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What

process or even occur which allow all of these happen????

CHAPTER 5:

CELL DIVISON
NURUL AZUWIN BT YAZID-2010-

TODAY WE WILL LEARN ABOUT

Cell division
interphase M phase

mitosis

meiosis

mitosis

definition

significance

Importances

Stages

cloning

5.1 MITOSIS

The necessity for cell division in living organism What is chromosome? The significance of mitosis

THE NECESSITY FOR CELL DIVISION IN LIVING ORGANISM

All living organism consist of cell

 Most

of cell undergo cell division

Cell Division- mitosis
...splitting

cell into two daughter cell which genetically identical to parent cell

Daughter cell
Parent cell

Why do cells divide?

• _______
• _______ • _______ • _______

THE CELL DIVIDE FOR...

The new cell formation allow: replacement of dead cell
body body

repair damaged tissue growth and development in unicellular organism

reproduction

Stages of cell division

division

division

Stages of cell division (answer)

Nuclear

division

cytoplasmic division

TYPES OF CELLS
 Somatic

cell- all body cell (except reproductive cell) form trough mitosis  Gametic cell- reproductive cell that formed trough meiosis

WHAT IS CHROMOSOMES

The nucleus of cell contain chromosomes Each chromosomes contain DNA molecules which carries genes (genetic material) Genes- determine the individual characteristic of organism

DNA

NUMBER OF CHROMOSOMES

The chromosomal number for certain species is constant and varied from one species to another.

Eg:

human - 46 chromosomes

Monkey-

48 chromosomes Chicken- 78 chromosomes

Somatic cell – has two set of chromosomes. One set is inherited from each parent.

Two set of chromosomes = diploid= 2n

Gametic cell – has one set of chromosomes.
One set of chromosome=_______=_____

Ploidy – refers to the number of sets of homologous chromosomes in a cell
● ______ – one copy of each chromosome

– designated as “n”

______ – two copies (= pair) of each chromosome – designated as “2n”

Diploid organisms receive one of each type of chromosome from female parent (maternal chromosomes) and one of each type of chromosome from male parent (paternal chromosomes)

  

In human (46 chromosomes in somatic cell) Each set consist of _____ chromosomes the nucleus of human somatic cell has ______ chromosomes arranged in _____ pairs or 2n = ______ chromosomes
2set (2n-diploid): ___ chromosomes (somatic cell) 1set (n-haploid):___ chromosomes (gametic cell)

Gametes contain only one set of unpaired chromosomes or haploid number of chromosomes (n)

TRIVIA....

A monkey sperm cell have 24 chromosomes, how many pairs of chromosomes does the cheek cells of the monkey have?

HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES

Two chromosomes in each pair have the same structural features and are referred as the homologous chromosomes.

Homologue

One form paternal origin whereas the other one is from maternal origin

HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES

HOMOLOGOUS VS DUPLICATED

SIGNIFICANCES OF MITOSIS

Each daughter formed through mitosis carries genetic material (DNA) inherited from the parent cell. This genetic information is passed on to new cells during division to produce two identical nuclei.

THE IMPORTANT OF MITOSIS
1.

growth- the number of cell within organism increases by mitosis. Basic grow in multi cellular organism

Growth in human

2. cell replacement- replacement damaged cells and tissue

3. Regeneration – some animals are able to regenerate whole part of the body such as star fish, lizard tail

4. asexual reproduction – mitosis is the basis of asexual reproduction individual of species by one parent

THAT ALL FOR TODAY...

Next class ----cell cycle

Packing for the move…
When cell is not dividing…

DNA molecules in extended, uncondensed form = __________ molecules when in extended state.

● Cell can only use DNA to produce

When cell is preparing for division…
DNA molecules condense to form ______________ prior to division.
● – each chromosome is a single molecule of DNA – easier to sort and organize DNA into daughter cells

Structure of a eukaryotic chromosome

• __________ chromosome

arm centromere

arm

Prior to cell division:

• chromosomes (DNA) are replicated
(duplicated)

• duplicated chromosome
– attached at their centromeres – as long as attached, known as _________ ______________

duplicated chromosome

sister chromatids

daughter chromosomes

KARYOTYPE

Karyotype is the ______ ______ ___ _________ of a cell of any living organism.

