ECE 663

Metal-Semiconductor Interfaces
• Metal-Semiconductor contact
• Schottky Barrier/Diode
• Ohmic Contacts
• MESFET
ECE 663
Device Building Blocks
Schottky (MS) p-n junction
HBT MOS
ECE 663
Energy band diagram of an isolated metal adjacent
to an isolated n-type semiconductor
q(|
s
-_) = E
C
– E
F
= kTln(N
C
/N
D
) for n-type
= E
G
– kTln(N
v
/N
A
) for p-type

ECE 663
Energy band diagram of a metal-n semiconductor contact
in thermal equilibrium.
q|
Bn
= q|
ms
+ kTln(N
C
/N
D
)
ECE 663

Measured barrier height |
ms
for metal-Si and metal-GaAs contacts
Theory still evolving (see review article by Tung)
ECE 663
Energy band diagrams of metal n-type and p-type semiconductors
under thermal equilibrium
ECE 663
Energy band diagrams of metal n-type and p-type semiconductors
under forward bias
Energy band diagrams of metal n-type and p-type semiconductors
under reverse bias
ECE 663
ECE 663
Charge distribution
electric-field
distribution
E
m
= qN
D
W/K
s
c
0
E(x) = qN
D
(x-W)/K
s
c
0
(V
bi
-V) = - ∫E(x)dx = qN
D
W
2
/K
s
c
0
0
W
V
bi
= |
ms
(Doping does not matter!)

|
Bn
= |
ms
+ kTln(N
C
/N
D
)

ECE 663
D bi s
qN V V W / ) ( 2 ÷ c =
) ( 2 V V N q W QN Q
bi D s D
÷ c = =
Depletion width
Charge per unit area
Depletion
q
ECE 663
Capacitance
( ) W V V
N q
V
Q
C
s
bi
D s
c
=
÷
c
=
c
c
=
2
Per unit area:
( )
D s
bi
N q
V V
C c
÷
=
2 1
2
Rearranging:
Or:
( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
c
=
dV
C
d
q
N
s
D
/
1
1 2
2
ECE 663
1/C
2
versus applied voltage for W-Si and W-GaAs diodes

ECE 663
1/C
2
vs V
•If straight line – constant doping profile –
slope = doping concentration
•If not straight line, can be used to find profile
•Intercept = V
bi
can be used to find |
Bn

|
.
|

\
|
=
+ = |
i
D
n
bi n Bn
n
N
q
kT
V
V V
ln
ECE 663
Current transport by the thermionic emission process
Thermal equilibrium forward bias
reverse bias
J = J
sm
(V) – J
ms
(V)
J
ms
(V) = J
ms
(0) = J
sm
(0)
• Barrier from metal side is pinned

• Els from metal must jump over barrier

• Current is limited by speed of jumping
electrons (that the ones jumping from
the right cancel at equilibrium)

• Unipolar majority carrier device, since
valence band is entirely inside metal band

Note the difference with p-n junctions!!
• Barrier is not pinned

• Els with zero kinetic energy can slide
down negative barrier to initiate current

• Current is limited by how fast minority
carriers can be removed (diffusion rate)

• Both el and hole currents important
(charges X-over and become min. carriers)
In both cases, we’re modulating the population
of backflowing electrons, hence the Shockley
form, but…
V > 0
V < 0
V > 0
V < 0
ECE 663
Let’s roll up our sleeves and do the algebra !!
J
sm
= 2q¿f(E
k
-E
F
)v
x
v
x
> v
min
,v
y
,v
z
dk
x
dk
y
dk
z
v
x
e
-(E
k
-E
F
)/kT
(
]
(2t)
3
/O
= 2q
E
k
-E
F
= (E
k
-E
C
) + (E
C
-E
F
)
E
C
- E
F
= q(|
Bn
-V
bi
)
E
k
- E
C
= m(v
x
2
+ v
y
2
+ v
z
2
)/2
m*v
min
2
/2 = q(V
bi
– V)
k
x,y,z
= m*v
x,y,z

V > 0
V
bi
- V
ECE 663
This means…
J
sm
= q(m*)
3
O/4t
3
ħ
3


dv
y
e
-m*v
y
2
/2kT
(
]

-∞
dv
z
e
-m*v
z
2
/2kT
(
]

-∞
dv
x
v
x
e
-m*v
x
2
/2kT
(
]

v
min
x e
-q(|
Bn
-V
bi
)/kT

\(2tkT/m*) \(2tkT/m*) (kT/m*)e
-m*v
min
2
/2kT

= (kT/m*)e
-q(V
bi
-V)kT

= qm*k
2
T
2
/2t
2
ħ
3
e
-q(|
Bn
-V)kT

= A*T
2
e
-q(|
Bn
-V)kT

A* = 4tm*qk
2
/h
3

= 120 A/cm
2
/K
2

dxe
-x
2
/2o
2

= o\2t

-∞
(
]
dx xe
-x
2
/2o
2

= o
2
e
-A
2
/2o
2


A
(
]
J = A*T
2
e
-q|
BN
/
kT
(e
qV/kT
-1)
In regular pn junctions, charge needs to move through
drift-diffusion, and get whisked away by RG processes

MS junctions are majority carrier devices, and RG is not
as critical. Charges that go over a barrier already have
high velocity, and these continue with those velocities to
give the current
ECE 663

Forward current density vs applied voltage of W-Si and W-GaAs diodes
ECE 663
Thermionic Emission over the barrier – low doping
ECE 663
Tunneling through the barrier – high doping
Schottky barrier becomes Ohmic !!
ECE 663

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