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Chapter 11

Fluids
11.1 Mass Density
DEFINITION OF MASS DENSITY

The mass density of a substance is the mass of a
substance divided by its volume:
V
m
=
SI Unit of Mass Density: kg/m
3

11.1 Mass Density
11.1 Mass Density
Example 1 Blood as a Fraction of Body Weight

The body of a man whose weight is 690 N contains about
5.2x10
-3
m
3
of blood.

(a) Find the bloods weight and (b) express it as a
percentage of the body weight.
( )( ) kg 5 . 5 m kg 1060 m 10 2 . 5
3 3 3
= = =

V m
11.1 Mass Density
( )( ) N 54 s m 80 . 9 kg 5 . 5
2
= = = mg W (a)




(b)
% 8 . 7 % 100
N 690
N 54
Percentage = =
11.2 Pressure
A
F
P =
SI Unit of Pressure: 1 N/m
2
= 1Pa
Pascal
11.2 Pressure
Example 2 The Force on a Swimmer

Suppose the pressure acting on the back
of a swimmers hand is 1.2x10
5
Pa. The
surface area of the back of the hand is
8.4x10
-3
m
2
.

(a) Determine the magnitude of the force
that acts on it.
(b) Discuss the direction of the force.
11.2 Pressure
A
F
P =
( )( )
N 10 0 . 1
m 10 4 . 8 m N 10 2 . 1
3
2 3 2 5
=
= =

PA F
Since the water pushes perpendicularly
against the back of the hand, the force
is directed downward in the drawing.
11.2 Pressure
Atmospheric Pressure at Sea Level: 1.013x10
5
Pa = 1 atmosphere
11.3 Pressure and Depth in a Static Fluid
0
1 2
= =

mg A P A P F
y
mg A P A P + =
1 2
V m=
11.3 Pressure and Depth in a Static Fluid
Vg A P A P + =
1 2
Ah V =
Ahg A P A P + =
1 2
hg P P + =
1 2
11.3 Pressure and Depth in a Static Fluid
Conceptual Example 3 The Hoover Dam

Lake Mead is the largest wholly artificial
reservoir in the United States. The water
in the reservoir backs up behind the dam
for a considerable distance (120 miles).

Suppose that all the water in Lake Mead
were removed except a relatively narrow
vertical column.

Would the Hoover Same still be needed
to contain the water, or could a much less
massive structure do the job?
11.3 Pressure and Depth in a Static Fluid
Example 4 The Swimming Hole

Points A and B are located a distance of 5.50 m beneath the surface
of the water. Find the pressure at each of these two locations.
11.3 Pressure and Depth in a Static Fluid
( ) ( )( )( )
Pa 10 55 . 1
m 50 . 5 s m 80 . 9 m kg 10 00 . 1 Pa 10 01 . 1
5
2 3 3
pressure c atmospheri
5
2
=
+ =

P
gh P P + =
1 2
11.4 Pressure Gauges
gh P P + =
1 2
gh P
atm
=
( )
( )( )
mm 760 m 760 . 0
s m 80 . 9 m kg 10 13.6
Pa 10 01 . 1
2 3 3
5
= =


= =
g
P
h
atm

11.4 Pressure Gauges


A B
P P P = =
2
gh P P
A
+ =
1
gh P P
atm
=

pressure gauge
2
absolute pressure
11.4 Pressure Gauges
11.5 Pascals Principle
PASCALS PRINCIPLE

Any change in the pressure applied
to a completely enclosed fluid is transmitted
undiminished to all parts of the fluid and
enclosing walls.
11.5 Pascals Principle
( ) m 0
1 2
g P P + =
1
1
2
2
A
F
A
F
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
1
2
1 2
A
A
F F
11.5 Pascals Principle
Example 7 A Car Lift

The input piston has a radius of 0.0120 m
and the output plunger has a radius of
0.150 m.

