You are on page 1of 48

Phylum Cnidaria

• • • • • • • • • • A. Gr. knide – nettle) + L. aria, -like 9,000 species. Odd name = ph. Coelenterata, early 1900's coelenterate = Cnidaria + Ctenophora Metazoans, have tissue but organs poorly defined Tentacles present, can be fused Mouth(=anus), digestive area = gastro-vasula cavity(GV) Body can have covering skeleton, 98% of body is Diploblastic ; 2 tissue layers(=ectoderm & endoderm) during gastrula stage In marine & fresh water

Phylum Cnidaria
-Body with 3 layers: epidermis gastrodermis mesoglea (acellular)
-Gastrovascular cavity or coelenteron(often branched or divided with septa) = with a single opening that serves as mouth and anus

Morphology and Digestion
• Radial or Biradial symmetry • Gastrovascular cavity • Most small; colonial organisms may be the most massive on Earth • Tissue level of organization, a few organs • Extracellular digestion in gastrovascular cavity intracellular in gastrodermal cells

Two basic forms: • Polyps
– Or hydroid form – Adapted to a sedentary or sessile life

• Medusae
– Or jellyfish form – Adapted for a floating or free-swimming existence

• Polyps
– Have tubular bodies – Mouth surrounded by tentacles (defines the oral end) – Mouth leads into a blind gut or gastrovascular cavity – Aboral end is usually attached to asubstratum by a pedal disc or other device

Reproduce asexually by: › Budding › Fission › Pedal laceration Zooids - buds that remains attached to the polyp: •gastrozooids (for feeding) •dactylozooids (for defense) •gonozooids (for making sexually reproducing stages)

• • • • • Usually free-swimming Have bell-shaped or umbrella-shaped bodies Tetramerous symmetry (body parts arranged in fours) Mouth is usually centered on the concave side Tentacles extend from the rim of the umbrella

Jellylike layer of mesoglia is thicker – consisting the bulk of the animal and making it more buoyant  medusae are commonly called jellyfishes

Cnidaria – Excretion, Nervous System & Locomotion
• • • • • Simple excretion Simple respiration by diffusion Nerve cells and nerve net Sense organs (statocysts and ocelli) Some can swim by jet propulsion or through cilia • Polymorphism in some species - medusa and polyp

Skeleton and Reproduction
• hydroskeleton o exoskeleton or endoskeleton • Reproduction can be sexual or asexual 1. Asexual reproduction by budding in polyps 2. Sexual reproduction by gametes in all medusae, some polyps 3. Sexual forms monecious or dioecious 4. Planula larvae

• Hydra
– Warm: Asexual (budding) – Dropping Temp triggers sexual

• Jellyfish
– Polyps are asexual – Medusa are sexual

• Hermaphrodite
– Anemone, mostly – Produce both egg and sperm


•Individual Jellyfish are either male or female. The eggs and sperm develop in very colourful special areas called 'Gonads' inside the body wall. When all of the eggs and sperm are fully developed, they are released into the stomach and then through the mouth into the sea. In most cases, to reproduce, a male jellyfish releases his sperm into the surrounding water. The sperm then swims into the mouth of the female jellyfish, allowing the fertilization of the ova process to begin. Moon jellies, however, use a different process: their eggs become lodged in pits on the oral arms, which form a temporary brood chamber to accommodate fertilization.

• When the eggs are released into the sea they are fertilized by the sperm and continue to develop. As in all many-celled animals, the microscopic fertilized eggs begin a series of cell divisions which finally result in an embryo. However, the embryo does not develop directly into a baby jellyfish, but becomes a tiny, flattened creature called a 'Planula'. • The Planula, which is covered with rapidly beating hairlike cilia (thin, tail-like projections), is able to swim and may be carried a considerable distance by ocean currents during its short swimming period, lasting from a few hours to several days. The tiny Planula then makes its way toward the sea bottom where it actively looks for a suitable place to attach itself. At this point, a amazing series of events take place.

