (du’a) & (da’wa)
Literal Meaning : o desire for God o an appeal for aid / call for help o an appeal to God / prayer o an invitation to a meal

“Da’wah”
Present days: o calling / invitation to Islam Abd al-Karim Zaydan, Usul al-Da’wah “By da’wah we mean the “call” to Allah as Allah the Exalted
says: “Say: This is my way, I call to Allah with sure knowledge, I and whosoever follow Me” “call to Allah” = call to His religion (Islam)

“Islam”
Technical meaning : o derived from – root (salima) Literary meaning: o Submission, total surrender (to God)

“Islam”
Qur’anic verses :
o the words
• • • • “islam” “muslim” “muslimun” “aslama”
These words have two meanings : • “surrender to God” – inner action • “practice of Islam” – devotion to the message of the Prophet

“Islam”
Qur’anic verses : o “Islam” with the meaning of its quality of interiority
“ Is one whose heart, God has opened to Islam so that he has received enlightenment from God”

o “Islam” with the meaning of the connection between islam and religion
“ The religion with Allah is Islam”

“Islam”
Qur’anic verses : o “Islam” with the meaning of “return” to God, a conversion.
“ They make it a favour to you (Muhammad) that they have accepted Islam. Say to them [Do not make your Islam as a favour to me, but rather Allah has done you a favour that he has guided you to the faith]”

o A clear distinction between “Islam” and Iman
“ The Bedouins say, “we believe” say, you do not believe, but rather say: “ We surrender (aslamna)”. Faith has not entered your heart”

“Islam”
Hadiths: o submission to God o expressed by deeds o prescribes acts of worship o a feeling of great admiration and love of God o the good deeds

“Islam”
Hadiths: o In Bukhari (hadith of Gabriel),
The Prophet in reply to question “What is islam?” replies: “islam is to adore God without associating anything with Him, to observe the ritual prayer(salah), to pay zakah, to fast during month of Ramadan)

o The Musnad of Ibn Hambal,
“Islam is external faith belongs to the heart”. The act of “surrender to God” is expressed by holding to religious law

“Islam”
Western: o denotes the whole body of Muslim people, countries, socio-cultural, political and religious sphere o everything connected and related with Muslims o better to distinguish between Islamic and Muslim WHY? many Muslims do not practice Islam in their daily lives, and many are far away from Islam

“Islam”
Present time: o According to Muhammad Abduh,
“The religion of Islam or Islam is the religion brought by Muhammad”

A religion brought by Prophet Muhammad, contains three aspects: iman, islam, ihsan o Iman – foundation of Islam o Islam – the structure o Ihsan – the top

CONCEPTION OF ISLAMIC DA’WAH

What is the nature of Islamic da’wah?
o a call to come to Islam as faith and as away of life o not only to a new faith, but a new order o After accepted Allah is the ultimate Ruler and prophet His messenger. The person has entered the gates of Allah’s “din”. To follow this din, the Muslim should take shari’ah as guidance in life o Shari’ah is a code planned by God as a way for acting on the din

Why da’wah?
o da’wah is an obligation o Should be performed by every Muslim o The call to Islam addressed by all the prophets to the people. After the passing of the Prophets, their successors were responsible this obligation

Why da’wah?
o The ummah of Prophet Muhammad is responsible for the duty of da’wah
“He who sees indecency and has power to change it with the force of his hand, he must change it. But if he has not the power, he must do it by his tongue, and if he has not the power, he must despise it in his heart, and this is the lowest stage of religious belief”

o It is the effort by Muslims to enable other men to share and benefit from the teachings of Islam

How da’wah?
o Follow the examples of Prophet Muhammad
• preaching among the people • Practising the Islamic teachings in his words and deeds • He taught them by doing himself what he wanted them to do

o Da’wah is gentle in its methods and means

JIHAD, AMR MA’RUF AND NAHY MUNKAR & THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH DA’WAH

