Dr. Y. Mukkamala
1) Boiling water
(fotosearch.com)
2) Condensing steam
(Purdue University)
1. Heat Transfer : is the rate of energy
transfer (i.e., J/s or Watts) from a high
temperature source to a low temperature
sink.
2. Heat transfer deals with the rate of
energy transfer, while thermodynamics :
deals with magnitude of energy and its
conversion.
3. An insulated object at a certain
temperature possesses a magnitude of
internal energy, with no attendant heat
transfer.
1. Conduction : Heat transfer mode that
occurs mainly in solids, liquids and
stationary gases due to molecular
vibration and electron transport.
2. Convection : Heat transfer mechanism
observed in liquids and vapors due to
bulk movement of a fluid.
3. Radiation : Heat transfer phenomena
in which heat can be transferred in the
form of photons and electromagnetic
rays, across a temperature differential
without any participating media.
T
gas
T
wall
T
bead
q
conv
q
rad
Hot Flue
Gases
Thermocouple
Cartesian Coordinates
.
x
dT
q kA
c
dX
= (1)
.
x
q : Heat Transfer Rate (W/m)
k : Thermal conductivity (W/ m K)
A
c
: Cross Section Area (m
2
)
dT
dx
: Temperature Gradient (C/m)
Radial Coordinates (Radial Conduction)
.
dT
q kA
r
r
dr
= (2)
A
r
= 2rL (Cylindrical Area)
dT
dr
: Radial Temperature Gradient
Spherical Coordinates
.
dT
q kA
r
r
dr
=
.
dT
q kA
d
u
u
u
= (3)
.
dT
q kA
d



=
dT
dr
: Radial Temperature Gradient
dT
du
,
dT
d
: Circumferential Temperature Gradients
A
r
= A
= A
= 4r
2
(Spherical Surface Area : Solid Sphere)
Energy Balance (Cartesian Coordinates)
. . .
( )
d
q q q c VT
x x dx gen
p
dt
+ =
+
(4)
Using Taylors expansion theorem (neglecting higher order terms)
.
'''
. . .
( ) ( )
q
d
x
q q dx q dV c VT
x x
p
x dt
c
+ + =
c
(5)
.
'''
.
. ( . )
q
d
x
dx q dx A c dx AT
p
x dt
c
+ =
c
(6)
'''
.
( ) . ( . )
T
d
kA dx q dx A c dx AT
p
dt
x x
c c
+ =
c c
(7)
If variation in physical properties and crosssection are assumed to be negligible
2
2
'''
.
. . ( )
p
T
d
kA dx q dx A Adx c T
dt
x
c
+ =
c
2
2
.
2 '''
2
'''
.
p
p
T
dT
k q c
dt
x
c
T q dT
k k dt x
c
+ =
c
c
+ =
c
(8)
.
2 '''
2
1 T q dT
k dt x o
c
+ =
c
(9)
Energy Balance (Cartesian Coordinates)
Ignoring heat generation, Eqn. 9 simplifies as
2
2
1 T dT
dt x o
c
=
c
(10)
For steady state conditions,
2
2
0
T
x
c
=
c
2
0 T V = (11)
Equation 11 for steady heat diffusion is known as the Laplace equation.
Generalizing Eqn. 10 to three dimensions, for constant physical properties (isotropic
solid)
2 2 2
1
2 2 2
T T T T
t
x y x
o
c c c c
+ + =
c
c c c
(12)
Accounting for variable physical properties, and varying areas for diffusion, Eqn. 12 may
be generalized as
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
x x y y z z p
T T T
k A k A k A c T
t
x x y y z z
c c c c c c
c
+ + =
c
c c c c c c
(13)
Where A
x
= dy.dz; A
y
= dx.dz; A
z
= dx.dy
Energy Balance (Cylindrical Coordinates)
. . . . . .
'''
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
d
q q q q q q q dV c VT
r r dr z z dz
p
t
u u u
+
c
+ + + =
+ +
c
(14)
Where
. . .
. . .
( ) ; ( ) ; ( )
( . ); ( . ); ( . )
r z
r z
T T T
q kA q kA q kA
r
r
r
q k rd dz q k dr dz q k rd dr
u 
u
u
u 
u 
u u
c c c
= = =
c c c
= = =
Hence Eqn. 14 can be rewritten as
. . .
'''
[ . . . ] ( . . ) [ ( . . ). ]
q q q
r z
dr d dz q dr dz rd c dr dz rd T
p
r z t
u
u u u
u
c c c
c
+ + + =
c c c c
'''
[ ( ) ( ) ( ) ] ( . . . ) [ . . ] k rd dzT dr k rdrdzT d k rd drT dz q dr dz r d T c dr dz rd
z r p
r z t
u u u u u
u u
c c c c
+ + + =
c c c c
'''
[ ( ) ( ) ( )] (. . ) [ ] k rT k rT k rT q rT c rT
z r p
r z t
u
u
c c c c
+ + + =
c c c c
(15)
The above equation simplifies as (for isotropic solid)
'''
2 2 2
1 1 1
2 2 2 2
q
T T T T T
r
r t k
r r z
o
u
c c c c c
+ + + + =
c c
c c c
(16)
STEADY STATE HEAT DIFFUSION EQUATIONS (No Source Term)
Cartesian Coordinates (1D):
2
0
2
d T
dx
=
2D :
2
2
2
0
2
T
T
y x
c
c
+ =
c c
Cylindrical Coordinates (Ignoring Axial Diffusion)
2
1
0
2
dT
d T
r dr
dr
+ =
Spherical Coordinates
'''
2 2
1 1 1 1
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2
q
T T T
rT Sin
r
t k
r r Sin r Sin
u
o
u u
u u
c c c c c
+ + + =
c c c
c c
(17)
Equation 17 is the general heat diffusion equation in spherical coordinates with a
volumetric source term.
k : Constant of proportionality from
Fourier law.
Solids : Conduction in solids is due to
lattice vibrations (phonon transport),
and electron transport.
Phonon vibration contributes
insignificantly.
Good electrical conductors are hence,
good heat conductors as well. Exs:
Copper, Aluminum, and most other
metals, and some alloys.
Similarly insulators are also poor heat
conductors.
Exceptions : Semi conductors; some
alloys.
Combined Heat Transfer Eqn :