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# July 2, 2003

CVEN 444

Slab design reinforcement

Bar Development

Hook development

For a 1 ft strip of slab is designed like a beam A

s

(req’d)

is in units of (in

2

/ft)

1

]

1

¸

·

inches in spacing bar

in 12

ft /

b s

A A

The table will allow

to determine the

amount of steel per

each foot of slab.

The minimum spacing of the bars is given as:

Also, check crack control - important for exterior

exposure (large cover dimensions) - The spacing S of

reinforcement closest to the surface in tension ACI Sec.

10.6.4

( )

( )

max

ACI Sec. 7.6.5

3t slab thickness

S smaller of

18 in.

¹

·

'

¹

( )

c

s s

12 36

540

2.5 s c

f f

· − ≤

Thin slabs shrink more rapidly than deeper beams.

Temperature & shrinkage (T&S) steel is provided

perpendicular to restrain cracks parallel to span.

(Flexural steel restrains cracks perpendicular to

span)

Maximum & Minimum reinforcement requirements

Maximum & Minimum reinforcement requirements

T&S Reinforcement (perpendicular to span)

ACI Sec 7.12.2

( )

( )

( )

( )

( ) t

f t

f

f t

f t A

* " 12 * 0.0014

ksi 60 * " 12 *

60

* 0018 . 0

ksi 60 * " 12 * 0018 . 0

ksi 50 or 40 * " 12 * 0020 . 0

y

y

y

y min s

≥

≥

,

_

¸

¸

·

· ·

· ·

T&S Reinforcement (perpendicular to span)

ACI Sec 7.12.2.2

¹

'

¹

·

18"

5t

of smaller

max

S

t – thickness of the slab

Flexural Reinforcement (parallel to span)

ACI Sec 10.5.4

S

max

from reinforced spacing

( ) ( )

s min s min T&S

A A ·

max

3t

smaller of

18"

S

¹

·

'

¹

Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths,

Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths,

Bar Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty

Bar Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty

Requi rements

Requi rements

A. Concept of Bond Stress and Rebar Anchorage

Internal Forces in a beam

Forces developed in the beam by loading.

Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths,

Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths,

Bar Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty

Bar Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty

Requi rements

Requi rements

A. Concept of Bond Stress and Rebar Anchorage

Forces in Rebar

Bond stresses provide mechanism of force transfer

between concrete and reinforcement.

Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths,

Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths,

Bar Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty

Bar Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty

Requi rements

Requi rements

Equilibrium Condition for Rebar

Note: Bond stress is zero at cracks

2

b

y b b

y b

d

F 0 Bond Force 0

0

4

4

T

d

f d l

f d

l

π

π µ

µ

· ⇒ − ·

⇒ − ·

⇒ ·

∑

µ = bond stress

(coefficient of

friction)

( )

c

bar

k f

k f φ

≈

·

Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths,

Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths,

Bar Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty

Bar Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty

Requi rements

Requi rements

Sources of Bond Transfer

(1) Adhesion between concrete & reinforcement.

(2) Friction

Note: These properties are quickly lost for tension.

Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths,

Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths,

Bar Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty

Bar Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty

Requi rements

Requi rements

(3)Mechanical Interlock.

The edge stress concentration causes cracking

to occur.

Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths,

Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths,

Bar Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty

Bar Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty

Requi rements

Requi rements

(3) Mechanical Interlock (cont).

Force interaction between the steel and concrete.

Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths,

Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths,

Bar Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty

Bar Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty

Requi rements

Requi rements

Splitting cracks result in loss of bond transfer.

Reinforcement can be used to restrain these

cracks.

Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths,

Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths,

Bar Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty

Bar Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty

Requi rements

Requi rements

Splitting Load is Affected by:

Minimum edge distance and spacing of bars

( smaller distance = smaller load )

Tensile strength of concrete.

Average bond stress along bar. ( Increase in

bond stress larger wedging forces. )

1.

2.

3.

Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths,

Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths,

Bar Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty

Bar Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty

Requi rements

Requi rements

Typical Splitting Failure Surfaces.

Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths,

Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths,

Bar Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty

Bar Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty

Requi rements

Requi rements

Typical Splitting Failure Surfaces.

Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths, Bar

Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths, Bar

Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty Requi rements

Cutoffs, and Conti nui ty Requi rements

General splitting of

concrete along the

bars,either in vertical

planes as in figure (a) or in

horizontal plane as in

figure (b). Such splitting

comes largely from

wedging action when the

ribs of the deformed bar

bear against the concrete.

The horizontal type of splitting frequently begins at a diagonal

crack. The dowel action increases the tendency toward splitting.

This indicates that shear and bond failure are often intricately

interrelated.

Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths

Rei nforcement Devel opment Lengths

ACI Code expression for development length for

bars in tension/in compression.

B.

Development Length, l

d

Shortest length of bar in which the bar stress can

increase from zero to the yield strength, f

y

.

( l

d

used since bond stresses, µ, vary along a bar in

a tension zone)

Development Length, l

d

( l

d

used since bond

stresses, µ, vary along a

bar in a tension zone)

Devel opment Length for Bars i n

Devel opment Length for Bars i n

Tensi on

Tensi on

Development length, l

d

(simplified expression from ACI 12.2.2)

Development length, l

d

12” ACI 12.2.1

f

c

10000 psi for Ch. 12 provisions for development length in ACI Codes.

Clear spacing of bars being developed or

spliced not less than d

b

, clear cover not less

than d

b

, and stirrups or ties throughout l

d

not

less than the code minimum

or

Clear spacing of bars being developed or

spliced not less than 2d

b

and clear cover not

less than d

b

.

No. 6 and smaller No. 7 and

larger bars and deformed bars

wires

≥

≤

c

y

b

d

25 f

f

d

l

αβλ

·

c

y

b

d

20 f

f

d

l

αβλ

·

38 47.5

Devel opment Length for Bars i n

Devel opment Length for Bars i n

Tensi on

Tensi on

Development length, l

d

12” ACI 12.2.1

f

c

10000 psi for Ch. 12 provisions for development length in ACI

Codes.

Development length, l

d

(simplified expression from ACI 12.2.2)

Other cases

No. 6 and smaller No. 7 and larger

bars and deformed bars

wires

≥

≤

c

y

b

d

50

3

f

f

d

l

αβλ

·

c

y

b

d

40

3

f

f

d

l

αβλ

·

57 71

f

c

= 4 ksi f

y

= 60 ksi , α,β,λ · 1.0

Devel opment Length for Bars i n

Devel opment Length for Bars i n

Tensi on

Tensi on

Development length, l

d

ACI 12.2.3

2.5 limit to safeguard against pullout type failure.

y

d

b

c ct

b

ct

b

3

40

where, 2.5

f

l

d

f c K

d

c K

d

αβλ

·

¸ _

+

¸ ,

¸ _

+

<

¸ ,

Factors used i n expressi ons for

Factors used i n expressi ons for

Devel opment Length (ACI 12.2.4)

Devel opment Length (ACI 12.2.4)

α · reinforcement location factor

Horizontal reinforcement so placed that

more than 12 in of fresh concrete is cast

in the member below the development

length or splice

Other reinforcement

1.3

1.0

where αβ < 1.7

Factors used i n expressi ons for

Factors used i n expressi ons for

Devel opment Length (ACI 12.2.4)

Devel opment Length (ACI 12.2.4)

β · coating factor (epoxy prevents adhesion &

friction between bar and concrete.)

Epoxy-coated bars or wires with cover less

than 3d

b

or clear spacing less than 6d

b

All other epoxy-coated bars or wires

Uncoated reinforcement

1.5

1.2

1.0

where αβ < 1.7

Factors used i n expressi ons for

Factors used i n expressi ons for

Devel opment Length (ACI 12.2.4)

Devel opment Length (ACI 12.2.4)

γ · reinforcement size factor (Reflects more favorable

performance of smaller

φ bars)

No.6 and smaller bars and deformed wire

No. 7 and larger bars

0.8

1.0

Factors used i n expressi ons for

Factors used i n expressi ons for

Devel opment Length (ACI 12.2.4)

Devel opment Length (ACI 12.2.4)

λ · lightweight aggregate concrete factor

(Reflects lower tensile strength of lightweight

concrete, & resulting reduction in splitting resistance.)

