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THEORY
W. H. Kersting
New Mexico State University
Wkerstin@nmsu.edu
(505) 6462434
Ideal Transformer Windings
Subtractive Polarity
N
1
N
2
Subtractive Polarity Observations
• Primary winding (#1) is wound such that
the top of the winding is brought over the
top of the core
• Secondary winding (#2) is wound such that
the top of the winding is brought over the
top of the core
Primary Connected to a Source

+
I
1
E
1
N
2
N
1
0
1
0
1
Primary Connected to a Source
Basics
• “Exciting current” will flow in the primary
winding
• The flow of current will cause a magnetic
flux to flow in the core of the transformer
• The magnetic flux will link with the
secondary coil
Primary Equations
The primary current I
1
is sinusoidal such that:
1 max
1 cos( ) i I t e =
This creates a sinusoidal flux in the coil:
1 max
cos( ) t   e =
Applying Faradays’s Law to coil #1:
1
1 1 1 max
sin( ) 1 cos( 90)
d
e N N t E t
dt

e e e = ÷ = = +
This demonstrates that the primary current will lag the
primary “ideal” voltage by 90 degrees.
Secondary Induced Voltage

+
I
1
E
1
N
2
N
1
0
2
0
1
0
1
Secondary Induced Voltage
• The flux changing with time is linked to the
secondary coil
• The changing flux will induce a voltage on
the secondary coil
• The polarity of the secondary voltage is
such that a secondary current will flow in
such a direction as to oppose the changing
flux from the primary
Secondary Polarity

+
I
1
E
1
N
2
N
1
0
2
0
1
I
2
E
2
+

0
1
Secondary Polarity
• For the windings specified, the secondary current
must set up a flux to oppose the primary flux
• Apply the “right hand rule” (wrap fingers in the
direction of the current flow and the thumb will
point in the direction of the flux)
• For this case the current must flow out of the top
of the coil so that the plus sign of the secondary
voltage will be on the top
Polarity Marks

+
I
1
E
1
N
2
N
1
0
2
0
1
I
2
E
2
+

0
1
Meaning of Polarity Marks
• Polarity marks are place on the positive
terminal of the primary and secondary
voltages
• Primary current flows into the primary
polarity mark and secondary current flows
out of the polarity mark
• The primary coil looks like a load while the
secondary coil looks like a source
Voltage Equations
With the polarities set, Faraday’s Law can be
modified by eliminating the minus sign
1
1 1
1 1
1
d
e N
dt
d e
dt N


=
=
The secondary induced voltage is given by:
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
1 2
1 2
d
e N
dt
e
e N
N
e e
N N

=
=
=
Using the RMS voltages:
1 2
1 2
E E
N N
=
Complex Power
For the “ideal transformer”, the complex power
in will equal the complex power out
*
1 1 1
*
2 2 2
* *
1 1 2 2
S E I
S E I
E I E I
=
=
=
But:
2
2 1
1
N
E E
N
=
Therefore:
* *
2
1 1 1 2
1
* *
2
1 2
1
1 1 2 2
N
E I E I
N
N
I I
N
N I N I
=
=
=
“Always Equations”
Subtractive Polarity
+ +
 
I
1
E
1
E
2
I
2
No matter how the transformer is connected the relationship
between the primary and secondary voltages and currents will
always be:
1 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
E E
N N
N I N I
=
=
This says that the voltages with polarities as shown will always
be in phase and the currents with directions as shown will
always be in phase.
Ideal Transformer Windings
Additive Polarity

+
I
1
E
1
N
2
N
1
0
2
0
1
E
2
0
1

+
I
2
Additive Polarity Observations
• Primary winding (#1) is wound such that the top
of the winding is brought over the top of the core
• Secondary winding (#2) is wound such that the top
of the winding is brought behind the top of the
core
• Position of the polarity marks on the secondary
change, same theory and equations apply
“Always Equations”
Additive Polarity
+

I
1
E
1
E
2

+
I
2
No matter how the transformer is connected the relationship
between the primary and secondary voltages and currents will
always be:
1 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
E E
N N
N I N I
=
=
This says that the voltages with polarities as shown will always
be in phase and the currents with directions as shown will
always be in phase.
Referring Impedances
+ +
 
I
1
E
1
E
2
I
2
Z
N
1
N
2
2
Secondary Equations:
2 2 2
E Z I = ·
But:
1
2 1
2
N
I I
N
= ·
and
1
1 2
2
N
E E
N
= ·
Therefore:
2
2 1
1 2 1 2 1 1 1
2
t
N
E Z I n Z I Z I
N
 
= · · = · = ·

\ .
Where: The “turns ratio” =
1
2
t
N
n
N
=
And: The “referred impedance” =
2
1 2 t
Z n Z =
Application of Referred
Impedance
+ +
 
