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DISTRIBUTED PARAMETER
SYSTEMS
PRESENTATION 2
SOUND WAVES IN A GAS
NAME : 2011/2012
Linear PDE: There is no product of the dependent variable and/or
product of its derivatives within the equation
Nonlinear PDE: The equation contains a product of the dependent
variable and/or a product of the derivatives
Linear PDE
PARTIAL
DIFFERENTIAL
EQUATIONS
Nonlinear PDE
Second order partial differential equations.
The most general form of a second order differential
equation is
c
2
u
cx cy
c
2
u
cx
2
c
2
u
cy
2
cu
cy
cu
cx
a
b
c d e
+ + + + +
f u =
r(x,y)
Where a, b, c, d, e, f and r are functions of x and y.
If we consider this form of second order differential equation.
0
2
2 2
2
2
=
c
c
+
c c
c
+
c
c
y
u
c
y x
u
b
x
u
a
According to the value of (b
2
 4ac) These differential
equations are classified into three categories
If then the partial differential equation is
called Elliptic,
If then the partial differential equation is
called Parabolic,
If then the partial differential equation is
called Hyperbolic.
0 4
2
< ÷ ac b
0 4
2
= ÷ ac b
0 4
2
> ÷ ac b
1. Elliptic equations.
0
2
2
2
2
=
c
c
+
c
c
y
u
x
u
Laplace equation
Here in this case a=1 b=0 and c=1 , so b
2
4ac < 0
2. Parabolic equations.
The heat conduction equation
t
u
c x
u
c
c
=
c
c
2 2
2
1
Here in this case a=1 b=0 and c=0 , so b
2
 4ac = 0
3. Hyperbolic equations.
The wave equation
2
2
2
2
2
t
u
x
u
c
c
c
=
c
c
Here in this case a = c
2
,b=0 and c= 1, so b
2
 4ac> 0
Sound wave in gas
A singlefrequency sound wave traveling through gas will cause
a sinusoidal pressure variation in the gas.
sound waves involves main three features.
• The gas moves and changes the density.
• The change in density corresponds to a change in pressure.
• Pressure inequalities generate gas motion.
The changes in density corresponds to change in pressure
For a gas the pressure is some function of density.
Before sound waves, arrives from equilibrium,
if the pressure is P
0
, then the corresponding density is ρ
0
.
So the relationship between pressure (P) and density (ρ) is
P = f(ρ)
Then equilibrium pressure P
0
is given by
P
0
= f(ρ
0
)
The pressure changes in sound are extremely small compared with equilibrium.
Likewise the displacement and density changes are correspondingly extremely
small.
Therefore for sound ,
P = P
0
+ P
e
P
e
= excess pressure
ρ = ρ
0
+ ρ
e
ρ
e
= excess density
The pressure change P
e
is very small compared with P
0
and also density change ρ
e
is small compared with ρ
0
.
So in this way that excess pressure P
e
is proportional to the excess density ρe
P
e
α ρ
e
By calling proportionality factor k
P
e
= k ρ
e
1
The gas moves and changes the density.
The direction of propagation of sound waves.
x x +Δx
Initial volume
New volume
U(x.t)
x +U(x,t)
x + Δx + U(x + Δx,t)
U(x + Δx,t)
After time t,
The displacement of the air at x is x + U(x.t) and
The displacement of the air at x +Δx is x + Δx + U(x + Δx,t)
The disturbed air lies between the positions x +U(x,t) and x + Δx + U(x + Δx,t)
New volume = x + Δx + U(x + Δx,t)  x –U(x,t)
= Δx + U(x + Δx,t) –U(x,t)
To find the density changes,
we take a unit area to perpendicular to x direction.
The amount of air per unit area = ρ
0
Δx
ρ
0
Δx = ρ[Δx + U(x + Δx,t) –U(x,t)]
Since Δx is small ,we can write
U(x + Δx,t) –U(x,t) =
x
x
u
A

.

\

c
c
] [
0
x
x
u
x x A

.

\

c
c
+ A = A µ µ
Δx cancels out and we get,

.

\

c
c
+ =
x
u
µ µ µ
0
But
e
µ µ µ + =
0
( )

.

\

c
c
+ + + =
x
u
e e
µ µ µ µ µ
0 0 0

.

\

c
c
÷

.

\

c
c
÷ =
x
u
x
u
e e
µ µ µ
0
In sound waves all changes are small, so ρ
e
is small, u is
small
By neglecting we have the relationship

.

\

c
c
x
u
e
µ

.

\

c
c
÷ =
x
u
e 0
µ µ
2
x A
( ) t x p ,
( ) t x x p , A +
( ) x
The mass of air in this slab =
Acceleration of the air =
The amount of the force per unit area =
In +x direction at point x
x A
0
µ
2
2
t
u
c
c
( ) t x p ,
Pressure inequalities generate gas motion.
The amount of the force per unit area in opposite =
direction at point x + Δx
( ) t x x p , A +
The force applied to the thin slab of air =
( ) ( ) t x x p t x p , , A + ÷
Science Δx is very small. So we can write =
=
x
x
p
A

.

\

c
c
÷ .
x
x
p
e
A

.

\

c
c
÷ .
By applying F = ma→ to thin slab of air


.

\

c
c
A = A

.

\

c
c
÷
2
2
0
. .
t
u
x x
x
p
e
µ
Here I assume there is no difference for small Δx whether the acceleration is
evaluated at an edge of the slab or at some intermediate position
Δx cancels out and we get,


.

\

c
c
=

.

\

c
c
÷
2
2
0
.
t
u
x
p
e
µ
Earlier we get equation
P
e
= k ρ
e
1


.

\

c
c
=

.

\

c
c
÷
2
2
0
.
t
u
x
k
e
µ
µ
From equation
2


.

\

c
c
=

.

\

c
c
÷
c
c
÷
2
2
0 0
.
t
u
x
u
x
k µ µ


.

\

c
c
=


.

\

c
c
2
2
0
2
2
0
. .
t
u
x
u
k µ µ
ρ
0
Cancels out and we are left with


.

\

c
c
=


.

\

c
c
2
2
2
2
.
1
t
u
k
x
u
We shall call k = c
2
, finally we get


.

\

c
c
=


.

\

c
c
2
2
2
2
2
.
1
t
u
c
x
u
This is the wave equation which describes the behavior of sound waves
in gas.


.

\

c
c
=


.

\

c
c
2
2
2
2
2
1
t
u
c
x
u
Here in this case a = c
2
,b=0 and c= 1,
0 – 4 x [c
2
] x 1 = 4C
2
4C
2
>0
so b
2
 4ac> 0
Therefore this equation is hyperbolic model.
The wave equation can represented by hyperbolic equation.
Boundary condition
There are 3 type of boundary condition
The Dirichlet problem
Here the solution is prescribed along the boundary.
The Neumann problem
Here the derivative of the solution is specified along
the boundary
The Mixed problem
Here the solution and its derivative are prescribed
along the boundary
Boundary conditions
When t=0, u(x,0) = 0
When x=0 , u(o,t) = u0 and u(l,t) = u
l
The physical significance of boundary condition
• The first boundary condition states that there is no
displacement in initial state.
• The second boundary condition states that the
displacement of the gas occurs at any point in any
time.
Closed form solution for above wave equation
THANK YOU
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