Model Pencemaran Udara 1

MODEL
PENCEMARAN UDARA
Model Pencemaran Udara 2
Air quality dispersion model
• Air quality models are used to predict ground
level concentrations down point of sources.
• The object of a model is to relate mathematically
the effects of source emissions on ground level
concentrations, and to establish that permissible
levels are, or are not, being exceeded.
• Models have been developed to meet these
objectives for a variety of pollutants and time
circumstances.
Model Pencemaran Udara 3

Model Pencemaran Udara 4

Model Pencemaran Udara 5
Penyebaran polutan di atm dari
suatu sumber bergantung kpd:
1. Sifat fisik dan kimia polutan
2. Bentuk geometri sumber
3. Ketinggian emisi
4. Kondisi atmoefer: stabilitas, arah dan
kecepatan angin, tekanan udara, T.
Model Pencemaran Udara 6

Model Pencemaran Udara 7
Pengaruh kecepatan angin terhadap plume
Model Pencemaran Udara 8
Pengaruh
stabilitas atm
Model Pencemaran Udara 9
Plume Dispersion
• In the stable atmosphere case (producing a fanning plume), there
is horizontal dispersion at a right angle to the wind due to turbulence
and diffusion. In the vertical, dispersion is suppressed by the stability
of the atmosphere, so pollution does not spread toward the ground.
This results in very low pollution concentrations at the ground.
• In unstable air, the plume will whip up and down as the atmosphere
mixes around (whenever an air parcel goes up, there must be air
going down someplace else to maintain continuity, and the plume
follows these air currents). This gives the plume the appearance that
it is looping around.
• An inversion aloft will trap pollutants underneath it, since the stable
inversion prevents vertical dispersion. Pollution released underneath
the inversion layer will fumigate the mixed layer. Note that if the
smokestack was high enough to release the pollution within the
inversion layer, the plume would fan because the plume occurs
within stable air.
Model Pencemaran Udara 10
• In the neutral atmosphere case, the horizontal
dispersion at a right angle to the wind is due to
turbulence and diffusion, which occurs at the same rate
as the vertical dispersion, which is not being opposed
nor encouraged by the stability (or lack of it) in the
atmosphere. So, the plume spreads equally in the
vertical and horizontal as it propagates downstream,
forming a coning plume.
• In the lofting case, pollution dilutes upward. This
produces much lower pollution concentrations at the
ground at a distance downstream than the straight stable
case (fanning plume), because molecular diffusion and
some turbulence allow smoke to reach the ground
eventually, and the fanning plume does not have the
upward dispersion that the lofting plume has.
Model Pencemaran Udara 11
Model Bentuk
Sumber:
1. Titik
2. Garis
3. Box



Gambar kanan: Model
titik dan model box.
Model Pencemaran Udara 12
Proses penyebaran zat pencemar:
Dispersi:
• Transportasi
• Difusi

Model Pencemaran Udara 13
Dispersi: hasil dari 3 mekanisme yg
sangat penting:
1. Pergerakan udara rata
2
yg mentransfer
pencemar searah arah angin.
2. Fluktuasi kecepatan turbulensi yg
mendispersi zat pencemar udara ke
segala arah.
3. Difusi massa yg disebabkan gradien
konsentrasi.
Model Pencemaran Udara 14
Gaussian models, point source
• The most widely used models for
predicting the impact of relative unreactive
gases, such as SO
2
, released from
smokestacks are based on Gaussian
diffusion.
• In Gaussian models, the spread of a
plume in vertical horizontal directions is
assumed to occur by simple diffusion
along the direction of the mean wind.
Model Pencemaran Udara 15
Asumsi model dispersi Gauss:
1. Emisi dari sumber kontinu dan konstan.
2. Kecepatan angin tidak nol, konstan, dan hanya
pada arah x.
3. Tidak ada reaksi polutan di atm.
4. Difusi massa pada arah x diabaikan.
5. Dispersi dlm masing-masing arah koordinat
konstan.
6. Stabilitas atm konstan.
7. Daerah sekitar relatif datar.
Model Pencemaran Udara 16

Model Pencemaran Udara 17
Coordinate system and elements of the bi-
Gaussian plume.

