July 2, 2003

CVEN 444

Slab design reinforcement
Bar Development
Hook development

For a 1 ft strip of slab is designed like a beam A
s
(req’d)
is in units of (in
2
/ft)
1
]
1

¸

·
inches in spacing bar
in 12
ft /
b s
A A

The table will allow
to determine the
amount of steel per
each foot of slab.

The minimum spacing of the bars is given as:
Also, check crack control - important for exterior
exposure (large cover dimensions) - The spacing S of
reinforcement closest to the surface in tension ACI Sec.
10.6.4
( )
( )
max
ACI Sec. 7.6.5
3t slab thickness
S smaller of
18 in.
¹
·
'
¹
( )
c
s s
12 36
540
2.5 s c
f f
· − ≤

Thin slabs shrink more rapidly than deeper beams.
Temperature & shrinkage (T&S) steel is provided
perpendicular to restrain cracks parallel to span.
(Flexural steel restrains cracks perpendicular to
span)
Maximum & Minimum reinforcement requirements

Maximum & Minimum reinforcement requirements
T&S Reinforcement (perpendicular to span)
ACI Sec 7.12.2
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) t
f t
f
f t
f t A
* " 12 * 0.0014
ksi 60 * " 12 *
60
* 0018 . 0
ksi 60 * " 12 * 0018 . 0
ksi 50 or 40 * " 12 * 0020 . 0
y
y
y
y min s

,
_

¸
¸
·
· ·
· ·

T&S Reinforcement (perpendicular to span)
ACI Sec 7.12.2.2
¹
'
¹
·
18"
5t
of smaller
max
S
t – thickness of the slab

Flexural Reinforcement (parallel to span)
ACI Sec 10.5.4
S
max
from reinforced spacing
( ) ( )
s min s min T&S
A A ·
max
3t
smaller of
18"
S
¹
·
'
¹

Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths,
Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths,
Bar Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty
Bar Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty
Requi rements
Requi rements
A. Concept of Bond Stress and Rebar Anchorage
Internal Forces in a beam
Forces developed in the beam by loading.

Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths,
Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths,
Bar Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty
Bar Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty
Requi rements
Requi rements
A. Concept of Bond Stress and Rebar Anchorage
Forces in Rebar
Bond stresses provide mechanism of force transfer
between concrete and reinforcement.

Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths,
Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths,
Bar Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty
Bar Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty
Requi rements
Requi rements
Equilibrium Condition for Rebar
Note: Bond stress is zero at cracks
2
b
y b b
y b
d
F 0 Bond Force 0

0
4
4
T
d
f d l
f d
l
π
π µ
µ
· ⇒ − ·
⇒ − ·
⇒ ·

µ = bond stress
(coefficient of
friction)
( )
c
bar
k f
k f φ

·

Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths,
Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths,
Bar Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty
Bar Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty
Requi rements
Requi rements
Sources of Bond Transfer
(1) Adhesion between concrete & reinforcement.
(2) Friction
Note: These properties are quickly lost for tension.

Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths,
Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths,
Bar Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty
Bar Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty
Requi rements
Requi rements
(3)Mechanical Interlock.
The edge stress concentration causes cracking
to occur.

Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths,
Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths,
Bar Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty
Bar Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty
Requi rements
Requi rements
(3) Mechanical Interlock (cont).
Force interaction between the steel and concrete.

Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths,
Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths,
Bar Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty
Bar Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty
Requi rements
Requi rements
Splitting cracks result in loss of bond transfer.
Reinforcement can be used to restrain these
cracks.

Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths,
Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths,
Bar Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty
Bar Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty
Requi rements
Requi rements
Splitting Load is Affected by:
Minimum edge distance and spacing of bars
( smaller distance = smaller load )
Tensile strength of concrete.
Average bond stress along bar. ( Increase in
bond stress larger wedging forces. )
1.

2.
3.

Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths,
Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths,
Bar Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty
Bar Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty
Requi rements
Requi rements
Typical Splitting Failure Surfaces.

Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths,
Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths,
Bar Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty
Bar Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty
Requi rements
Requi rements
Typical Splitting Failure Surfaces.

Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths, Bar
Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths, Bar
Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty Requi rements
Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty Requi rements
General splitting of
concrete along the
bars,either in vertical
planes as in figure (a) or in
horizontal plane as in
figure (b). Such splitting
comes largely from
wedging action when the
ribs of the deformed bar
bear against the concrete.
The horizontal type of splitting frequently begins at a diagonal
crack. The dowel action increases the tendency toward splitting.
This indicates that shear and bond failure are often intricately
interrelated.

Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths
Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths
ACI Code expression for development length for
bars in tension/in compression.
B.
Development Length, l
d
Shortest length of bar in which the bar stress can
increase from zero to the yield strength, f
y
.
( l
d
used since bond stresses, µ, vary along a bar in
a tension zone)

Development Length, l
d
( l
d
used since bond
stresses, µ, vary along a
bar in a tension zone)

Devel opment Length for Bars i n
Devel opment Length for Bars i n
Tensi on
Tensi on
Development length, l
d
(simplified expression from ACI 12.2.2)
Development length, l
d
12” ACI 12.2.1
f
c
10000 psi for Ch. 12 provisions for development length in ACI Codes.
Clear spacing of bars being developed or
spliced not less than d
b
, clear cover not less
than d
b
, and stirrups or ties throughout l
d
not
less than the code minimum
or
Clear spacing of bars being developed or
spliced not less than 2d
b
and clear cover not
less than d
b
.
No. 6 and smaller No. 7 and
larger bars and deformed bars
wires


c
y
b
d
25 f
f
d
l
αβλ
·
c
y
b
d
20 f
f
d
l
αβλ
·
38 47.5

Devel opment Length for Bars i n
Devel opment Length for Bars i n
Tensi on
Tensi on
Development length, l
d
12” ACI 12.2.1
f
c
10000 psi for Ch. 12 provisions for development length in ACI
Codes.
Development length, l
d
(simplified expression from ACI 12.2.2)
Other cases
No. 6 and smaller No. 7 and larger
bars and deformed bars
wires


c
y
b
d
50
3
f
f
d
l
αβλ
·
c
y
b
d
40
3
f
f
d
l
αβλ
·
57 71
f
c
= 4 ksi f
y
= 60 ksi , α,β,λ · 1.0

Devel opment Length for Bars i n
Devel opment Length for Bars i n
Tensi on
Tensi on
Development length, l
d
ACI 12.2.3
2.5 limit to safeguard against pullout type failure.
y
d
b
c ct
b
ct
b
3

40

where, 2.5
f
l
d
f c K
d
c K
d
αβλ
·
¸ _
+

¸ ,
¸ _
+
<

¸ ,

Factors used i n expressi ons for
Factors used i n expressi ons for
Devel opment Length (ACI 12.2.4)
Devel opment Length (ACI 12.2.4)
α · reinforcement location factor
Horizontal reinforcement so placed that
more than 12 in of fresh concrete is cast
in the member below the development
length or splice
Other reinforcement
1.3
1.0
where αβ < 1.7

Factors used i n expressi ons for
Factors used i n expressi ons for
Devel opment Length (ACI 12.2.4)
Devel opment Length (ACI 12.2.4)
β · coating factor (epoxy prevents adhesion &
friction between bar and concrete.)
Epoxy-coated bars or wires with cover less
than 3d
b
or clear spacing less than 6d
b
All other epoxy-coated bars or wires
Uncoated reinforcement
1.5
1.2
1.0
where αβ < 1.7

Factors used i n expressi ons for
Factors used i n expressi ons for
Devel opment Length (ACI 12.2.4)
Devel opment Length (ACI 12.2.4)
γ · reinforcement size factor (Reflects more favorable
performance of smaller
φ bars)
No.6 and smaller bars and deformed wire
No. 7 and larger bars
0.8
1.0

