Locating algorithm

Agenda
Introduction Flow chart of locating steps Steps description and related parameters Example Main controling parameters & ranges Conclusion

Introduction
Mobility is the main important issue to maitain in a GSM netwok through handover from a cell to another, but what could make handover runs succesffully? The locating algorithm serves the purpose of providing a list of possible cell candidates, in descending ranking order, for handover. The locating algorithm is feature available for Ericsson GSM Systems. It serves as the basis for a number of other radio network features(for example HCS , CLS and IHO). These features are mentioned as auxiliary radio network functions.

Flow chart
The algorithm consists of eight stages, corresponding to the eight boxes in the main flow chart.
Penalty list Measurement result from GSM Initiations

Filtering

Urgency Condition Basic Ranking Auxiliary radio network functions evaluations Organizing the list

Sending the list Allocation reply

Initiation
 At a change of channel a new locating individual is created and the old one is terminated. If the new locating individual is a result of handover, a list of penalties is transferred from the old locating individual.
Penalty list Measurement result from GSM Initiations Filtering

Urgency Condition Basic Ranking Auxiliary radio network functions evaluations Organizing the list Sending the list Allocation reply

filtering
Locating is based on a number of measurements reports contain The signal strength, signal quality and timing advance that are reported to the BSC every SACCH period (0.48 s).

Penalty list

Initiations Filtering

Measurement result from GSM

Urgency Condition

Basic Ranking
Auxiliary radio network functions evaluations Organizing the list Sending the list Allocation reply

filtering
Data description signal downlink strength signal downlink strength signal downlink strength quality downlink quality downlink quality uplink quality uplink timing advance MS power capability own cell own cell full set subset Source MS MS

six strongest neighbours MS MS MS BTS BTS BTS (according to classmark) BSC (MS) BTS MS own cell own cell own cell own cell full set subset full set subset

DTX used by base station during the measurement period DTX used by mobile during the measurement period

these measured values are filtered by performing an averaging of a number of consecutive measurements.

filtering
1Signal Strength:
Filter selection parameter value SSEVALSI, SSEVALSD 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Filter length, SACCH periods 2 6 10 14 18 SSLENSI, SSLENSD SSLENSI, SSLENSD SSLENSI, SSLENSD SSLENSI, SSLENSD

Filter type general FIR general FIR general FIR general FIR general FIR
recursive straight average

Default and recommended

recursive exponential recursive 1st. order Butterworth median

2- Signal Quality: it is the same as signal strength (QEVALSD, QEVALSI, QELENSI and QELENSD). 3- Timing Advanced : straight average filter with a length specified by TAAVELEN is the only type of the filter used for timing advanced.

Urgency conditions
 Two types of urgency condition are evaluated: bad signal quality and excessive timing advance.
Penalty list
Measurement result from GSM

Initiations
Filtering Urgency Condition Basic Ranking Auxiliary radio network functions evaluations Organizing the list Sending the list Allocation reply

 Bad quality urgency condition:
rxqual(uplink) > QLIMUL

or
rxqual(downlink) > QLIMDL

 Excessive timing advance urgency condition:
TA > TALIM

Basic Ranking
Penalty list

Initiations
Filtering

• The basic ranking consists of four stages: • Correction of base station output power for downlink measurements, • Evaluation of the minimum signal strength condition, • Subtraction of signal strength penalties, • Ranking according to signal strength.

Measurement result from GSM

Urgency Condition Basic Ranking Auxiliary radio network functions evaluations Organizing the list Sending the list Allocation reply

Basic Ranking
Correction of base station output power for downlink measurements: Neighbouring Cells:
SS_DOWN n = rxlev n + BSTXPWR n - BSPWR n

Serving Cell: BCCH Frequency:
SS_DOWN n = rxlev s + BSTXPWR S - BSPWR s

Frequency Hopping:
SS_DOWN s = rxlev s + (BSTXPWR s - BSPWR s ) /N

where N is the number of frequencies in the hopping sequence.