What is the concept of Jihad?
English – “the war” / “the holy war” The encyclopedia of Islam, Djihad
“the djihat consist of military action with object of the expansion of Islam” Jihad – not on war - holy war undertaken for the da’wah of Islam

What is the concept of Jihad?
Arabic
o “jahd” / “juhd” - ability, effort, the use of power o “jihad” and “mujahadah” - the use of one’s power and effort o “jahada, yujahidu, jihadan” - the using of one’s power in contending with an object of disapprobation

What is the concept of Jihad?
Qur’an
o used in the context of using one’s power and ability without implying war “and those who strive hard (jahadu) for us, we will certainly guide them to our ways and Allah is surely with those who do right” Jihad – all that man can do to strive in the cause of Allah. As soon as he does that with might and main, patience and endurance, constancy and determination, the Light of Mercy of Allah are his reward

What is the concept of Jihad?
Qur’an
o In the Mecca revelations “And strive hard (jahidu) for Allah with due striving (jihad)” Jihad to attain nearness to Allah “So obey not the unbelievers and strive (jahid) against them a mighty striving with it” Jihad to be carried out against unbelievers, but not of the sword, but of the Qur’an

What is the concept of Jihad?
Traditions
o Hajj is called Jihad Prophet said : “The hajj is the most excellent of all jihads” o Al-Bukhari, in book “jihad” has mentioned about “invitation to Islam”

What is the concept of Jihad?
The life of the Prophet and Companion
o In Mecca, they strived hard to control their evil desires, improved their understanding of Islam and applied it by words and deeds and then they strove hard to convey the message

o In Medina, their striving involved the taking up of arms and fighting in the way of Islam with full dedication
Their sacrifice were the perfect example of Jihad

How many kinds of Jihad?
Jihad against self
o Effort directed upon oneself for the attainment of moral and spiritual purification o The most difficult Prophet said “The worst of your enemies is yourself within you” WHY? - difficulty in carrying out the struggle against oneself in everyday life as it needs constant effort all of time

How many kinds of Jihad?
Jihad against self
o Effort directed upon oneself to improve one understanding of the Islamic teachings and to put them into practice and then impart to others (da’wah) In the Qur’an “And strive hard in God’s cause with all the striving that is due to Him”

How many kinds of Jihad?
Jihad against satan
o To fight off the satanic temptation that go against faith and God o Quran : “Indeed, Satan is your enemy, therefore, you should treat him as your enemy. He is inviting his followers towards his way so that they may join the dwellers of Hell”

How many kinds of Jihad?
Jihad against satan
o Satan always tried to lead Muslim from the correct path except the pious Muslim o Quran : The saying of the satan : “By your Honour! I shall certainly lead them astray except those of You servants whom You have chosen” o Jihad against Satan in a duty of every Muslim, fight against satanic temptation. Allah taught Muslim to seek refuge in God from the promptings of Satan

How many kinds of Jihad?
Jihad against the disobedient
o Strive to put under control the efforts of the hypocrites and the disobedient o How? - debates - physical means “He who sees indecency and has power to change it with the force of his hand, he must change it. But if he has not the power, he must do it by his tongue, and if he has not the power, he must despise it in his heart, and this is the lowest stage of religious belief”

How many kinds of Jihad?
Jihad against unbelievers
o How? - debates - the use of one’s possessions - risking life

How many kinds of Jihad?
Jihad against unbelievers
Quran : “And to encounter them, provide whatever force and trained ever-ready horses you can afford whereby you may strike terror into the enemies of Allah and your enemies as well and others besides them whom you do not know but whom Allah knows. The reward of whatever you expend in the way of Allah shall be repaid to you in full. And you should not be wronged in any way” Allah asked Muslims to be ready in necessary military and an organised army, so that they may take military action immediately when required

How many kinds of Jihad?
Jihad against unbelievers
Quran : “And use your utmost in Allah’s way with your possessions and your lives” Prophet asked Muslims to do this jihad with tongue : “Use your utmost against unbelievers with your possessions, your lives and your tongue”

What is the relationship between Jihad, War and Da’wah?
Fight against unbelievers
o permission was given to Muslims during Medina period o had to take up military action in self-defense (jihad)