Factors used i n expressi ons for
Factors used i n expressi ons for
Devel opment Length (ACI 12.2.4)
Devel opment Length (ACI 12.2.4)
λ · lightweight aggregate concrete factor
(Reflects lower tensile strength of lightweight
concrete, & resulting reduction in splitting resistance.)
When lightweight aggregate concrete is used.
However, when f
ct
is specified, shall be
permitted to be taken as but not
less than
When normal weight concrete is used
1.3
1.0
1.0
ct c
7 . 6 f f

Factors used i n expressi ons for
Factors used i n expressi ons for
Devel opment Length (ACI 12.2.4)
Devel opment Length (ACI 12.2.4)
c = spacing or cover dimension, in.
Use the smaller of either
(a) the distance from the center of the bar or wire to the
nearest concrete surface.
or
(b) one-half the center-to-center spacing of the bar or
wires being developed.

Factors used i n expressi ons for
Factors used i n expressi ons for
Devel opment Length (ACI 12.2.4)
Devel opment Length (ACI 12.2.4)
K
tr
= transverse reinforcement index (Represents the
contribution of confining reinforcement across
potential splitting planes.)
n s
f A
K
* * 1500
yt tr
tr
·
The transverse reinforcement is the development
length in a column.

Factors used i n expressi ons for
Factors used i n expressi ons for
Devel opment Length (ACI 12.2.4)
Devel opment Length (ACI 12.2.4)
Total cross-section area of all transverse
reinforcement within the spacing s, which
crosses the potential plane of splitting along
the reinforcement being developed with in the
development length, in
2
.
Specified yield strength of transverse
reinforcement, psi.
A
tr
=

f
yt
=

Factors used i n expressi ons for
Factors used i n expressi ons for
Devel opment Length (ACI 12.2.4)
Devel opment Length (ACI 12.2.4)
maximum center-to-center spacing of
transverse reinforcement within l
d
in.
number of bars or wires being developed
along the plane of splitting.
s =
n =
Note
Note: It is permitted to use K
tr
= 0 as a design
simplification even if transverse reinforcement
is present.

Excess Fl exural Rei nforcement
Excess Fl exural Rei nforcement
Reducti on (ACI 12.2.5)
Reducti on (ACI 12.2.5)
Reduction = (A
s
req’d ) / (A
s
provided )
- Except as required for seismic design (see ACI
21.2.1.4)
- Good practice to ignore this provision, since use
of structure may change over time.
- final l
d
12 in.
( )
( ) ( ) provided n
u
provided n
d req' n
Reduction
M
M
M
M
φ
· ·


Devel opment Length for Bars i n
Devel opment Length for Bars i n
Compressi on (ACI 12.3)
Compressi on (ACI 12.3)
Compression development length,
l
dc
= l
dbc
* applicable reduction factors 8 in.
Basic Development Length for Compression, l
dbc

¹
¹
¹
'
¹
·
y b
c
y b
dbc
0003 . 0
0.02
of larger
f d
f
f d
l

Devel opment Length for Bars i n
Devel opment Length for Bars i n
Compressi on (ACI 12.3)
Compressi on (ACI 12.3)
Reduction Factors (ACI 12.3.3)
- Excessive Reinforcement Factor
= A
(s

req’d )
/ A
(s

provided)



- Spiral and Ties
If reinforcement is enclosed with spiral
reinforcement 0.25 in. diameter and
4 in. pitch or within No. 4 ties
according to 7.10.5 and spaced 4 in.
on center. Factor = 0.75

For the cross section of a simply
supported beam reinforced with 4
#8 bars that are confined with #3
stirrup spaced at 6 in. Determine
the development length of the
bars if the beam is made of
normal weight concrete f
c
= 3 ksi
and f
y
= 60 ksi

Check if conditions for spacing and concrete
cover are met:
For #8 bars, d
b
= 1.0 in.
Clear cover = 2.5 in - 0.5 in.= 2.0 in. > d
b
Clear spacing
between bars
( )
( ) ( )
b
b
2*cover 1
spaces
12 in. 2 2.5 in. 3 1.0 in.
3
1.33in. d
b n d − − −
·
− −
·
· ≥

