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Prepared by:Varun.B.Jani (090450109009) Harsh.a.

shah(090450109014)

Under guidance and helps by:Ast. Pof. H.S.Nankani.

An insulator is a dam*** poor conductor! And more, technically speaking!

An insulator is a mechanical support!


Primary function - support the line mechanically Secondary function electrical

Air is the insulator Outer shells/surfaces are designed to increase leakage distance and strike distance

Maintains an Air Gap


Separates Line from Ground
length of air gap depends primarily on system voltage, modified by desired safety margin, contamination, etc.

Resists Mechanical Stresses


everyday loads, extreme loads

Resists Electrical Stresses


system voltage/fields, overvoltages

Resists Environmental Stresses


heat, cold, UV, contamination, etc.

Where Did Insulators Come From?


Basically grew out of the needs of the telegraph industry starting in the late 1700s, early 1800s Early history centers around what today we would consider very low DC voltages Gradually technical needs increased as AC voltages grew with the development of the electric power industry

Where Did Insulators Come From?


Basically grew out of the needs of the telegraph industry starting in the late 1700s, early 1800s Early history centers around what today we would consider very low DC voltages Gradually technical needs increased as AC voltages grew with the development of the electric power industry

Glass plates used to insulate telegraph line DC to Baltimore Glass insulators became the norm soon thereafter typical collectors items today

Many, many trials with different materials wood cement porcelain - beeswax soaked rag wrapped around the wire, etc.
Ultimately porcelain and glass prevailed

Wet process porcelain developed for high voltage applications Porcelain insulator industry started
Application voltages increased Insulator designs became larger, more complex Ceramics (porcelain, glass) still only choices at high voltages

US trials of first NCIs cycloaliphatic based Not successful, but others soon became interested and a new industry started up

Europeans develop modern style NCI fiberglass rod with various polymeric sheds Now considered First generation

NCI insulator industry really begins in US with field trials of insulators Since that time - new manufacturers, new designs, new materials NCIs at generation X there have been so many improvements in materials, end fitting designs, etc. Change in materials have meant changes in line design practices, maintenance practices, etc. Ceramic manufacturers have not been idle either with development of higher strength porcelains, RG glazes, etc.

Domestic manufacturing of insulators decreases, shift to offshore (all types) Engineers need to develop knowledge and skills necessary to evaluate and compare suppliers and products from many different countries An understanding of the basics of insulator manufacturing, design and application is more essential than ever before

Definitions: In test code and standard specifications, certain technical terms are used to specify and define conditions or procedures. Hence, commonly used technical terms are defined here before the actual testing techniques are discussed.