When lightweight aggregate concrete is used.

However, when f

ct

is specified, shall be

permitted to be taken as but not

less than

When normal weight concrete is used

1.3

1.0

1.0

ct c

7 . 6 f f

Factors used i n expressi ons for

Factors used i n expressi ons for

Devel opment Length (ACI 12.2.4)

Devel opment Length (ACI 12.2.4)

c = spacing or cover dimension, in.

Use the smaller of either

(a) the distance from the center of the bar or wire to the

nearest concrete surface.

or

(b) one-half the center-to-center spacing of the bar or

wires being developed.

Factors used i n expressi ons for

Factors used i n expressi ons for

Devel opment Length (ACI 12.2.4)

Devel opment Length (ACI 12.2.4)

K

tr

= transverse reinforcement index (Represents the

contribution of confining reinforcement across

potential splitting planes.)

n s

f A

K

* * 1500

yt tr

tr

·

The transverse reinforcement is the development

length in a column.

Factors used i n expressi ons for

Factors used i n expressi ons for

Devel opment Length (ACI 12.2.4)

Devel opment Length (ACI 12.2.4)

Total cross-section area of all transverse

reinforcement within the spacing s, which

crosses the potential plane of splitting along

the reinforcement being developed with in the

development length, in

2

.

Specified yield strength of transverse

reinforcement, psi.

A

tr

=

f

yt

=

Factors used i n expressi ons for

Factors used i n expressi ons for

Devel opment Length (ACI 12.2.4)

Devel opment Length (ACI 12.2.4)

maximum center-to-center spacing of

transverse reinforcement within l

d

in.

number of bars or wires being developed

along the plane of splitting.

s =

n =

Note

Note: It is permitted to use K

tr

= 0 as a design

simplification even if transverse reinforcement

is present.

Excess Fl exural Rei nforcement

Excess Fl exural Rei nforcement

Reducti on (ACI 12.2.5)

Reducti on (ACI 12.2.5)

Reduction = (A

s

req’d ) / (A

s

provided )

- Except as required for seismic design (see ACI

21.2.1.4)

- Good practice to ignore this provision, since use

of structure may change over time.

- final l

d

12 in.

( )

( ) ( ) provided n

u

provided n

d req' n

Reduction

M

M

M

M

φ

· ·

≥

Devel opment Length for Bars i n

Devel opment Length for Bars i n

Compressi on (ACI 12.3)

Compressi on (ACI 12.3)

Compression development length,

l

dc

= l

dbc

* applicable reduction factors 8 in.

Basic Development Length for Compression, l

dbc

≥

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

·

y b

c

y b

dbc

0003 . 0

0.02

of larger

f d

f

f d

l

Devel opment Length for Bars i n

Devel opment Length for Bars i n

Compressi on (ACI 12.3)

Compressi on (ACI 12.3)

Reduction Factors (ACI 12.3.3)

- Excessive Reinforcement Factor

= A

(s

req’d )

/ A

(s

provided)

≥

≤

≤

- Spiral and Ties

If reinforcement is enclosed with spiral

reinforcement 0.25 in. diameter and

4 in. pitch or within No. 4 ties

according to 7.10.5 and spaced 4 in.

on center. Factor = 0.75

For the cross section of a simply

supported beam reinforced with 4

#8 bars that are confined with #3

stirrup spaced at 6 in. Determine

the development length of the

bars if the beam is made of

normal weight concrete f

c

= 3 ksi

and f

y

= 60 ksi

Check if conditions for spacing and concrete

cover are met:

For #8 bars, d

b

= 1.0 in.

Clear cover = 2.5 in - 0.5 in.= 2.0 in. > d

b

Clear spacing

between bars

( )

( ) ( )

b

b

2*cover 1

spaces

12 in. 2 2.5 in. 3 1.0 in.

