Orthopaedics

Injection Molding

Injection Molding

Plastics Manufacturing…
PROCESSE S
THERMOSETS THERMO PLASTICS

 COMPRESSION MOULDING  SHEET MOLDING COMPONENT (SMC)  BULK MOLDED COMPONENT (BMC)  THERMOSET INJECTION MOULDING

 INJECTION MOULDING  VACUUM FORMING / THERMOFORMING  PRESSURE FORMING  BLOW MOULDING  ROTATIONAL MOULDING / ROTO MOULDING  EXTRUSION  STRUCTURAL FOAM  RIM (REACTION INJECTION MOULDING)

Injection Molding

What is Injection molding ?
Injection molding is a process by which we take raw plastic material in the form of small pellets (also referred to as resin), heat it gently to the point where it will flow under moderate pressure, and inject it (push it with a plunger) into a mold.

Injection Molding

Characteristic features
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. High volume. Production of intricate parts. Tight tolerance parts. Good dimensional stability. Automated process. Low scrap. No/ Minimum secondary operations required. Good surface finish.

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Injection Molding

Injection Molding Part example

Detailed Parts Including Ribs, Holes, and Bosses

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Injection Molding

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Injection Molding

Material

Tooling

GOOD PART

Processing

Design
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Injection Molding

Successful Plastic Part Production =...
Part design integrating tool-making & processing concerns Material selection after considering ALL performance requirements Tool design incorporating processing physics & material Material Tooling

Processing

Design

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Injection Molding

The Equipment

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Injection Molding

Machine details

Molding
Once the plastic is feed into the mold, through the nozzle and sprue. After cooling cycle, mold starts opening. The moveable half of the mold is actuated by the hydraulic cylinder for opening the mold.

Conveyer
The screw is surrounded by heating coils. Material inside the screw is heated gradually. Ram forces material to flow through the nozzle.

Feeding
Plastic pallets is feed into the hopper. Once material is heated, starts flowing through the screw.

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Injection Molding

Components of Molding Machine
Injection System

Hydraulic System
Mold System Clamping System Control System

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Injection Molding

Injection System
Hopper Hopper

The Barrel
The Reciprocating Screw

Barrel & Reciprocating Screw

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Injection Molding

Injection System

Heaters

Fixed Platen of Machine

Nozzle

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Injection Molding

The Injection Unit
Provides Injection and Packing Pressure Provides Torque to Turn the Screw

Hydraulic Injection Cylinders

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Injection Molding

Barrel Unit-The Reciprocating Screw
Hopper Heating Coils Nozzle Barrel Screw (Filling) Throat
Force, Torque From Injection Unit

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Injection Molding

Barrel Unit-The Reciprocating Screw
Shot Rotation and Back Pressure

Screw Rotation Feeds and Shears Material Into a Melt. Melt Collects Into Front of Barrel, Forcing Screw Back

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Injection Molding

Barrel Unit-The Reciprocating Screw

Shot Injection Pressure

Melt Required to Fill Mold Ready for Injection

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Injection Molding

Barrel Unit-The Reciprocating Screw

Cushion
Packing Pressure

Screw Pushes Forward: Inject

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Injection Molding

Hydraulic System
Open and close the mold Build and hold the clamping tonnage Turn the reciprocating screw Drive the reciprocating screw

A typical hydraulic system include pumps, valves, hydraulic motors, hydraulic fittings, hydraulic tubing, and hydraulic reservoirs
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Injection Molding

Mold System
Tie bars Stationary and moving platens Molding plates (bases) Tie Bars Moving Platen

Stationary Platen
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Injection Molding

Mold System

Moving Half of Mold
Door

Stationary Half of Mold
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Injection Molding

Mold System
Door closed and part molded Part

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Injection Molding

Clamping System
Open and close the mold
Supports and carries the constituent parts of the mold Generates sufficient force to prevent the mold from opening Clamping force can be generated by • Mechanical (toggle) lock • Hydraulic lock

• or a combination of the two basic types.