Basic Ranking
• Power control: • BCCH frequency: SS_DOWN s = rxlev s + (BSTXPWR - PWR_USED) • Frequency hopping:

SS_DOWN s = rxlev s + (BSTXPWR - PWR_USED) * (N - 1 )/N

• • where PWR_USED is the output power used during the corresponding SACCH period. • Evaluation of the minimum signal strength condition SS_DOWN n >= MSRXMIN n
• or

SS_UPn >= BSRXMIN n

• where n refers to a neighbouring cell and SS_DOWN is the downlink signal strength after correction

Basic Ranking
Subtraction of signal strength penalties:
p_SS_DOWN p = SS_DOWN p - LOC_PENALTY p - HCS_PENALTY p

where p refers to the punished cell. LOC_PENALTY : is given by one of the following three reasons: Handover failure :PSSHF (size), PTIMHF (duration); Bad quality urgency handover :PSSBQ (size), PTIMBQ (duration); Excessive timing advance urgency handover : PSSTA (size), PTIMTA (duration). HCS_PENALTY : is a punishment which is associated with the feature Hierarchical Cell Structures (PSSTEMP:size , PTIMTEMP:duration).

Basic Ranking
The penalties: The locating penalty list can contain a maximum of three cells at any time for a connection.

Each punished neighbouring cell in this list can only be punished with one of the three types of penalty at a time. A cell can be included in the two lists at the same time. In this case the two punishments are added.

Basic Ranking
Ranking according to signal strength In the ranking algorithm, an offset value and a hysteresis value is used when ranking neighbouring cells. The ranking value is given by: For serving cell: RANK s = SS_DOWN s For neighbouring cell:
RANK n = p_SS_DOWN n - OFFSET s,n - HYST s,n

where s denotes serving cell and n neighbouring cells. Basic ranking and penalty evaluation the cells are ordered in a basic ranking list.

Auxiliary radio network functions evaluations
Six auxiliary radio network functions are incorporated in the locating software: Assignment to Other Cell, Hierarchical Cell Structures, Overlaid/Underlaid Subcells, Intra-cell Handover, Extended Range, Cell Load Sharing.
Penalty list Measurement result from GSM Initiations Filtering

Urgency Condition Basic Ranking Auxiliary radio network functions evaluations Organizing the list Sending the list Allocation reply

Organizing the list
Categorization
Penalty list Measurement result from GSM Initiations

Categorization 1: Better cell: Cell with a higher ranking value than serving cell in the candidate list. Worse cell: Cell with a lower ranking value than serving cell in the candidate list. Serving cell: The cell serving the connection.

Filtering

Urgency Condition Basic Ranking Auxiliary radio network functions evaluations Organizing the list

Categorization 2: Above S: Neighbouring cell above serving cell in the candidate list. Below S: Neighbouring cell below serving cell in the candidate list S: Serving cell.

Sending the list Allocation reply

Sending the list
The resulting candidate list forms the basis for cell selection. empty list :there is no better than remaining on the current channel. Candidates list :The first cell is ideally the cell to which the MS should be connected. If there are no channels available in that cell, an attempt to allocate a channel in the next cell in the candidate list is made, etc.
Penalty list Measurement result from GSM Initiations Filtering

Urgency Condition
Basic Ranking Auxiliary radio network functions evaluations

Organizing the list
Sending the list Allocation reply

Allocation reply
Penalty list The result channel allocation can be Measurement result from either a success or a failure. GSM Success : means that an available radio resource was found in one of the cell candidates, and that the transfer of the connection to the new channel was successful. Failure :can be either due to congestion or to a signalling failure. The result determines a number of actions, such as setting of penalties and enabling of certain timers. Initiations Filtering

Urgency Condition Basic Ranking Auxiliary radio network functions evaluations Organizing the list Sending the list Allocation reply

THE END