THE FIVE KINGDOMS

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Introduction to Bacteria 2 TYPES OF BACTERIA: •Bacteria

-Get food from an outside source •Blue-green Bacteria
-Make their own food

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BACTERIA Bacteria - small one celled monerans Bacteria like a warm, dark, and moist environment They are found almost everywhere:

-water
-soil

-air
-food

-skin
-on most objects

-inside the body
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3 Shapes of Bacteria Bacteria are classified by shape into 3 groups: Spiral: spirilla rod-shaped: bacilli, bacillus Round: cocci
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3 Shapes of Bacteria

Bacillus anthracis –
(bacillus)

Neisseria meningitidis
(coccus)

Leptospira interrogans –
(spirilla)
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7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell •Capsule

•Cell wall
•Ribosomes

•Nucleoid
•Flagella

•Pilli
•Cytoplasm
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7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell Capsule  keeps the cell from drying out and helps it stick to food or other cells
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7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell Cell wall Thick outer covering that maintains the overall shape of the bacterial cell
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7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell Ribosomes  cell part where proteins are made  Ribosomes give the cytoplasm of bacteria a granular appearance in electron micrographs

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7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell Nucleoid  a ring made up of DNA

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7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell Flagella  a whip-like tail that some bacteria have for locomotion

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7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell Amimation of E.coli

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7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell

Pilli
 hollow hair-like structures made of protein allows bacteria to attach to other cells.

Pilli-singular Pillus-plural

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7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell Cytoplasm  clear jelly-like material that makes up most of the cell

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Reproduction of Bacteria
•Binary Fission- the process of one organism dividing into two organisms
•Fission is a type of asexual reproduction

•Asexual reproduction- reproduction of a living thing from only one parent How?... The one main (circular) chromosome makes a copy of itself Then it divides into two

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Reproduction of Bacteria

BINARY FISSION

Bacteria dividing

Completed
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Reproduction of Bacteria •The time of reproduction depends on how desirable the conditions are •Bacteria can rapidly reproduce themselves in warm, dark, and moist conditions •Some can reproduce every 20 minutes (one bacteria could be an ancestor to

one million bacteria in six hours)

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Bacterial Cell & Nucleiod DNA Ring DNA replication Cell wall synthesis

Cell separation
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Bacteria Survival Endospore•a thick celled structure that forms inside the cell •they are the major cause of food poisoning •allows the bacteria to survive for many years •they can withstand boiling, freezing, and extremely dry conditions •it encloses all the nuclear materials and some cytoplasm

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Bacteria Survival

Bacillus subtilis Endospore-the black section in the middle
highly resistant structures
can withstand radiation, UV light, and 20 boiling at 120oC for 15 minutes.

Bacteria Survival – Food sources parasites – bacteria that feed on living things saprophytes – use dead materials for food (exclusively) decomposers – get food from breaking down dead matter into simple chemicals important- because they send minerals and other materials back into the soil so 21 other organisms can use them

Harmful Bacteria • some bacteria cause diseases •Animals can pass diseases to humans Communicable Disease – Disease passed from one organism to another
This can happen in several ways: •Air •Touching clothing, food, silverware, or toothbrush •Drinking water that contains bacteria
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Harmful Bacteria

Human tooth with accumulation of bacterial plaque (smooth areas) and calcified tartar 23 (rough areas)

Helpful Bacteria •Decomposers help recycle nutrients into the soil for other organisms to grow •Bacteria grow in the stomach of a cow to break down grass and hay •Most are used to make antibiotics •Some bacteria help make insulin •Used to make industrial chemicals
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Helpful Bacteria

E.coli on small intestines

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Helpful Bacteria •Used to treat sewage
Organic waste is consumed by the bacteria, used as nutrients by the bacteria, and is no longer present to produce odors, sludge, pollution, or unsightly mess.

•foods like yogurt, cottage & Swiss cheese, sour cream, buttermilk are made from bacteria that grows in milk

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Controlling Bacteria 3 ways to control bacteria: 1) Canning- the process of sealing food in airtight cans or jars after killing bacteria •endospores are killed during this process

2) Pasteurization- process of heating milk to kill harmful bacteria 3) Dehydration- removing water from food •Bacteria can’t grow when H2O is removed •example: uncooked noodles & cold cereal 27

Controlling Bacteria Antiseptic vs. Disinfectants Antiseptic- chemicals that kill bacteria on living things •means – “against infection” Examples: iodine, hydrogen peroxide, alcohol, soap, mouthwash Disinfectants- stronger chemicals that destroy bacteria on objects or nonliving things
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BLUE-GREEN BACTERIA
Autotrophs – make their own food through photosynthesis
larger than most bacterial cells

commonly grow on water and surfaces that stay wet…such as rivers, creeks and dams
Some live in salt water, snow, and acid water of hot springs food source for animals that live in the 29 water

BLUE-GREEN BACTERIA
can be toxic to humans and animals Blooms- occur when the bacteria multiplies in great numbers and form scum on the top of the water

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Bacteria Survival Endospore•a thick celled structure that forms inside the cell •it encloses all the nuclear materials and some cytoplasm •They can withstand boiling, freezing, and extremely dry conditions •Allows the bacteria to survive for many years
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Bacteria Survival – Food sources parasites – bacteria that feed on living things saprophytes – use dead materials for food decomposers – get food from breaking down dead matter into simple chemicals important- because they send minerals and other materials back into the soil so other organisms can use them
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Harmful Bacteria • some bacteria cause diseases •Animals can pass diseases to humans Communicable Disease – Disease passed from one organism to another
This can happen in several ways: •Air •Touching clothing, food, silverware, or toothbrush •Drinking water that contains bacteria
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Harmful Bacteria

Human tooth with accumulation of bacterial plaque (smooth areas) and calcified tartar 35 (rough areas)

Helpful Bacteria •Decomposers help recycle nutrients into the soil for other organisms to grow •Bacteria grow in the stomach of a cow to break down grass and hay •Most are sued to make antibiotics •Some bacteria help make insulin •Used to make industrial chemicals
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Helpful Bacteria

E.coli on small intestines

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Controlling Bacteria

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BLUE-GREEN BACTERIA
Make their own food through photosynthesis Bigger than most bacterial cells

Commonly grow on water and surfaces that stay wet…such as rivers, creeks and dams
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BLUE-GREEN BACTERIA
It can be toxic to humans and animals  Bloomsoccur when the bacteria multiplies in great numbers and form scum on the top of the water

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Lake Champlain

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Bacillus anthracis -

rod, vegetative stage prokaryote (bacterium) Image Number: 21185A
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Neisseria meningitidis
- coccus prokaryote (bacterium) Image Number: 97214E

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Leptospira interrogans

- spiral shaped prokaryote (spirochete)

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Strep animation http://www.hybridmedicalanimati on.com/pages/jjani_qt/strep_pne umo_qt.html Ecoli movement animatoin

http://www.hybridmedicalanimati on.com/pages/jjani_qt/ecoli_qt.h tml
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Ecoli movement animatoin
http://www.hybridmedicalanimation.com/pa 48 ges/jjani_qt/ecoli_qt.html

HIV movie http://www-micro.msb.le.ac.uk/Video/HIV.mov

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