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PATHOLOGY

PATHOS -SUFFERING compassion LOGOS -STUDY - word Vidya /study or the word of compassion to human suffering

Scientific study of diseases


Roots implanted in ancient medical history BC 500 susrutha-disciple of dhanuanthari 11 BC 30 to AD 38.Cetus gross(naked eye) Morgagni 18th century

Rudolf Virchow(19th century) 1821-1905)


Omnis cellulae acellulae. All organ injury start with molecular or structural alterations in cells.

A cell is formed from only another cell. Father of modern pathology(molecular pathology)

Advances in pathology-in technology


Light microscopy Electron microscopy Digital imaging(study of subtle quantitative changes .more objective than histopathology) Immunohistochemistry in problem solving. A pathologists work station telepathology

GENERAL/SPECIAL
BASIC REACTION OF CELLS/TISSUE TO ABNORMAL STIMULI

SPECIFIC RESPONSE OF SPECIALISED ORGANS /TISSUES TO WELLDEFINED STIMULI

CORE OF PATHOLOGY
ETIOLOGY-CAUSE PATHOGENESIS-MECHANISM OF DEOPT MORPHOLOGY.STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN CELLS/ORGANS CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCEFUNCTIONAL CONSEQUENCE OF MORPHOLOGIC CHANGES

AETIOLOGY

ARCADIANS-SINS INDIANSVATHA,PITHA,KAPHA,KARMA,EXTERNAL ,INTERNAL MODERN-INTRINSIC/GENETIC AQUIREDINFECTIOUS,NUTRITIONAL,CHEMICAL PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENTAL/OCCUPATIONAL/ CUSTOMS/HABITS,MULTIFACTORIAL.

PATHOGENESIS
SEQUENCE OF CHANGES IN RESPONSE TO AETIOLOGICAL AGENT Result in morpholgic changes characteristic /diagnostic of the disease Alter normal function and lead to clinical symptoms/disease

Normal function of cell


Homeostasis Cellular adaptations steady state(hypertrophy,atrophy, metaplasia,hyperplasia) Cell injury reversible irreversible leads to cell death

Patterns of cell death


Necrosis coagulation necrosis) Apoptosis

Cellular response to injury

Acute injury
Reversible,celldeath (necrosis,apoptosis) Subcelular alterations in sublethal,chronic injury Cellular adaptations Intracellular accumulations Pathologic calcification Cell aging

Causes of cell injury


Hypoxia vs ischemia Physical agents Chemical agents/drugs Infectious agents Immunologic reactions Genetic derangements Nutritional imbalances

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