The combined weight of the car and the
plunger is 20500 N. Suppose that the input
piston has a negligible weight and the bottom
surfaces of the piston and plunger are at
the same level. What is the required input
force?
11.5 Pascals Principle
( )
( )
( )
N
m
m
N F 131
150 . 0
0120 . 0
20500
2
2
1
= =
t
t
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
1
2
1 2
A
A
F F
11.6 Archimedes Principle
( )A P P A P A P F
B 1 2 1 2
= =
gh P P =
1 2
ghA F
B
=
hA V =

g V F
B
fluid
displaced
of mass
=
11.6 Archimedes Principle
ARCHIMEDES PRINCIPLE

Any fluid applies a buoyant force to an object that is partially
or completely immersed in it; the magnitude of the buoyant
force equals the weight of the fluid that the object displaces:

fluid displaced
of Weight
fluid
force buoyant
of Magnitude
W F
B
=
11.6 Archimedes Principle
If the object is floating then the
magnitude of the buoyant force
is equal to the magnitude of its
weight.
11.6 Archimedes Principle
Example 9 A Swimming Raft

The raft is made of solid square
pinewood. Determine whether
the raft floats in water and if
so, how much of the raft is beneath
the surface.
11.6 Archimedes Principle
( )( )( )
N 47000
s m 80 . 9 m 8 . 4 m kg 1000
2 3 3
max
=
=
= = g V Vg F
water water B

( )( )( ) m m m m V
raft
8 . 4 30 . 0 0 . 4 0 . 4 = =
11.6 Archimedes Principle
( )( )( )
N 47000 N
s m m m kg
g V g m W
2 3 3
raft pine raft raft
< =
=
= =
26000
80 . 9 8 . 4 550

The raft floats!


11.6 Archimedes Principle
g V
water water
= N 26000
B raft
F W =
If the raft is floating:
( )( )( ) ( )
2 3
s m 80 . 9 m 0 . 4 m 0 . 4 m kg 1000 N 26000 h =
( )( )( )( )
m 17 . 0
s m 80 . 9 m 0 . 4 m 0 . 4 m kg 1000
N 26000
2 3
= = h
11.6 Archimedes Principle
Conceptual Example 10 How Much Water is Needed
to Float a Ship?

A ship floating in the ocean is a familiar sight. But is all
that water really necessary? Can an ocean vessel float
in the amount of water than a swimming pool contains?
11.6 Archimedes Principle
11.7 Fluids in Motion
In steady flow the velocity of the fluid particles at any point is constant
as time passes.
Unsteady flow exists whenever the velocity of the fluid particles at a
point changes as time passes.
Turbulent flow is an extreme kind of unsteady flow in which the velocity
of the fluid particles at a point change erratically in both magnitude and
direction.
11.7 Fluids in Motion
Fluid flow can be compressible or incompressible. Most liquids are
nearly incompressible.

Fluid flow can be viscous or nonviscous.

An incompressible, nonviscous fluid is called an ideal fluid.

11.7 Fluids in Motion
When the flow is steady, streamlines are often used to represent
the trajectories of the fluid particles.
11.7 Fluids in Motion
Making streamlines with dye
and smoke.
11.8 The Equation of Continuity
The mass of fluid per second that flows through a tube is called
the mass flow rate.
11.8 The Equation of Continuity
2 2 2
2
v A
t
m
=
A
A
1 1 1
1
v A
t
m
=
A
A

distance
t v A V m A = = A
11.8 The Equation of Continuity
2 2 2 1 1 1
v A v A =
EQUATION OF CONTINUITY

The mass flow rate has the same value at every position along a
tube that has a single entry and a single exit for fluid flow.
SI Unit of Mass Flow Rate: kg/s
11.8 The Equation of Continuity
Incompressible fluid:
2 2 1 1
v A v A =
Volume flow rate Q:
Av Q =
11.8 The Equation of Continuity
Example 12 A Garden Hose

A garden hose has an unobstructed opening
with a cross sectional area of 2.85x10
-4
m
2
.
It fills a bucket with a volume of 8.00x10
-3
m
3

in 30 seconds.

