What is a Project? (Definition #1)

(Guide to the Project Management – Body of Knowledge, the Project Management Institute, 3rd. Ed., 2004, p. 5)

Project Management Process Illustration
PROCESS INPUTS (Typical) Process Maturity, Methodology, Benchmarking and Optimization, Constraints, Templates, Infrastructure, Policy and Cultural Framework
PROCESS OUTPUTS (Selected Examples)


Project Business Case



Opt. Project Portfolio Mix

Qualitative & Quantitative Tools Outputs of Other Processes

Project Feasibility Report





Project Master Plan (or Subsidiary Plans) Customer Change Request Revised Cost and Schedule Baseline

Material Inputs

Transformation of Inputs to Outputs

Stakeholder Interaction

Process Effectiveness and Efficiency

Requests, Instructions

Project Status Report

Quality of Process Inputs, Knowledge, Competence, Experience, Insight, Ability, Communication, Cooperation, Coordination

Given that the output of one project management process normally becomes input to another, deficiencies in one or more processes will consequently reverberate across the entire process chain

Project management uses processes extensively to produce “deliverables” (see small sample above). Some processes are quite complex and have a high risk of error.


management is the discipline of planning, organizing, securing and managing resources to bring about the successful completion of specific project goals and objectives.

What is a project?



definitive deliverable (objective and goal)  Takes time  Consumes resources  A definite starting date  A definite stopping date  Consist of processes  Proceeds through milestones  Utilizes teams  Based on personal integrity and trust

Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns

PRIMARY scope, time, and cost. SECONDARY optimize allocate and integration of inputs necessary to meet pre-defined objectives.

Business Dimension Change Business Environment Project Management (PM)

Project Management
Project management is about organization

Project management is about decision making Project management is about changing people’s behavior

Project management is about creating an environment conducive to getting critical projects done!

Why Projects Fail
 Failure

to align project with organizational objectives  Poor scope  Unrealistic expectations  Lack of project management  Inability to move beyond individual and personality conflicts  Politics

Why Projects Succeed!
 Good

project charter  Strong project management  The right mix of team players  Good decision making structure  Good communication  Team members are working toward common goals


Project Management developed from several fields of application including civil construction, engineering, and heavy defense activity Henry Gantt, called the father of planning and control techniques, Gantt chart as a project management tool Henri Fayol, 5 management functions, work breakdown structure (WBS) and resource allocation.

The evolution or development of project management can be divided into five periods.
 Prior

to 1950  managed on an ad hoc basis  not responsible for the project failure  1950′S to 1960′S  tools including CPM and PERT were introduced  Projects In defense

       

1960 to 1979 technology revolution Material Requirements Planning (MRP) were also introduced the Project Management Institute (PMI) was formed 1980 to 1990 implementation of TQM Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) competitiveness and customer expectations

empowerment, re-engineering, and scope change control and risk management.  2000 to Present  Use of internet and intranet  project management became a major challenge  Concept of “Six Sigma”  many tools & techniques and worldwide standards Whilst the 1980's were about quality and the 1990's were all about globalisation, the 2000's are about velocity

Characteristics of projects
           

Objectives Life span Single entity Team work Life cycle Uniqueness Change Successive principle Made to order Unity in diversity High level of sub-contracting Risk and uncertainty

Classification of projects
According to geographical area National International  According to industrialization Industrial Non industrial  According to technology used Non- conventional/ R and D to conventional High technology to low technology

According to size of projects Mega Major Medium Mini  According to nature of strategy New product Expansion Modification

Project Dynamics: The Triple Constraints


Scope Quality


The Stages in the Project Management Lifecycle


STAGE 1: Conceptualizingand-Defining STAGE 2: Planning-andBudgeting

STAGE 4: Monitoring-and-Controlling

STAGE 3: Executing STAGE 4: Monitoring-and-Controlling

STAGE 5: Terminating-andClosing

Texas Tech University -- J. R. Burns


Project Framework
Initiate Prepare Execute & Control
Track & Control


• Scope Management • Workplan Management


Definition / Scope / Requirements

Planning and Resource Allocation

• Resource Management (Time, Cost, People) • Deliverable Mgmt • Quality Management • Transition Plan • Int/Ext Vendor Management


Completion & Assessment


Risk & Issue Management Sponsor Management Communication Management

Concrete objectives
SMART:  Specific  Measurable  Achievable  Realistic  Timed

1.Project conceptualizing

o o o o o

Project name, location, duration Rationale (stating needs) Organisation’s priorities, funder’s priorities General aim Concrete/specific objectives Methodology/strategy Plan of activities

2. Project planning and budgeting
o o o o o o o o

Main outcomes Expected results Added value of the project Evaluation criteria, technique Sustainability, multiplicatory effects Resources: financial (budget), material (budget), human (team and partners) Publicity Information about the organisation (contact info)

3. Implementation
 Implementing

and executing activities for Managing resources: human, material/technical, financial, time  communication  Team work  Book-keeping and accounting  Process documentation, records  Continuous monitoring, feedback

4. Evaluation
 Final evaluation vs. continuous monitoring  Using originally planned methods  Summing up results, objectives, activities,

fulfilled expectations  Formal documentation (reports, brochures)  Internal lessons documented (manuals)  Acknowledgments  Closing accounting  Follow-up

The risk management process
 Risk

 Risk

Identify project, product and business risks;
Assess the likelihood and consequences of these risks; Draw up plans to avoid or minimise the effects of the risk; Monitor the risks throughout the project;

identification analysis

 Risk


 Risk


Risk identification
 Technology


 People

risks.  Organisational risks.  Requirements risks.  Estimation risks.

The risk management process

Risk planning
  

Consider each risk and develop a strategy to manage that risk. Avoidance strategies

The probability that the risk will arise is reduced; The impact of the risk on the project or product will be reduced; If the risk arises, contingency plans are plans to deal with that risk;

Minimisation strategies

Contingency plans

Risk monitoring
 Assess

each identified risks regularly to decide whether or not it is becoming less or more probable.  Also assess whether the effects of the risk have changed.  Each key risk should be discussed at management progress meetings.

Key points
  

Good project management is essential for project success. The intangible nature of software causes problems for management. Managers have diverse roles but their most significant activities are planning, estimating and scheduling. Planning and estimating are iterative processes which continue throughout the course of a project.

Key points

project milestone is a predictable state where a formal report of progress is presented to management.  Project scheduling involves preparing various graphical representations showing project activities, their durations and staffing.  Risk management is concerned with identifying risks which may affect the project and planning to ensure that these risks do not develop into major threats.

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