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Injection Molding

Clamping System
Clamping Mechanisms Hydraulic Clamping System

Hydraulic Cylinder

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Injection Molding

Clamping System
Clamping Mechanisms Single Toggle Clamping System

Clamping Mechanisms Double Toggle Clamping System

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Injection Molding

Control System
Provide consistency and repeatability in machine operation It monitors and controls the processing parameters, including the

temperature, pressure, injection speed, screw speed and position,
and hydraulic position The process control has a direct impact on the final part quality and

the economics of the process. Process control systems can range
from a simple relay on/off control to an extremely sophisticated microprocessor-based, closed-loop control.
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Injection Molding

1. Plasticising

Molding Cycle

2. Injection

3. Cooling

4. Ejection

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Injection Molding

Terminology for Molded Parts

Gate Component

Runner Sprue

Gate Components

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Injection Molding

Terminology for Molded Parts

Sprue Components Runner Gate

Components
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Injection Molding

Terminology for Molded Parts

Components

Feed System
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Injection Molding

The Process Steps

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Injection Molding

Injection Molding Process Steps:
Drying the Pellets

Loading Pellets Into Molding Machine
Heating and Shearing Material Into a Melt

Injecting the Melt Into the Mold Cavity
Part Cooling, Solidification Ejecting the Finished Part From the Mold
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Injection Molding

Molding Defects

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Injection Molding

Short Mouldings
Description
Molding formed incompletely

Causes
Insufficient material Inadequate flow Melt cooling too rapidly

Solutions
Check for material inside the barrel Increase the injection pressure Increase the barrel temperature Increase the gate size

Increase the sprue and runner systems
Increase the rate of injection(short weight) Increase venting
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Injection Molding

Warping or Shrinkage
Description
Distortion in one or more planes

Causes
Less cooling time. During ejection

Solutions
Increase in cooling time. Check for ejection system design.
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Injection Molding

Sinks
Description
Depressions over the surface of the molding

Causes
Insufficient material in mold to allow for contraction on cooling.

Less Injection pressure.

Solutions
Increase Packing inside the mould. Ensure that there is sufficient material inside the barrel to maintain pressure during dwell time.
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Injection Molding

Voids
Description
Vacuum bubbles within the molding

Causes
Sink marks. Gas trapped inside the cavity.

Solutions
Increase Venting
Increase injection pressure Packing correct material inside.
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Injection Molding

Flash
Description
Excess material attached with the molding

Causes
More injection pressure

More material temperature
Less clamping pressure More material

Solutions
Reduce the Injection pressure Increase the clamping tonnage. Reduce the barrel temperature
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Injection Molding

Spot Burning
Description
Discolored or Charred sections in molding

Causes
Due the compressed air inside the mould. More Injection pressure.

Solutions
Improve mold venting Reduce the injection speed Reduce the melt temperature

Injection Molding

Weak weld lines:
Description
Surface marks where there are 2 or more adjacent streams in the moulding.

Causes
Less melt temperature Less injection pressure

Solutions
Increase Injection pressure
Increase melt temperature

Injection Molding

Flow lines
Description
Mark visible on the finished parts that indicate the direction of flow

Causes
Improper flow of material in to the mold Inadequate temperature

Solutions
Increase the material temperature Increase the gate size Increase injection pressure

Injection Molding

Contamination
Description
Material is filled with foreign particles

Causes
Improper cleaning of material

Solutions
Proper cleaning of materials or granules
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Exercise

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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u5rul_ELwy8&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6yVkNUYVe-4&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wScUAoCciGo&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SovjCTtBY4Q&feature=related Molding Side core and others Mold construction Material processing

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l1jNrmpx-Rw&feature=rellist&playnext=1&list=PL5A5C802C347EC661-Molding machine basics http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hiPO8w7NlcI&feature=BFa&list=PL5A5C802C347EC661&lf=rellist--angled pin http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&v=k14n9sVusvc--Multi color molding http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V49wSbnRpsY--2 shot hot runner

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