• • • • • The tiny Planula floating in the sea. Searching for a place to attach itself. Once attached, it feeds on passing, floating food. At this stage, the Polyps mouth and tentacles are facing upwards. Grooves appear and become deeper, eventually cutting through the Polyps body. A pile of disc-shaped structures emerge and break away. Each being a baby Jellyfish. At this stage it is called a Medusa and is the Jellyfish form we recognise in our oceans.

Cnidaria - Ecology
– Mostly marine, some freshwater – Mostly freeliving – Feed by capture of prey; endosymbionts

Cnidocytes - stinging cells containing nematocysts


• Nutrition: sting prey with nematocysts, push food into mouth with tentacles.


Body Structure a. Solitary -forms remain as one polyp and one corallite. Colonial forms can reproduce the polyp asexually (cloning) and the new polyp forms another corallite that is attached to the first corallite. These colonial forms may have a general growth pattern that is somewhat horizontal, across a surface, like in the mounding or plate-like forms. b. Colonial -forms may grow vertically, branching like a tree. Each species of coral has its own polyp size (some tiny - less than a quarter of an inch, and some large - over a foot) and, if colonial, its own growth pattern.

The freshwater hydra is a simple organism with a basal suction disk or foot, and apical tentacles.


Evolution and Taxonomy
– Cnidarians from ancestral radially symmetrical planula larva – 4 Classes:
o o o o Anthozoa – sea anemones and corals (polyps; no medusa stage) Hydrozoa – fire corals, Portuguese man-of-war, hydras Scyphozoa – jellyfish – medusa form is dominant but may begin as polyp Cubozoa – box jellyfish & sea wasp

Class Hydrozoa
– – – – – Gr. Hydra - water serpent + zoon, animal Dominated (in most) by the polyp form Mostly marine, mostly colonial 2,700 species Fresh water members of this class live singly, but the marine forms live singly or form polymorphic colony. Though only polyp or medusa is found but sometimes both polyp or medusa may be found in the same animal. Gastrovascular cavity is directly connected with mouth.


•Alternation of generation is found in the life cycle. •Ciliated planula larva is found. •No stomodeum, velum present in medusa. •Radial canals in medusa are not branched. •Gametes develop from ectoderm

 Kingdom Animalia › Phylum Cnidaria  Class Hydrozoa  Order Hydroida  Suborder Hydrida » Family Hydridae » Genus Hydra

   

Freshwater species Hydranths lack a chitinous covering With no medusa stage Length up to 25-30 mm

•Mostly HYDRANTHS (Gastrozooids feeding polyp –


•BASE (basal disc or pedal)

• Class Hydrozoa
– Order Hydroida
• Suborder Leptomedusae

 Colonial or solitary  Colonial marine hydroid that forms a minute plantlike growth on rocks, pilings, and other substrates  Hydranths with chitinous covering •Dioecious •Gametes are fertilized in the water and the zygote develops into a planula larva which settles into substrate and metamorphose into colony

Class Scyphozoa
-Gr. skyphos, cup + zoon, animal dominated (in most) by the medusa form polyp (strobila) form freeswimming medusa Some(Cassiopeia) with endosymbionts 200 species  This Class contains the larger jellyfishes, with some reaching two metres across the bell and with tentacles 30 metres long.  They are mainly marine and free floating, though they can "swim" by pulsations of the bell. In this Class the polyp stage is either reduced or absent. There are around 215 species.

Cassiopeia, the upside-down jellyfish, harbors endosymbionts which photosynthesize. Laying upside-down in sunny areas brings light to the endosymbionts.