Find the speed of the water that leaves the hose
through (a) the unobstructed opening and (b) an obstructed
opening with half as much area.
11.8 The Equation of Continuity
Av Q =
( ) ( )
s m 936 . 0
m 10 2.85
s 30.0 m 10 00 . 8
2 4 -
3 3
=

= =

A
Q
v
(a)
(b) 2 2 1 1
v A v A =
( )( ) s m 87 . 1 s m 936 . 0 2
1
2
1
2
= = = v
A
A
v
11.9 Bernoullis Equation
The fluid accelerates toward the
lower pressure regions.
According to the pressure-depth
relationship, the pressure is lower
at higher levels, provided the area
of the pipe does not change.
11.9 Bernoullis Equation
( ) ( )
2
2
2 2
1
1
2
1 2
1
nc
mgy mv mgy mv W + + =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )V P P As P s F s F W
1 2
= A = A = =

11.9 Bernoullis Equation
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
2 2
1
1
2
1 2
1
1 2
mgy mv mgy mv V P P + + =
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
2 2
1
1
2
1 2
1
1 2
gy v gy v P P + + =
BERNOULLIS EQUATION

In steady flow of a nonviscous, incompressible fluid, the pressure, the
fluid speed, and the elevation at two points are related by:
2
2
2 2
1
2 1
2
1 2
1
1
gy v P gy v P + + = + +
11.10 Applications of Bernoullis Equation
Conceptual Example 14 Tarpaulins and Bernoullis Equation

When the truck is stationary, the
tarpaulin lies flat, but it bulges outward
when the truck is speeding down
the highway.

Account for this behavior.
11.10 Applications of Bernoullis Equation
11.10 Applications of Bernoullis Equation
11.10 Applications of Bernoullis Equation
11.10 Applications of Bernoullis Equation
Example 16 Efflux Speed

The tank is open to the atmosphere at
the top. Find and expression for the speed
of the liquid leaving the pipe at
the bottom.
11.10 Applications of Bernoullis Equation
2
2
2 2
1
2 1
2
1 2
1
1
gy v P gy v P + + = + +
atm
P P P = =
2 1
0
2
~ v
h y y =
1 2
gh v =
2
1 2
1
gh v 2
1
=
11.11 Viscous Flow
Flow of an ideal fluid.
Flow of a viscous fluid.
11.11 Viscous Flow
FORCE NEEDED TO MOVE A LAYER OF VISCOUS FLUID WITH
CONSTANT VELOCITY

The magnitude of the tangential force required to move a fluid
layer at a constant speed is given by:
y
Av
F
q
=
coefficient
of viscosity
SI Unit of Viscosity: Pas

Common Unit of Viscosity: poise (P)

1 poise (P) = 0.1 Pas
11.11 Viscous Flow
POISEUILLES LAW

The volume flow rate is given by:
( )
L
P P R
Q
q
t
8
1 2
4

=
11.11 Viscous Flow
Example 17 Giving and Injection

A syringe is filled with a solution whose
viscosity is 1.5x10
-3
Pas. The internal
radius of the needle is 4.0x10
-4
m.

The gauge pressure in the vein is 1900 Pa.
What force must be applied to the plunger,
so that 1.0x10
-6
m
3
of fluid can be injected
in 3.0 s?
11.11 Viscous Flow
( )( )( )
( )
Pa 1200
m 10 4.0
s 0 . 3 m 10 0 . 1 m 025 . 0 s Pa 10 5 . 1 8
8
4
4 -
3 6 3
4
2
=


=
=

t
t
q
R
LQ
P P
11.11 Viscous Flow
Pa 1200
1 2
= P P
Pa 1900
1
= P
Pa 3100
2
= P
( )( ) N 25 . 0 m 10 0 . 8 Pa 3100
2 5
2
= = =

A P F