3

1.33in. d

b n d − − −

·

− −

·

· ≥

Bars are confined with #3 stirrups. The conditions are

met.

Determine the factors;α = 1.0 (bottom bars), β =1.0 (no

coating) and λ = 1.0 (normal weight concrete) and

54.8 psi < 100 psi

y

d

b

c

(for bars > #7)

20

f

l

d

f

αβλ

·

c

f ·

So l

d

= 54.8(1.0 in.) = 54.8 in. 55 in. Using the

more general formula K

tr

= 0.0

( ) ( ) ( )

d

b

1.0 1.0 1.0 60000

54.8

20 3000

l

d

· ·

y

d

b

c tr

b

3

40

f

l

d

f c K

d

αβγλ

¸ _

¸ _

·

¸ _

+

¸ ,

¸ ,

¸ ,

α = β = γ = λ = 1.0. Also

smaller of distance from center of bar to the nearest

concrete surface c

1

or one-half the center-to-center of

bars spacing c

2

c =

2

2*cover

0.5

spaces

12 in. 5 in.

0.5 1.17 in.

3

b

c

¸ _ −

·

¸ ,

−

¸ _

· ·

¸ ,

1

2.5 in. c ·

c = 1.17 in. controls

( )

d

b

3 60000 1.0

54.8

40 1.5

3000

l

d

¸ _

¸ _

· ·

¸ ,

¸ ,

If < 1.5 use 1.5. 1.17/1.0 = 1.17 1.5

tr

b

c K

d

¸ _

+

¸ ,

So l

d

= 55 in.

If the same beam is made of light

weight aggregate concrete and the

bars are epoxy coated and A

s

required for analysis is 2.79 in

2

The conditions are met.

Determine the factors;α = 1.0 (bottom bars), β =1.5 (epoxy

coating) and λ = 1.3 (lightweight aggregate concrete) and

R

s

= (A

s(req)

/ A

s(provided)

) = 2.79/3.16 = 0.89. The value of β

is 1.5 because the concrete cover is less than 3d

b

= 3 in.

s y

d

b

c

(for bars > #7)

20

R f

l

d

f

αβλ

·

Check that αβ =1.0(1.5) = 1.5 < 1.7

So l

d

= 95.1(1.0 in.) = 95.1 in. 96 in.

( ) ( )

d

b

0.89 1.5 1.3 60000

95.1

20 3000

l

d

· ·

The critical sections for development of reinforcement in

flexural members are:

At points of maximum stress;

At points where tension bars within span are

terminated or bent;

At the face of the support;

At points of inflection at which moment

changes sign.

1.

2.

3.

4.

Three sections are critical for the

negative moment reinforcement:

Section 1 is at the face of the

support, where the negative

moment as well as stress are at

maximum value. Two

development lengths, x

1

and x

2

must be checked.

Section 2 is the section where part

of the negative reinforcement bar

can be terminated. To develop

full tensile force, the bars should

extend a distance x

2

before they

can be terminated Once part of the

bars are terminated the remaining

bars develop maximum stress.

Section 3 is a point of inflection

The bars shall extend a distance x

3

beyond section 3: x

3

must be equal

to or greater than the effective

depth d, 12d

b

or 1/16 the span,

which ever is greater. At least 1/3

of the total reinforcement provided

for negative moment at support

shall extend a distance x

3

beyond

the point of inflection.

Section 4 is that of maximum

positive moment and maximum

stresses. Two development

lengths x

1

and x

2

have to be

checked. The length x

1

is the

development length l

d

specified by

the ACI Code Section 12.11. The

length x

2

is equal to or greater than

the effective depth d, 12d

b

.

Section 5 is where part of the positive

reinforcement bars may be terminated. To

develop full tensile force, the bars should

extend a distance x

2

. The remaining bars

will have a maximum stress due to the

termination of part of the bars. At the face

of the support section 1, at least 1/4 of the

positive moment

reinforcement in continuous members shall expend along the

same face of the member into the support, according to ACI

12.11.1. For simple members at least 1/3 of the reinforcement

shall extend into the support

Section 6 is at the points of

inflection limits are according to

section 12.11.3 of the ACI Code.