Model Pencemaran Udara 18
Dispersi plume dari sumber titik
Model Pencemaran Udara 19

Model Pencemaran Udara 20
Gaussian point source plume model:

Where:
• C
x
=ground level concentration at some distance x downwind
(g/m
3
)
• Q=average emission rate (g/sec)
• u=mean wind speed (m/sec)
• H=effective stack height = h + Ah (m)
• σ
y
=standard deviation of wind direction in the horizontal (m)
• σ
z
=standard deviation of wind direction in the vertical (m)
• y=off-centerline distance (m)
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
2
2
1
2
2
1
) , , (
exp exp
2
z y z y
z y x
H z y
u
Q
C
o o o o t
Model Pencemaran Udara 21
Polutan Gas
Untuk polutan gas permukaan tanah dianggap
sebagai reflektor yg ideal. Hal ini memungkinkan
untuk mengasumsikan suatu sumber imajiner
pada z-H dan sumber yg ada pd z+H.
Model Pencemaran Udara 22
Pasquill-Gifford model

Model Pencemaran Udara 23
Ground level concentration
Where:
• Cx=ground level concentration at some distance x downwind
(g/m
3
)
• Q=average emission rate (g/sec)
• u=mean wind speed (m/sec)
• H=effective stack height (m)
• σ
y
=standard deviation of wind direction in the horizontal (m)
• σ
z
=standard deviation of wind direction in the vertical (m)
• y=off-centerline distance (m)
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
2
2
1
2
2
1
) , , (
exp exp
z y z y
z y x
H y
u
Q
C
o o o o t
Model Pencemaran Udara 24
Gaussian models
• The parameters σ
y
and σ
z
describe horizontal
and vertical dispersion characteristics of a plume
at various distances downwind of a source as
function of different atmospheric stability
conditions. Values are determined from the
graphs found in the figure.
• The effective stack height H is equal to the
physical stack height (h) plus the height of the
plume (plume rises, Δh) determined from where
the plume bends over. Plume rises must be
calculated from model equations before the
effective stack height can be calculated.
Model Pencemaran Udara 25
Plume Rise
• The most common type of stationary source is a
stack. Emissions from stacks may rise well
above the stack height.
• The final vertical plume position depends on the
temperature difference and on the exit velocity.
This is an important parameter when designing
stacks and air pollution control equipment.
• The main physical process causing a plume to
rise is described below:
Model Pencemaran Udara 26
Plume Rise

Model Pencemaran Udara 27
Plume rise: daya apung kepulan asap:
• T > T udara lingkungan
pada saat keluar cerobong kecepatannya tinggi
arah vertikal. Kenaikkan berhenti karena
pencampuran udara sekitar, hilangnya
kecepatan vertikal, dan T = T lingkungan
• Jika tidak ada angin plume akan mencapai
elevasi yg tinggi dan C ground state rendah. Jika
dibelokkan angin terjagi pengenceran.
Model Pencemaran Udara 28
Tinggi plume rise (Nevers, 1995):


¬ Ah: kenaikkan plume di atas cerobong,m
• v
s
: kecepatan keluar cerobong, m/s
• D : diameter cerobong, m
• u
s
: kecepatan angin pd mulut cerobong, m/s
• P : tekanan atm, mbar
• T
s
: T polutan pd cerobong, K
• T : T udara ambient, K
) 4 ..( .......... 10 68 , 2 5 , 1
3
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
+ = A
÷
s
s
s
s
T
T T
PD x
u
D v
h
Model Pencemaran Udara 29
Kecepatan angin
• Kecepatan angin biasanya diukur pd 10 m
• Kecepatan angin pada z:

…………………… pers. (5)

p
z
z
v
v
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
1
2
1
2
Stabilitas atm p
A 0,15
B 0,15
C 0,20
D 0,25
E 0,40
F 0,40
Model Pencemaran Udara 30