Islam is against aggression
o permission is given for war only in self-defense and under well defined requirement and justification o to restore peace and freedom o not transgressed, women, children, old o infirm person should not be abused nor trees and crops be cut down

What is the relationship between Jihad, War and Da’wah?
War
o allowed if there are good reasons o war is distasteful, Islam preserves life o a last resort to defend Islam

What is the relationship between Jihad, War and Da’wah?
Why was there so much war between Muslims and unbelievers during Prophet time?
o sword was taken up to destroy Muslim community or to force it to return to unbelief o Quran : “permission (to fight) is given to those on whom war is made, because they are oppressed. And surely Allah is able to assist them”

only against people who made war on them not to people in general

What is the relationship between Jihad, War and Da’wah?
Jihad – a conversion of non-muslim to Islam?
o Jihad is not fighting against non-muslims with the object of forcing them to become muslim o Spread of Islam by force is rejected by Quran o Quran given protection to idolators who asked for it “And if anyone of the idolators seek protection by you, protect him till he hears the word of Allah, then convey him to his place of safety. This is people who know not”

FOUNDATIONS OF DA’WAH

Foundations of Da’wah
Consist of these 4 fundamental elements:
o Da’i

o Audience
o Content of da’wah o Method of da’wah

Da’i (Islamic missionary)
o What is man in the universe? o How can he give meaning to his life or what role he has to play? o What are the characteristics of the da’i?

What is man in the universe?
o A being composed of soul and body o Human’s body: physical being and made of matter or clay.

Surah al Hijr: 26 “We created man from sounding clay, from mud moulded into shape”

What is man in the universe?
o Human’s soul: belongs to higher order; of the Divine spirit. Surah al-Hijr: 29 “When I have fashioned him (in due proportion) and breathed into him of My spirit”

What is man in the universe?
o Man is born pure in nature, potentially perfect and “in best structured” (at-Tin: 4)
o Possesses intelligence, will, speech, and animal instinct.

What role he has to play?
o Man’s greatest weakness: forgetfulness and negligence. Surah Taha: 115 “We had already beforehand taken the covenant of Adam, but he forget and we found on his part no firm resolve” o Thus, Prophets were sent to guide the people to the righteous path.

What role he has to play?
o After the death of the prophet: the responsibility of da’wah lies on our shoulders.
o Da’i: one who invites others to Islam. o The one who builds man’s relationship with Allah on the principles of Allah sovereingnty, and acknowledgement of the authority of the Prophet as the source of guidance.

What are the characteristic of Da’i?
Possession of noble qualities
o The noble qualities found in the personality of the prophet.

o Noble qualities: effective Da’i.

What are the characteristic of Da’i?
Understanding of Islamic teaching o Pure understanding of Islam as the comprehensive system of life.
o Understanding of the detailed commandments of shariah.

What are the characteristic of Da’i?
Understanding of Islamic teaching
o Understand the Arabic language. o Always seek guidance from the Quran and the Sunnah.

What are the characteristic of Da’i?
Correct motivation and sincerity
o Gives courage, determination and patience.
o No GOOD DEEDS can reach its CONCLUSION without motivation. o Sole purpose of sayings, actions, activities: achieving the pleasure of Allah.

What are the characteristic of Da’i?
Correct motivation and sincerity
o Abu al-a’la Maududi uses the term: “ta’alluq bi Allah” which means attachment to Allah.
o A person should live and die for Allah and his worship and sacrifices should also meant for Him alone. Quranic: “Say O Muhammad! Surely my prayer and my sacrifice, my life and my death are all for Allah , the cherisher of the worlds”

What are the characteristic of Da’i?
Good actions and deeds
o Act according to Quran and Sunnah; embodiment of the true faith for others. o Develop his or her personality in accordance to Quran and Sunnah. Quran: “And says: Work right (righteousness): soon Allah will observe your work and His prophet and the believers”

