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You are on page 1of 53

7/4/2012 1

North South University

Dept. of Computer Science & Engineering

CSE 173

Discrete Structures

Dr. Mohammad Rashedur Rahman

Slides for a Course Based on the Text

Discrete Mathematics & Its Applications

(5

th

Edition)

by Kenneth H. Rosen

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 2

Module #3:

Basic Proof Methods

Rosen 5

th

ed., §1.5

48 slides, ~3 lectures

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 3

Nature & Importance of Proofs

• In mathematics, a proof is:

– a correct (well-reasoned, logically valid) and complete

(clear, detailed) argument that rigorously & undeniably

establishes the truth of a mathematical statement.

• Why must the argument be correct & complete?

– Correctness prevents us from fooling ourselves.

– Completeness allows anyone to verify the result.

• In this course (& throughout mathematics), a very

high standard for correctness and completeness of

proofs is demanded!!

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 4

Overview of §1.5

• Methods of mathematical argument (i.e.,

proof methods) can be formalized in terms

of rules of logical inference.

• Mathematical proofs can themselves be

represented formally as discrete structures.

• We will review both correct & fallacious

inference rules, & several proof methods.

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 5

Applications of Proofs

• An exercise in clear communication of logical

arguments in any area of study.

• The fundamental activity of mathematics is the

discovery and elucidation, through proofs, of

interesting new theorems.

• Theorem-proving has applications in program

verification, computer security, automated

reasoning systems, etc.

• Proving a theorem allows us to rely upon on its

correctness even in the most critical scenarios.

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 6

Inference Rules - General Form

• An Inference Rule is

– A pattern establishing that if we know that a set

of antecedent statements of certain forms are all

true, then we can validly deduce that a certain

related consequent statement is true.

• antecedent 1

antecedent 2 …

consequent “” means “therefore”

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 7

Inference Rules & Implications

• Each valid logical inference rule

corresponds to an implication that is a

tautology.

• antecedent 1 Inference rule

antecedent 2 …

consequent

• Corresponding tautology:

((ante. 1) . (ante. 2) . …) ÷ consequent

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 8

Some Inference Rules

• p Rule of Addition

pvq

• p.q Rule of Simplification

p

• p Rule of Conjunction

q

p.q

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 9

Modus Ponens & Tollens

• p Rule of modus ponens

p÷q (a.k.a. law of detachment)

q

• ÷q

p÷q Rule of modus tollens

÷p

“the mode of

affirming”

“the mode of denying”

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 10

Syllogism Inference Rules

• p÷q Rule of hypothetical

q÷r syllogism

p÷r

• p v q Rule of disjunctive

÷p syllogism

q

Aristotle

(ca. 384-322 B.C.)

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 11

Formal Proofs

• A formal proof of a conclusion C, given

premises p

1

, p

2

,…,p

n

consists of a sequence

of steps, each of which applies some

inference rule to premises or previously-

proven statements (antecedents) to yield a

new true statement (the consequent).

• A proof demonstrates that if the premises

are true, then the conclusion is true.

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 12

Formal Proof Example

• Suppose we have the following premises:

“It is not sunny and it is cold.”

“We will swim only if it is sunny.”

“If we do not swim, then we will canoe.”

“If we canoe, then we will be home early.”

• Given these premises, prove the theorem

“We will be home early” using inference rules.

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 13

Proof Example cont.

• Let us adopt the following abbreviations:

– sunny = “It is sunny”; cold = “It is cold”;

swim = “We will swim”; canoe = “We will

canoe”; early = “We will be home early”.

• Then, the premises can be written as:

(1) ÷sunny . cold (2) swim ÷ sunny

(3) ÷swim ÷ canoe (4) canoe ÷ early

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 14

Proof Example cont.

Step Proved by

1. ÷sunny . cold Premise #1.

2. ÷sunny Simplification of 1.

3. swim÷sunny Premise #2.

4. ÷swim Modus tollens on 2,3.

5. ÷swim÷canoe Premise #3.

6. canoe Modus ponens on 4,5.

