TURBINE

• Technical Category: Heat Engine • Symbolic representation:

• Basic Function
• Prime Mover:To convert Thermal energy to Mechanical energy • Used to drive:Electric generators, pumps, compressors etc.

TYPES OF TURBINES

1.Steam turbines
2.Gas turbines

3.Hydraulic turbines

Classification of Steam Turbines According to: Direction of flow: • Radial flow turbines • Tangential flow turbines • Axial flow turbines
Cylinder Arrangement: •Single cylinder •Multi cylinder Application : •Condensing turbine •Back Pressure turbine •Condensing turbine with extraction Principle of Steam Utilization •Impulse Turbine •Pressure Turbine •Combination of Both Pressure: •Low pressure: upto 20 kg/cm2 •Medium pressure : upto 40 kg/cm2 •High pressure: between 40 kg/cm2 &170 kg/cm2

No. Of Stages •Single stage •Multi stage

Components
Casing: Outer most housing/shell
•Steam Chest •Intermediate barrel section •Separate exhaust casing •Bearing section

Rotor: Rotating member of the turbine Blades: To turn the rotor by the steam impingement. Nozzle Rings & Diaphragms:Directs the steam on to the rotating blades
These are stationary members. Thrust Bearing: Provides thrust capacity to withstand greater loads and higher speeds

Journal Bearings:To maintain the positive & straight alignment of the
turbine rotor

Governor & Extraction Control System: To regulate the steam flows

Metallurgy Component Steam Chest and Casing Material •Cast carbon steel •Carbon-molybdenum steel •Chromium-molebd. steel •High strength cast iron steel •12% Chromium-stainless steel •12% Chromium-stainless steel •Ductile Iron •12% Chromium-stainless steel

Exhaust Casing Nozzles Blades Bearing housings Governor valves & seats

Working / Operation Steam from boiler
Through control Valve Flow Control Steam distribution/impingement

Governor mechanism
Steam chest

Nozzles
Moving Blades Condenser/Back pressure

Conversion of thermal energy into kinetic energy
Turns/rotates the rotor by the dynamic action of steam Steam exhausted to lower pressure

Losses In Steam Turbines
1. Losses in Nozzles or Guide blades. (Due to friction of steam particles against one another and against the surfaces of blades and nozzles) 2. Losses in Moving Blades. (Due to impact of steam particles against the blade edges and friction between steam particles and the blade surfaces) 3. Leaving Losses . (Due to the loss of KE of steam to the exhaust/condenser)

4. Disc friction and Windage Losses. (Due to friction between rotating disc and surrounding steam)
5. Leakage Losses. (Steam Leakage from stage to stage through the clearances between the diaphragms on both sides of diaphragm) 6. Steam Wetness Losses. (Due to Utilization of steam energy to accelerate the water droplets) 7. Mechanical Losses. (Frictional losses in the turbine bearings,energy used in governor operations,oil pumps,hydraulic seals,gearing etc.)

Advantage of Steam Turbine over Reciprocating steam engine •Ideal primemover: Unlike recip. Engines, the propelling force is
applied directly to the rotating element

•More efficient: Unlike recip. Engines, no interlinkage mechanisms are
involved thereby reducing transmission and mechanical losses.

•Lubrication: Absence of entire lubrication,resulting in
uncontaminated steam exhaust which can be fed directly to the boiler

•Operation: No vibrations, delivers uniform torque,excellent regulation,
low maintenance cost

Co-gen Cycles

Typical Feed Water/ Steam Flow Cycle

Steam

Turbine Boiler
Ext. 1 Ext. 2

To process

To Deaerator/Heater

Cooling Tower Cooling Water

Feed Water

Condenser

Co-Generation Systems System 1
Deaerator

ESP/Wet scrubber DM Water BFP

PRDS

Desuperheater T o

Boiler

PRDS

P r o c e s s
Desuperheater

System 2

Deaereator

Boiler

Desuperheater

Desuperheater

PRDS

Desuperheater

System 3

PRDS Desuperheater To Process

Thermodynamic Cycles

T-s Diagram

Temp. o c

Subcooled region

Critical point Superheated region Saturated vapour curve

Saturated Liquid curve Wet Region

Entropy ( s )

Types of Cycles
Cycle 1

E

A

D

Temp. o c

C

B

Entropy ( s )

Simple Rankine Cycle

A-B : Turbine B-C : Condenser C-D : Pump D-A : Boiler

Cycle 2

A G

C

B F

Temp. o c

E

D

A-B : Turbine B-C : Reheat (Boiler) C-D : Turbine D-E : Condenser E-F : Pump F-A : Boiler D-A : Boiler

Entropy ( s )

Reheat Cycle

Purpose
•To increase the power output •To decrease the wetness of steam

Cycle 3
A G F E B

Temp. o c

C D

A-C : Turbine B-F : Extraction C-D : Condenser D-E : Pump E-F : Feed Heater F-A : Boiler

Entropy ( s )

Regenerative Cycle

Purpose
•To increase the cycle efficiency by reducing heat loss to condenser •To decrease the thermal stresses in the boiler by reducing the temp. diff between feed water and tubes/furnace temperature.

Types Of Efficiencies
Isentropic eff. = hA - hC hA - hB
A

Brake eff. = kW generated hA - hB
Temp. o c
B C

Mechanical eff.= kW generated hA - hC
Entropy ( s )

Ideal Vs Actual Expansion

Brake eff.=(isent.eff.)*(mech. eff.)

A-B: Isentropic /Ideal Expansion A-C: Actual Expansion

Generator eff.= o/p at gen. Terminals Brake o/p of turbine

Calculation Routines
Parameters Steam Pressure Temperature Steam Quality Steam Flow Enthalpy Entropy Power Output Efficiency Generator Efficiency Power Generation Total Power Gen Units kg/cm2 MPA C K TPH kCal/kG J/kg KWH/KG Inlet 39.00 3,900,000.00 390.00 663.00 48.79 762.66 6.75 Extraction 1 11.50 1,150,000.00 290.00 563.00 12.50 689.01 6.75 0.08 0.600 0.97 622.99 Extraction 2 4.85 485,000.00 200.00 473.00 31.29 647.94 6.75 0.13 0.630 0.97 2,550.68 Condensing 0.10 10,000.00 45.00 (273.15) 0.87 5.00 510.64 6.75 0.23 0.720 0.97 1,023.32

kW kW 4,197

Red Figures indicate input parameters Blue figure indicates output parameter

Condensers
Technical Category: Heat Exchanger Functions:
•To produce a vacuum or desired back pressure at the turbine exhaust •To condense the working fluid for reuse in the cycle •To accept the heater drains,makeup water,steam drains etc.

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