What are the characteristic of Da’i?
Struggle and sacrifice
o Should be ready to sacrifice belongings, time, and everything for the way of da’wah.

o Quran teaches us to consider no sacrifice is too great in the way of da’wah.
o Thus a da’i should continuously active and march forward towards his objectives

AUDIENCE: THOSE CALLED TO ISLAM (MAD’U)
o The Noble People (al-Mala’) o The Common People

o Hypocrites (Munafiqs)
o Disobedient (‘Asin)

The noble people (al-mala’)
o Noble people, chiefs, and leaders. o People with influence and authority; respected by the society. o Quran describes them as opponent of the Prophets. • Pharoah, Leaders of Ad and Thamud

The noble people (al-mala’)
Al-Mala’ reasons for opposing Islam:
o Arrogance: Prophet Moses and Pharaoh Surah al-Naml: 14 “They rejected those signs out of sheer injustice and vanity, whereas in their hearts of hearts they were convinced”

The noble people (al-mala’)
Al-Mala’ reasons for opposing Islam:
o Desire to rule and glory.

Surah al-mu’minun: 24 “Those of the chiefs of his people, who had rejected his message, said this person is no more than a human being like yourselves. By this he merely intends to obtain superiority over you”

The noble people (al-mala’)
Al-Mala’ reasons for opposing Islam:
o Ignorance

Surah Hud: 29 “Oh my people, I ask you for no wealth in return; my reward is from Allah but I will not drive away those who believe. For verily they are to meet their lord and you, I see are the ignorant ones”

Common people
o More inclined to accept da’wah of the prophets.
o No self interest, personal benefit or desire to rule.

Common people
However, at times being influenced by al-mala’. Why?
o Fear of punishment of al-mala’

o Misled by possession and wealth of al-mala’
o Al-mala’ uses slander and confusion to deviate them

Hypocrites (Munafiqs)
In Islamic terms:
o A person who follows Islam outwardly but in heart hides falsehood.

Hypocrites (Munafiqs)
Distinct characteristics of hypocrisy:
o Illness of the heart

Surah al-baqarah: 10 “In their hearts is a disease which Allah has increased all the more and a painful doom is in store for them for the lie they utter”

Hypocrites (Munafiqs)
Distinct characteristics of hypocrisy:
o Undermining or sabotaging the world order

Surah al-Baqarah: 11 “Whenever it is said to them, spread not disorder on the earth. Their reply is, We only seek to put things right. Beware! They do spread disorder, but they realized it not.”

Hypocrites (Munafiqs)
Distinct characteristics of hypocrisy:
o Branding Muslims with stupidity

Surah al-baqarah: 13 “And when it is said to them, Believe sincerely as the other people have believed, they reply, should we believe as the fools believed! Beware! They themselves are fools, but they know it not?”

Hypocrites (Munafiqs)
Distinct characteristics of hypocrisy:
o Causing dispute among Muslims

Surah at-Tawbah: 47 “Had they gone forth with you, they would have added nothing but mischiefs to you and they would have made strenuous effort to sow dispute among your ranks, yet there are among you some who listen to them, but Allah knows these mischiefmakers full well”

Hypocrites (Munafiqs)
Distinct characteristics of hypocrisy:
o Deceptions and laziness in worship Surah an-Nisa’: 142 “The hypocrites seek to deceive Allah, whereas, in fact Allah has involved them in deception. When they rise up for prayer they go reluctantly to it, merely to be seen by the people and they remember Allah but little.”

Hypocrites (Munafiqs)
Distinct characteristics of hypocrisy:
o Enjoining the wrong and forbidding the right

Surah at-Tawbah: 67 “The hypocrites, both men and women are all of a kind: they enjoin what is evil and forbid what is right and withhold their hands from doing good. They forgot Allah and Allah also forgot them: indeed the hypocrites are the evil doers”

Hypocrites (Munafiqs)
Distinct characteristics of hypocrisy:
o Betrayal and not keeping promises

Surah at-Tawbah: 75-77 “There are some among them who made the covenant with Allah . If He give of His bounty, we will disburse charity and lead a righteous life. But when Allah enriched them with His bounty, they grew greedy and went back on their covenant and paid no heed to it.”