Class Cubozoa
• • • • • Figure 13-20 (266) Gr. Kybos, cube + dominated (in most) by about 100 species The cubozoan body is shaped like a square bell, with the mouth suspended inside it on a tube (the manubrium) that leads upward to the stomach, which is inside the top part of the bell. Extending around the inside bottom of the bell is a ring of tissue called the velarium, and at the bottom corners of the bell are muscular fleshy pads (pedalia), with one or more tentacles connected to each pedalium. Four sensory structures called rhopalia are located near the center of each of the four sides of the bell. Box jellyfish have eyes that are surprisingly complex, including regions with lenses, corneas, and retinas; however, box jellyfish do not have a brain, so how the images are interpreted remains unknown. Like all cnidarians, box jellyfish possess stinging cells that can fire a barb and transfer venom (Waggoner and Collins 2000). zoon, animal the medusa form

 Cubozoans are agile and active swimmers, unlike the more planktonic jellyfish. They have been commonly observed to swim a meter in just five to ten seconds, and there are unconfirmed reports of large specimens of Chironex fleckeri swimming as fast as two meters in one second (Waggoner and Collins 2000). The high speeds are achieved through a kind of squirting action in which the medusa contracts while the velarium at the bottom contracts even more, producing a constricted opening through which the water is forcefully expelled.
 Box jellies can be found in many tropical areas, including near Australia, the Philippines, Hawaii, and Vietnam.

Class Anthozoa
• • • • • Gr. Anthos, flower, zoon, animal all polyps - no medusae all marine 6000 Species Anthozoans include corals, sea anemones, sea pens, and sea pansies. - These animals are either solitary or colonial polyps that live attached to a substrate (surface). - Of the 6,000 known anthozoan species, corals comprise about 2,500 species.

3 main groups of anthozoans:

Sea anemones and hard corals
tube anemones and thorny corals


soft corals, horny corals, sea fans, sea

pens, sea pansies

•Sea anemones and corals have polyps and no medusae •Corals are colonial and secrete calcium carbonate skeletons. Coral reefs are the accumulation of these skeletons.

•The sea anemone is considered to be the flower of the sea. Sea anemones look like plants, but they are really meat-eating animals. •Sea anemones come in different sizes and many different colors.The sea anemone can attach itself to rocks or coral. In the center of the sea anemone is their mouth. In order for the sea anemone to eat, they must wait for their food to swim by. Then they sting it with their tentacles, and then push it into their mouth. •Sea anemones spend most of their lives in one place. They can attach themselves to rocks. Some even bury themselves in the mud.

Anenomes are exclusively marine, as are all anthozoans.

Clownfish often live among the tentacles of the anenome. The clownfish are not stung by the anenome, and may help bring food to it. In return, the fish is protected by the stinging tentacles.

Rather than stinging, sun anenomes stick to their prey.

It is obvious as to how brain coral got its name.

Here is a young brain coral. These colonies can build for thousands of years.

Other organisms, such as these Christmas Tree worms, make theur home in or on the coral.

Corals compete for light just the way plants do on land.

This is Elkhorn Coral.

Here a damselfish hides among the branches of fire coral. Fire coral has tiny spines which irritate the skin, much as a stinging nettle does.

Soft corals such as dead-man’s fingers can bend with waves and currents.

This is another soft coral.

Sea fans are also anthozoans along with sea anenomes, hard corals, tube anenomes, thorny corals, soft corals, sea pens and sea pansies.


Class Hydrozoa Hydrozoa Anthozoa Anthozoa

Colonial or Solitary Solitary Colonial Colonial Colonial

Dominant stage Polyp Polyp and Medusa Polyp Polyp

1. 1. 1. 1.

Hydra Obelia Heliopora coerulea Montastrea curta

1. 1.

Oulastrea alta Platygyra daedalea

Anthozoa Anthozoa

Colonial Colonial

Polyp Polyp


Mastigias papua




1. 1. 1.

Heterractis sp. Fungia sp. Galaxea fascicularis

Anthozoa Anthozoa Anthozoa

Colonial Colonial Colonial

Polyp Polyp Polyp