HUMAN EXCRETORY AND REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Presented By

:
•Navneet •Puneet •Swaty

•Shilpa

EXCRETORY SYSTEM

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THE URINARY SYSTEM

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FUNCTIONS
1. Remove nitrogenous wastes 2. Maintain electrolyte, acid-base, and fluid balance of blood. 3. Homeostatic organ.

4. Acts as blood filter.
5. Release hormones: calcitriol & erythropoietin.
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kidneys
Organs of the Urinary System

ureters urinary bladder

urethra
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Kidney Anatomy

renal pyramids

renal pelvis ureter
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renal cortex renal capsule renal medulla

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blood filtration tubular reabsorption and secretion

GENERAL FUNCTIONING OF THE KIDNEY

urine “refreshed” blood
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Urinary Bladder

ureters external sphincters

internal sphincters urethra

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Diseases
Glomerulo nephritis

Pyelitis
Polyurea

Anurea
Renal calculi

cystitis
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MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

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External genital organs :- penis containing urethra . Internal genital organs :testes vas deferens seminal vesicles prostate gland
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PENIS
It is the corpulatory organ. Parts of penis are: Corpora caverosa Corpora spongiosum Glans penis

Propuse

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TESTES
Male reproductive organ. Oval in shape Scrotum forms a bag or pouch for testes Testes are actually suspended in scrotum by means of spermatic cords. Structure: Contains seminiferous tubules epidydimis
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DUCTUS DEFERENS [VAS DEFERENS]
They are also known as ductus deferens The vas deferens commences from epidydimis at the upper end of testes. It leaves the scrotum in the spermatic cord. From the abdominal cavity, the vas deferens entrs the pelvis and joins with seminal vesical.

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SEMINAL VESICLES

glands posterior to the urinary bladder. Seminal vesical joins with the terminal portion of vas deferens and forms the ejaculatory duct. Function – thick secretions which is added to spermatozoa.

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PROSTATE
Lies below bladder and surrounds the first part of urethra. Consists of glands , ducts, and involuntary muscles.

Secretes fluid which is conveyed to the urethra through ducts.

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SEMINAL FLUID OR SEMEN
• Semen is the compound secretion of testes , prostate and seminal vesicles. • Acts as a vehicle for spermatozoa and provides nutrition to the spermatozoa. SPERMATOZOA: produced by seminiferous tubules of testis. They are highly motile and their function is to fertilise the ovum in the female genital tract.

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Female Reproductive System

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Function of Female Reproductive System
Produce sex hormones. Produce functioning gamates [ova] Support & protect developing of embryo.

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MAJOR ORGANS
 Ovaries [ gonads]

 Uterine tubes [ fallopian tubes]
 Uterus  Vagina

 Accessory glands
 External genital organs  Breasts

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OVARIES
Each ovary is about the size and shape of an almond. they produce eggs (also called ova) every female is born with a lifetime supply of eggs

they also produce hormones:
Estrogen & Progesterone

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FALLOPIAN TUBES [UTERINE TUBES]
 stretch from the uterus to the ovaries and measure about 8 to 13 cm in length.  Parts: uterine ampulla fumbrial end fallopian tube acts as a passage for ova from the ovary to uterus.The fertilisation of ovam by spermatozoa occurs in fallopian tube.

 Function:

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uterus

 pear-shaped muscular organ in the upper female reproductive tract.  The fundus is the upper portion of the uterus where pregnancy occurs.

 The cervix is the lower portion of the uterus that connects with the vagina and serves as a sphincter to keep the uterus closed during pregnancy until it is time to deliver a baby.  the uterus expands considerably during the reproductive process. the organ grows to from 10 to 20 times its normal size during pregnancy.
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uterus

The main body consists of a firm outer coat of muscle (myometrium) and an inner lining of vascular, glandular material (endometrium).  The endometrium thickens during the menstrual cycle to allow implantation of a fertilized egg. Pregnancy occurs when the fertilized egg implants successfully into the endometrial lining. If fertilization does not occur, the endometrium sloughs off and is expelled as menstrual flow.

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The Vagina

 vagin = sheath

 a muscular, ridged sheath connecting the external genitals to the uterus.
 functions as a two-way street, accepting the penis and sperm during intercourse and roughly nine months later, serving as the avenue of birth through which the new baby enters the world

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Mammary Glands [ breasts]

Present in both sexes - normally only functional in females


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Developmentally they are derived from sweat glands
Contained within a rounded skin-covered breast anterior to the pectoral muscles of the thorax Slightly below center of each breast is a ring of pigmented skin, the areola - this surrounds a central protruding nipple Internally - they consist of 15 to 25 lobes that radiate around and open at the nipple Each lobe is composed of smaller lobules- these contain alveoli that produce milk when a women is lactating non-pregnant women - glandular structure is undeveloped - hence breast size is largely due to the amount of fat deposits

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menstruation
 Destructive phase (menstrual phase)  Follicular phase (proliferative phase)  Luteal phase (secretory phase)

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Menstrual cycle

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Reproductive System Disorders
 Male Infertility  Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy  Prostate Cancer  Female Infertility  Endometriosis  Pelvic Inflammatory Disease  Ovarian Cysts  Cancer – Breast – Cervical – Uterine
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