The chromosomes are arranged and displayed (often on a photo) in pairs, ordered by size.
To the right is a typical karyotype of a human male.

arm

arm

centromere

KARYOTYPE

HAPLOID, DIPLOD, HOMOLOGOUS, REPLICATED, DUPLICATED, CHROMATIDS, CHROMOSOMES…

DUPLICATED/REPLICATED CHROMOSOMES

Sister Chromatids

Cell Cycle
2 major phases:

• __________ (3 stages) – DNA uncondensed
(= chromatin)

• ________ (4 stages + cytokinesis)

- Nuclear division & division of cytoplasm

– DNA condensed (= chromosomes)

WHAT DO YOU UNDERSTAND ABOUT DEVELOPMENT??? WHAT HAPPEN TO CELL? WHAT IS CELL DIVISION?

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CELL CYCLE

MY IDEA

Before we continue, I want all of you to draw the cell in interphase phase base on you understanding

Interphase
non-dividing state

3 sub-stages:
___ – cell grows in size – organelles replicated
___ – replication of DNA – synthesis of proteins associated with DNA ___ – synthesis of proteins associated with mitosis

MY IDEA (2 MINUTES)

Base on the cell given, draw the cell in each sub phase base on your understanding

Mitosis
4 sub-phases:
1st – Prophase 2nd – Metaphase

3rd – Anaphase
4th – Telophase and Cytokinesis

ACTIVITY: JIGSAW
1.

Teacher will count student from 1 until 5 then it will be repeating until all of student finish

2.

then all of you will sit in group and get the subtopic to be discuss from teacher.
after finish discussion in group (10 min), you need to distribute into another group and explain about the subtopic you get until they understand.(5 min)

3.

PROPHASE

Chromosomes in the nucleus condense and become tightly coiled. They appear shorter and thicker Each chromosomes consist of a pair of sister chromatids joined together at the centromere.

Prophase: nucleus disappears centrioles migrate

chromosomes appear

METAPHASE
Begin when centromere of all chromosomes are line up on the metaphase plate  Two sister chromatids are attached the fibres by their centromere.

centriole

Sister chromatids
Spindle fibre

centromere

ANAPHASE
Two sister cromatids of each chromosomes separate at the centromere  Sister chromatid are pulled apart to the opposite pole by the shortening of spindle fibre.

anaphase

TELOPHASE
Begin when 2 set of chromosomes reach the opposite pole of the cell.  The spindle fibre dissapear and a new cell membrane form around each set of chromosomes  Nucleolus also form in each of nucleus  Chromosomes start to uncoil (chromatin)

APPLY YOUR IDEAS

1.

Answer all the objective question (individually)
I will call a number to write down the answer in front of class.

2.

Lets plaaaay…

“Guess That Phase!”

ACTIVITIES (20 MINUTES)

Made model of MITOSIS using drawing paper, thread and plasticine in group of 5 The chromosome number is 2n=2 Made sure your model has the 4 phase of mitosis and show the daughter cell at the last.

___________
• 3 major events i) chromosomes condense ii) spindle fibers form

iii) chromosomes are captured by spindle

Mitotic Spindle Forms
• spindle fibers are specialized
microtubules • spindle fibers radiate out from centrioles, forming the “aster” • centrioles occur in pairs, and are duplicated during interphase

chromatin

nucleus
nucleolus

condensing chromosomes

centrioles

Prophase

__________
• chromosomes align along equator of the cell, with one kinetochore facing each pole centrioles
chromosomes

spindle fibers

_________
• sister chromatids separate • spindle fibers attached to kinetochores shorten and pull chromatids towards the poles.

• free spindle fibers lengthen and push poles of cell apart

____________
• spindle fibers disintegrate • nuclear envelopes form around both groups of chromosomes • chromosomes revert to their extended state • nucleoli reappear • cytokinesis occurs, enclosing each daughter nucleus into a separate cell

Telophase

chromosomes decondensing pinching of cell membrane at equator

nuclear envelope reforming
nucleolus reappears

cytokinesis

Late Telophase

______________ – PLANT VS. ANIMAL
CELLS

Plant cells undergo cytokinesis by forming a cell plate between the two daughter nuclei Animal cells undergo cytokinesis through the formation of a cleavage furrow. A ring of microtubules contract, pinching the cell in half.

DEMOs: http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072437316/student_view0/chapter11/animations.html# http://www.cellsalive.com/mitosis.htm

EXERCISE

Answer objective question (1-10) individually

PHASES AND SUB-PHASES OF CELL DIVISION
a. G1

1. Interphase

b. S c. G2 1. Prophase 2. Metaphase a. Nuclear division

2. Mitosis
b. Cytokinesis

3. Anaphase 4. Telophase

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