Disobedient (‘Asin)
o These people go against the commandments of Allah S.W.T. o Due to weaknesses of Iman.

o They repent and regret their wrong doings.
o These people certainly benefits from the teaching and training even if their progress is slow.

Why do we have to know our audience?
o Each types of people called to Islam has their own characteristics. o A cautious da’i will have to deal with them in their own particular way. o Success: understand their culture, language, and attitude.

Why do we have to know our audience?
o To avoid wasting our precious time in pursuing and educating people who are unlikely to listen to the calling.
Surah al- Najm: 29 “Then withdraw (O Muhammad) from him who turns away from our remembrance and desires nothing but the life of the world. Such is their sum of knowledge”

Da’wah Content (Mawdu alDa’wah)
o A da’i must acquire the right concept of Islam. o Don’t narrow Islam to the belief or worship of Allah alone. o Islam lays down rules not only for individual progress but also for the advancement of nation, and humanity as a whole.

Da’wah Content (Mawdu alDa’wah)
o Tawhid is the most important part of the da’wah content. o Tawhid: It is not just a conviction that Allah exist or that He is one, but that He alone is the Creator, Master, Ruler and Controller (Lord) of all that exist. o Man’s success and salvation lies in accepting Allah as the only God as (Ma’bud) (the object of worship, reverence, loyalty, and obedience)

Da’wah Methodology (Minhaj al – da’wah)
o The invitation with Wisdom (Hikmah)
o Goodly counsel (Maw’izah Hasanah) o Argument in gracious manner (Mujadalah Bi Allati Hiya Ahsan)

Da’wah Methodology (Minhaj al – da’wah)
The invitation with wisdom
Surah al- Nahl: 125 “Invite all to the way of your lord with Wisdom” o Wisdom: a right thing which should be put at the right moment at the right place.

Da’wah Methodology (Minhaj al – da’wah)
The invitation with wisdom
o Refrain from applying one and the same method to each person, but should diagnose the real disease of the addressee and cure it by appealing to his head and heart. o Wisdom of da’wah is no compulsion. o Should always try and never give up; and tawakal to Allah.

Da’wah Methodology (Minhaj al – da’wah)
The invitation with wisdom
o Adopt goodness against evil.
o Surah al-Fusilat: 34 “Nor can goodness and evil be equal. Repel with what is better” o The invitation, words and explanations of a da’i must always be attractive, never boring or tiring.

Da’wah Methodology (Minhaj al – da’wah)
Goodly counsel
o Adopt comprehensive method to convince the addressee: – Arguments appealing to his feeling. – Condemnation of evils and deviations. – Warning of the consequences of evil. – Soundness of argument. – Excellence of guidance and righteous deed.

Da’wah Methodology (Minhaj al – da’wah)
Goodly counsel
o Show concern of the welfare of the addressee. o Say only the best things even in the discussion with unbelievers. o Be kind and compassionate, just and fair to everyone irrespective of one’s faith, races, colours and in all situation. o Convey the message of Islam in a polite and effective manner and language

Da’wah Methodology (Minhaj al – da’wah)
Argument in gracious manner
o A da’i should adopt diplomatic manner (without fear and compromise) Surah al-Taha: 51-52 “Pharoah said: What then is the condition of the previous generation? Moses replied: The knowledge of that is with my Lord duly recorded, my Lord never errs nor forgets”

Da’wah Methodology (Minhaj al – da’wah)
Argument in gracious manner
o Must have courage to speak the truth fearlessly in every meeting and in every society.

o Address those people who are not willing to accept the invitation in a decent manner.
o Never transgress the limits of morality and good conduct.

Conclusion
o Study and experience will teach one to know the subject well. o Leading by example is the most powerful resource needed on the path of da’wah- the upholder of justice, human welfare and man’s dignity and freedom. o Starts da’wah within family first as we know our family better- acts as a practice to tackle others.

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