I
1
E
1
E
2
I
2
Z
N
1
N
2
2
Z
1
I
1
+

E
1
Step 1:
1
2
t
N
n
N
=
Step 2:
1
1
1
E
I
Z
=
Step 3:
2 1 t
I n I = ·
Exact Equivalent Circuit
G jB
Z
+

+

I I
E
1
E
2

V
+
+

V
p
p
p
Z
s
s
c m
I
2
I
s
=
1
n
t
:
1
I
ex
+

V
m
General Solution
G jB
Z
+

+

I I
E
1
E
2

V
+ +

V
p
p
p
Z
s
s
c m
I
2
I
s
=
1
n
t
:
1
I
ex
+

V
m
Given: V
s
and I
s
Required: V
p
and I
p
Solution: 2 s s s
E V Z I = +
and 2 s
I I =
1 2 t
E n E =
and 1 2
1
t
I I
n
=
1 m
V E =
and
( )
ex c m m
I G jX V = ÷ ·
1 p ex
I I I = +
and
p m s p
V V Z I = + ·
Referred Z Solution
G jB
+

+

I I
E
1
E
2

V
+ +

V
p
p
Z
p
c
m
1
n
t
2
Z
s
n
t
: 1
I
2
= I
s
I
ex
s
+

V
m
Given: V
s
and I
s
Required: V
p
and I
p
Solution: 2 s
E V =
and 2 s
I I =
1 2 t
E n E =
and 1 2
1
t
I I
n
=
2
1 1 m t s
V E n Z I = + ·
and
( )
ex c m m
I G jX V = ÷ ·
1 p ex
I I I = +
and
p m s p
V V Z I = + ·
Approximate Solution
jB
+

+

I

V
+
+

V
Z
I
G
E
E
= I
I
p
p
c
m
T
1
1
2
2 s
s
I
ex
Given: V
s
and I
s
Required: V
p
and I
p
Solution: 2 s
E V =
and 2 s
I I =
1 2 t
E n E =
and 1 2
1
t
I I
n
=
2
1 1 p t s
V E n Z I = + · and
( )
ex c m p
I G jX V = ÷ ·
1 p ex
I I I = +
Other Operating Parameters
Compute input complex power:
*
1000
s s
p p p
V I
S P jQ
·
= = + kW + j kvar
Compute output complex power:
*
1000
s s
s s s
V I
S P jQ
·
= = +
kW + j kvar
Compute efficiency:
100
s
p
P
Eff
P
= ·
%
Compute voltage regulation:
100 100
p
s
NL FL t
reg
FL s
V
V
V V n
V
V V
÷
÷
= · = ·
%
Short Circuit Test
+

+


+ +

V
I
E
E
sc
sc
1
2
P
sc
Z
T
=
R
T
+ j
X
T
I
sc
V
s
= 0
n
t
: 1
n
t
1. Assumption: neglect shunt admittance branch
2. Connect primary to an adjustable source and adjust so that I
sc
is equal to rated
primary current
3. Measure: V
sc
, I
sc
and P
sc
4. Then:
2
sc
T
sc
P
R
I
=
and
sc
T
sc
V
Z
I
=
1
cos
T
T
R
Z
u
÷
 
=


\ .
and
( ) sin
T m
X Z u =
/
T T T T
Z Z R jX u = = +
Impedance Diagram
X
T
R
T
0
Z
T
Open Circuit Test
jB
+

+

I

V
+
+

V G
E
E
I
p c
m
1
1
2
oc
oc
I
ex
P
oc
n
t
: 1
1. Assumption: neglect series impedance
2. Connect the secondary to an adjustable source and adjust voltage to rated
secondary voltage
3. Measure: V
oc
, I
oc
and P
oc
4. Then:
( )
2
oc
c
t oc
P
G
n V
=
and
2
oc
t oc
m
t oc
t oc
I
n I
Y
n V
n V
 

\ .
= =
·
1
cos
c
m
G
Y

÷
 
=


\ .
and
( ) sin
m m
B Y  =
/
m m c m
Y Y G jB  = ÷ = ÷
Admittance Diagram
G
c
B
m
Y
m
0
Exact Equivalent Circuit
G jB
Z
+

+

I I
E
1
E
2

V
+
+

V
p
p
p
Z
s
s
c m
I
2
I
s
=
1
n
t
:
1
I
ex
+

V
m
With Z
T
and Y
m
known from the shortcircuit and opencircuit tests, if necessary, the
parameters of the “exact” equivalent circuit can be approximated by:
1
2
p T
Z Z = and
2
1
2
T
s
t
Z
Z
n
= ·
m m
Y Y =
Example
Given: The Rating of a SinglePhase Transformer
kVA 100 V
hi
7200 V
low
240
Compute the turns ratio:
n
t
V
hi
V
low
n
t
30 =
Compute the rated pri mary current :
I
rated
kVA 1000
.
V
hi
I
rated
13.9 = A
Short Circuit Test
Perform the shortci rcui t test:
+