Bars are confined with #3 stirrups. The conditions are
met.
Determine the factors;α = 1.0 (bottom bars), β =1.0 (no
coating) and λ = 1.0 (normal weight concrete) and
54.8 psi < 100 psi
y
d
b
c
(for bars > #7)
20
f
l
d
f
αβλ
·
c
f ·

So l
d
= 54.8(1.0 in.) = 54.8 in. 55 in. Using the
more general formula K
tr
= 0.0
( ) ( ) ( )
d
b
1.0 1.0 1.0 60000
54.8
20 3000
l
d
· ·
y
d
b
c tr
b
3
40
f
l
d
f c K
d
αβγλ
¸ _
¸ _
·



¸ _
+
¸ ,
¸ ,

¸ ,

α = β = γ = λ = 1.0. Also
smaller of distance from center of bar to the nearest
concrete surface c
1
or one-half the center-to-center of
bars spacing c
2
c =
2
2*cover
0.5
spaces
12 in. 5 in.
0.5 1.17 in.
3
b
c
¸ _ −
·

¸ ,

¸ _
· ·

¸ ,
1
2.5 in. c ·
c = 1.17 in. controls

( )
d
b
3 60000 1.0
54.8
40 1.5
3000
l
d
¸ _
¸ _
· ·


¸ ,
¸ ,
If < 1.5 use 1.5. 1.17/1.0 = 1.17 1.5
tr
b
c K
d
¸ _
+

¸ ,
So l
d
= 55 in.

If the same beam is made of light
weight aggregate concrete and the
bars are epoxy coated and A
s

required for analysis is 2.79 in
2

The conditions are met.
Determine the factors;α = 1.0 (bottom bars), β =1.5 (epoxy
coating) and λ = 1.3 (lightweight aggregate concrete) and
R
s
= (A
s(req)
/ A
s(provided)
) = 2.79/3.16 = 0.89. The value of β
is 1.5 because the concrete cover is less than 3d
b
= 3 in.
s y
d
b
c
(for bars > #7)
20
R f
l
d
f
αβλ
·

Check that αβ =1.0(1.5) = 1.5 < 1.7
So l
d
= 95.1(1.0 in.) = 95.1 in. 96 in.
( ) ( )
d
b
0.89 1.5 1.3 60000
95.1
20 3000
l
d
· ·

The critical sections for development of reinforcement in
flexural members are:
At points of maximum stress;
At points where tension bars within span are
terminated or bent;
At the face of the support;
At points of inflection at which moment
changes sign.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Three sections are critical for the
negative moment reinforcement:
Section 1 is at the face of the
support, where the negative
moment as well as stress are at
maximum value. Two
development lengths, x
1
and x
2

must be checked.

Section 2 is the section where part
of the negative reinforcement bar
can be terminated. To develop
full tensile force, the bars should
extend a distance x
2
before they
can be terminated Once part of the
bars are terminated the remaining
bars develop maximum stress.

Section 3 is a point of inflection
The bars shall extend a distance x
3

beyond section 3: x
3
must be equal
to or greater than the effective
depth d, 12d
b
or 1/16 the span,
which ever is greater. At least 1/3
of the total reinforcement provided
for negative moment at support
shall extend a distance x
3
beyond
the point of inflection.

Section 4 is that of maximum
positive moment and maximum
stresses. Two development
lengths x
1
and x
2
have to be
checked. The length x
1
is the
development length l
d
specified by
the ACI Code Section 12.11. The
length x
2
is equal to or greater than
the effective depth d, 12d
b
.

Section 5 is where part of the positive
reinforcement bars may be terminated. To
develop full tensile force, the bars should
extend a distance x
2
. The remaining bars
will have a maximum stress due to the
termination of part of the bars. At the face
of the support section 1, at least 1/4 of the
positive moment
reinforcement in continuous members shall expend along the
same face of the member into the support, according to ACI
12.11.1. For simple members at least 1/3 of the reinforcement
shall extend into the support

Section 6 is at the points of
inflection limits are according to
section 12.11.3 of the ACI Code.

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