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THERMAL MODALITIES

Hot packs diathermy Paraffin

Whirlpool

IRR

Ultrasound

FLUIDOTHERAPY

MODES OF HEAT TRANSFER


CONDUCTION
Exchange of energy by direct contact between the molecules of two materials at different temperatures. Greater the difference in temperature; faster is the conduction. E.g.. HOT PACKS,PARAFFIN.

CONVECTION
Result of direct contact between the circulating medium and another material of different temperature. Eg.WHIRLPOOL, FLUIDOTHERAPY

CONVERSION HEAT TRANSFER


Non thermal form of heat energy is converted to heat. There is no direct contact. Eg.ULTRASOUND : Mechanical energy DIATHERMY : electromagnetic energy is converted to heat energy.

RADIATION TRANSFER

E.G : INFRA RED RADIATION ULTRA VIOLET RADIATION

FLUIDOTHERAPY-CONSTRUCTION
It is a dry heating modality that provides Heating via convection. It consists of finely divided cellulose particles(generally made of corn cobs) suspended in a mixture that behaves as a low viscosity fluid. The temp of airstream and agitation of particles is variable and can be adjusted by controls on the unit.

Different types of units are available. single and double extremity units, leg+arm units, back units etc. There is an auxillary heater present inside the chamber to help sterlise the medium. Fluidotherapy stimulates both thermal as well as mechanoreceptors.

METHOD OF APPLICATION
The unit is preheated to 110-125 F. ie.the highest

temperature the patient can tolerate.

The temperature can be checked by putting ones

own hand into the entry pot.


positioned.

The agitation is turned off before the patient is Once the patient is positioned, the agitation is

turned on again.

Ensure that the entry pot is closed before

switching the machine on.

At the end of treatment the machine is turned

off before removing the patient. Rx Time:15-20 mins.

The agitation of particles can be varied by

adjusting the blower control and can be incremented to assist in desensitization of the extremity.(increases pain threshold.) viscosity.

The lower the particle motion,the higher is the At any min,the particles should be moving

enough for the surface to appear to be boiling.

The low viscosity allows easy exercises to be

performed and the design of the unit does not require the limb to be in the dependant position while doing so. performed as most of the units have an additional entry pot for the therapist to assist. *VIDEO*

Both active and passive movements can be

PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF HEAT


CIRCULATION: Vasodilation-

{Increase blood supply} {Increases delivery of O2-nutrient supply.}


INCREASED VENOUS AND LYMPHATIC DRAINAGE NEUROMUSCULAR:

Increases nerve conduction,


PAIN RELIEF
INCREASED METABOLIC ACTIVITY

{resolution of inflamation,odema and exudate}

INCREASED TISSUE EXTENSIBILITY


REDUCES MUSCLE SPASM INCREASED PERIPHERAL NERVE ACTIVITY

{Increases firing threshold of peripheral nerves causes counterirritation,closes the pain gate.}

INDICATIONS
STIFFNESS DECREASED BLOOD FLOW DECREASED LYMPHATIC FLOW DECREASED ELASTICITY DECREASED ROM PAIN CONTRACTURES TO IMPROVE TISSUE HEALING

CONTRAINDICATION
ACUTE INFLAMATION RECENT POTENTIAL HAEMMORRHAGE THROMBOPLEBITIS OF VEINS MALIGNANCIES AND NEOPLASMS IMPAIRED CIRCULATION IMPAIRED SENSATION IMPAIRED MENTATION TUBERCULOSIS OF THE AREA TO BE TREATED

PRECAUTIONS
SKIN DISEASE OPEN WOUNDS METAL IMPLANTS

ADVANTAGES
Provides mechanical and thermal stimulation. No loss of heat occurs over time. Temperature is selected and maintained throughout the treatment. Constant temperature can result in greater or more effective heating. It permits movements during the treatment. It is safe to use even in presence of plastic joint replacements,splints,bandages,tapes artificial tendons etc.

THANK YOU!