Model Pencemaran Udara 31

Model Pencemaran Udara 32
Parameter dispersi Kota menurut
Briggs
Kelas
pasquill
o
y
, meter o
z
, meter
A-B
0,32x(1+0,0004x)
-0,5
0,24x(1+0,001x)
-0,5
C
0,22x(1+0,0004x)
-0,5
0,2x
D
0,16x(1+0,0004x)
-0,5
0,14x(1+0,0003x)
-0,5
E-F
0,11x(1+0,0004x)
-0,5
0,08x(1+0,0015x)
-0,5
x dalam meter
Model Pencemaran Udara 33
Parameter dispersi Desa menurut
Briggs
Kelas
pasquill
o
y
, meter o
z
, meter
A
0,22x(1+0,0001x)
-0,5
0,20x
B
0,16x(1+0,0001x)
-0,5
0,12x
C
0,11x(1+0,0001x)
-0,5
0,08x(1+0,0002x)
-0,5
D
0,08x(1+0,0001x)
-0,5
0,08x(1+0,0015x)
-0,5
E
0,06x(1+0,0001x)
-0,5
0,11x(1+0,0004x)
-0,5
F
0,04x(1+0,0001x)
-0,5
0,11x(1+0,0004x)
-0,5
Model Pencemaran Udara 34
Polutan Partikel
• Untuk partikel karena pd partikel bekerja
gaya drag, maka H harus dikurangi dg:


• v
t
: terminal speed.


………………..(6)
u
x
t
v
g
p p
t
gd
v
µ
µ
18
2
=
Model Pencemaran Udara 35
Persamaan 1 menjadi:
( )
) 7 ( .......... exp
2
2
2
2
1
) , , (
(
(
¸
(

¸

¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷ ÷
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
z
u
x
t
y z y
z y x
v H z y
u
Q
C
o o o o t
Untuk partikel permukaan tanah tidak
merefleksikan polutan.
Model Pencemaran Udara 36
Polutan radioaktif
• Polutan radioaktif mengalami peluruhan. Jadi
harus dikoreksi (Nevers, 1995):
f = exp(-ìt) ………………..(8)
t : wkt polutan keluar sumber sampai titik yg
ditinjau = x/u.
• Jika pengukuran Q (t=0) di mulut cerobong,
maka perlu ditambah faktor koreksi peluruhan
dari mulut cerobong ke plume rise (selama
menempuh Ah)
• Jadi pers. 8 menjadi
f = exp {- ì(2 Ah/v
s
+ x/u)} ………(9)
Model Pencemaran Udara 37
• Although the use of air quality models is the subject of
considerable controversy, there's a general agreement
that there a few alternatives to the use of models,
particulately to make decisions on an action which is
know in advance to pose potential environmental
problem.
• The debate arises as to which models should be used,
and the interpretation of models results. The underlying
question such in debates is how well, or how accurately,
does the model predict concentrations under the specific
circumstances, since model accuracy may vary from
30% to a factor of 2 or more?
• The uncertainty associated with input variables, such as
wind data, and source emission data. Such data are
usually estimated and not well documented.
Model Pencemaran Udara 38
Contoh.
Suatu reaktor nuklir yg mempunyai tinggi
cerobong 50 m, diameter 0,5 m
mengemisikan
85
Kr yg T
1/2
nya 3,18 menit
dg laju emisi 1 µCi/s. Suhu gas keluar
cerobong 30
o
C dan suhu udara sekitar
25
o
C. Tekanan udara luar 1 atm, stabilitas
atmosfer C. Kecepatan angin pada 10 m
adalah 3 m/s.
Model Pencemaran Udara 39
DOSE CALCULATIONS
FROM RADIOACTIVITY IN
THE ATMOSPHERE
(Eisenbud, 1987)
Model Pencemaran Udara 40
EXTERNAL DOSE FROM PASSING
CLOUD OF BETA EMITTERS
The dose rate from | radiation to an individual located on
the ground over which a cloud of radioactive gas is
passing that is greater in size than the range of the
haigest-energy | particles can be estimated from the
following:


Where:
• D
|
is the instaataneous | dose rate to yhe skin (rad/sec)
• E
|
is the mean | energy per disintegration (MeV/dis)
¬ _ is the concentration of | emitting nuclide at a given
point downdwind of the source (Ci/m
3
)
_
|
|
E D 23 , 0 =
Model Pencemaran Udara 41
The integrated dose delivered by the
passing cloud will be:


Where:
• D

is the invinite | dose to the skin (rads)
¬_
t
is the integral of concentration x time for
the intire emission, obtained by
substituting Q
E
(total curies released) for Q
(Ci/sec), and has units Ci/sec per m
3
.

t
E D _
|
|
23 , 0 =
·
Model Pencemaran Udara 42
• If more than one |-emitting radionuclide is
involved, the dose must be summed from the
total of the dose from individual nuclides.
• The range of the | particles in tissue is only a
few millimeters, and the dose from external |
radiation is thus limited primarily to skin and
varies with depth.
• The | emitting gases are mainly isotopes of
fission products Kr and Xe, for which the dose
from inhalation is much less than the dose to the
skin due to immersion in the cloud.
Model Pencemaran Udara 43
EXTERNAL ¸ DOSE FROM
PASSING CLOUD
• The dose from passing cloud is based on the
assumption that the individual is standing on the
ground immersed in a cloud that is invinite in
size, through which the total exposure is given
as _t.
• The dose estimate may be simplified by
neglecting backscatter from the ground. This
tends to reduce the dose estimate, but is
somewhat offset by the error in the opposite
direction that is introduced by the assumption of
an invinite cloud.
Model Pencemaran Udara 44
The dose from a cloud containing
1 Ci sec/m
3
can be estimated in this way to
be:





Where:
• D
¸
is the ¸ dose (rads)
• E is the average ¸ energy (MeV)
¬ _t is the product of concentration x time (Ci sec/m3)
calculated by substituting Q
E
(total curies released) for Q
(Ci/sec)
( )()( )
( )( )
3
6 4
/ 0012 , 0 ... / 100
/ 10 6 , 1 sec / 10 7 , 3 2 / 1
cm g rad g erg
MeV erg x E Ci d x t
D
÷
=
µ _
¸
E t D _
¸
25 , 0 =
Model Pencemaran Udara 45
• The dose from the passing cloud of fission
products, as from a nuclear explosion or
reactor release, will usually be much lower
than either the dose received by inhalation
(particularly inhalation of radioiodine) or
the ¸ dose that results from the large-scale
deposition of the cloud on surface.
Model Pencemaran Udara 46
SUMBER SESAAT (PUFF)
The PUFF program
models the dispersion of
volcanic ash from an
eruption and provides
predictions of ash particle
locations
(latitude/longitude/altitude
) versus time given
volcano, eruption
characteristics, and wind
field forecasts.
Model Pencemaran Udara 47
SUMBER SESAAT (PUFF)
Merupakan sumber sesaat jika t (wkt
ledakan) < x/u.

Menentukan konsentrasi pd ttk lokasi
ttt “puff downdwind concentration”
Perhatikan:
1. Interval wkt pd ledakan pertama.
2. Difusi dlm arah 3 dimensi x, y, z.
Model Pencemaran Udara 48
Persamaan Sutton:



• Q
T
: total massa yg terlepas ke udara pd saat
ledakan
• U: kecepatan angin
() (
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷ =
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2 / 3
exp exp exp
2
2
y z x
z y x
T
y H ut x Q
X
o o o
o o o t
Model Pencemaran Udara 49
Untuk kondisi netral (Met & Atomic
Energy, 1965):
¬ o
x
=o
y
Y=0,8X+1,567
X=log jarak downwind, Y=log o
x
=o
y
misal pada jarak 4 m:
log 4=0,602, Y=0,8(0,602)+1,567=2,05
log o
x
=2,05, jd o
x
=112,2 m= o
y
¬ o
z
Y=0,65X+1,33
X=log jarak downwind, Y=log o
z

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