+


+
+

V
I
E
E
sc
sc
1
2
P
sc
Z
T
=
R
T
+ j
X
T
I
sc
V
s
= 0
n
t
: 1
n
t
Measurements: V
sc
250 I
sc
13.9 P
sc
1275
Calculate Series Impedance
Compute resistance: R
T
P
sc
I
sc
2
R
T
6.599 = O
Compute impedance magnitude: Z
mag
V
sc
I
sc
Z
mag
17.9856 = O
Compute the impedance angle: u acos
R
T
Z
mag
u
deg
68.475 = degrees
Def ine series impedance: Z
T
Z
mag
e
j u
.
.
Z
T
6.599+ 16.7313j = O
Open Circuit Text
Perform the openci rcui t test:
jB
+

+

I

V
+
+

V G
E
E
I
p c
m
1
1
2
oc
oc
I
ex
P
oc
n
t
: 1
Measurements: V
oc
240 I
oc
13.5 P
oc
355
Calculate Shunt Admittance
Compute conductance: G
c
P
oc
n
t
V
oc
.
2
G
c
6.84810
6
= S
Compute admittance magnitude: Y
mag
I
oc
n
t
2
V
oc
.
Y
mag
6.2510
5
= S
Compute the admittance angle:  acos
G
c
Y
mag

deg
83.7096 = degrees
Def ine the shunt admittance: Y
m
Y
mag
e
j 
.
.
Y
m
6.84810
6
6.212410
5
j = S
Load Analysis
Transformer analysis using the approximate equivalent circuit:
jB
+

+

I

V
+
+

V
Z
I
G
E
E
= I
I
p
p
c
m
T
1
1
2
2 s
s
I
ex
Load
Define "load": kVA
load
95 V
load
240 PF
load
.9 lag
Load Voltage and Current
Compute l oad vol tage and current:
V
s
V
load
e
j 0
.
.
V
s
240 =
arg V
s
deg
0 =
I
s
kVA
load
1000
.
V
load
e
j acos PF
load
.
.
I
s
395.8333 =
arg I
s
deg
25.8419 =
Compute Primary V and I
jB
+

+

I

V
+ +

V
Z
I
G
E
E
= I I
p
p
c
m
T
1
1
2
2 s
s
I
ex
Load
I
2
I
s
I
2
395.8333 =
arg I
2
deg
25.8419 =
E
2
V
s
E
2
240 =
arg E
2
deg
0 =
E
1
n
t
E
2
.
E
1
7200 =
arg E
1
deg
0 =
I
1
I
2
n
t
I
1
13.1944 =
arg I
1
deg
25.8419 =
Compute Input V and I
jB
+

+

I

V
+
+

V
Z
I
G
E
E
= I
I
p
p
c
m
T
1
1
2
2 s
s
I
ex
Load
V
p
E
1
Z
T
I
1
.
V
p
7376.3418 =
arg V
p
deg
1.2486 =
I
ex
Y
m
V
p
.
I
ex
0.461 =
arg I
ex
deg
82.461 =
I
p
I
1
I
ex
I
p
13.4536 =
arg I
p
deg
27.4816 =
Compute Operating
Characteristics
jB
+

+

I

V
+
+

V
Z
I
G
E
E
= I
I
p
p
c
m
T
1
1
2
2 s
s
I
ex
Load
Compute compl ex power input: S
p
V
p
I
p
.
1000
S
p
87.0215+ 47.7025j = kVA
Compute compl ex power output: S
s
V
s
I
s
.
1000
S
s
85.5+ 41.4095j = kVA
(continued)
Compute effi ciency: Eff
Re S
s
Re S
p
100
.
Eff 98.2516 = %
Compute vol tage regul ation: V
NL
V
p
n
t
V
NL
245.8781 =
V
FL
V
s
V
FL
240 =
V
reg
V
NL
V
FL
V
FL
100
.
V
reg
2.4492 =
Homework Problem
• A 50 kVA, 2400240 volt transformer has the
following test results:
• Short Circuit: V=60.0 V, I=20.8 A, P=750 W
• Open Circuit: V=240 V, I=5.97A, P=213 W
• Determine the parameters of the approximate
equivalent circuit
HW (continued)
• The transformer serves a load of 45 kVA, at 235
volts and 0.85 power factor lagging
• Compute the input and output voltages and
currents
• Compute the input and output complex powers
• Compute efficiency
• Compute voltage regulation
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