7. canoe÷early Premise #4.

8. early Modus ponens on 6,7.

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 15

Inference Rules for Quantifiers

• ¬x P(x)

P(o) (substitute any specific object o)

• P(g) (for g a general element of u.d.)

¬x P(x)

• -x P(x)

P(c) (substitute a new constant c)

• P(o) (substitute any extant object o)

-x P(x)

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 16

Common Fallacies

• A fallacy is an inference rule or other proof

method that is not logically valid.

– A fallacy may yield a false conclusion!

• Fallacy of affirming the conclusion:

– “p÷q is true, and q is true, so p must be true.”

(No, because F÷T is true.)

• Fallacy of denying the hypothesis:

– “p÷q is true, and p is false, so q must be false.”

(No, again because F÷T is true.)

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 17

Proof Methods for Implications

For proving implications p÷q, we have:

• Direct proof: Assume p is true, and prove q.

• Indirect proof: Assume ÷q, and prove ÷p.

• Vacuous proof: Prove ÷p by itself.

• Trivial proof: Prove q by itself.

• Proof by cases:

Show p÷(a v b), and (a÷q) and (b÷q).

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 18

Direct Proof Example

• Definition: An integer n is called odd iff n=2k+1

for some integer k; n is even iff n=2k for some k.

• Theorem: (For all numbers n) If n is an odd

integer, then n

2

is an odd integer.

• Proof: If n is odd, then n = 2k+1 for some integer

k. Thus, n

2

= (2k+1)

2

= 4k

2

+ 4k + 1 = 2(2k

2

+ 2k)

+ 1. Therefore n

2

is of the form 2j + 1 (with j the

integer 2k

2

+ 2k), thus n

2

is odd. □

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 19

Direct Proof Example

• Is it possible to prove by using direct proof

that “if n is an integer and n^2 is odd then n

is odd”?

• Indirect proof can help.

• We will see an example and then try with

some this one with indirect one.

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 20

Indirect Proof Example

• Theorem: (For all integers n)

If 3n+2 is odd, then n is odd.

• Proof: Suppose that the conclusion is false, i.e.,

that n is even. Then n=2k for some integer k.

Then 3n+2 = 3(2k)+2 = 6k+2 = 2(3k+1). Thus

3n+2 is even, because it equals 2j for integer j =

3k+1. So 3n+2 is not odd. We have shown that

¬(n is odd)→¬(3n+2 is odd), thus its contra-

positive (3n+2 is odd) → (n is odd) is also true. □

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 21

Vacuous Proof Example

• Theorem: (For all n) If n is both odd and

even, then n

2

= n + n.

• Proof: The statement “n is both odd and

even” is necessarily false, since no number

can be both odd and even. So, the theorem

is vacuously true. □

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 22

Trivial Proof Example

• Theorem: (For integers n) If n is the sum

of two prime numbers, then either n is odd

or n is even.

• Proof: Any integer n is either odd or even.

So the conclusion of the implication is true

regardless of the truth of the antecedent.

Thus the implication is true trivially. □

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 23

Proof by Contradiction

• A method for proving p.

• Assume ÷p, and prove both q and ÷q for some

proposition q. (Can be anything!)

• Thus ÷p÷ (q . ÷q)

• (q . ÷q) is a trivial contradiction, equal to F

• Thus ÷p÷F, which is only true if ÷p=F

• Thus p is true.

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 24

Proof by Contradiction Example

• Theorem: is irrational.

• A real number r is rational if there exists integers

p and q such that r=p/q otherwise it is irrational

– Proof: Assume 2

1/2

were rational. This means there are

integers i,j with no common divisors such that 2

1/2

= i/j.

Squaring both sides, 2 = i

2

/j

2

, so 2j

2

= i

2

. So i

2

is even;

thus i is even. Let i=2k. So 2j

2

= (2k)

2

= 4k

2

. Dividing

both sides by 2, j

2

= 2k

2

. Thus j

2

is even, so j is even.

But then i and j have a common divisor, namely 2, so

we have a contradiction. □

2

2

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 25

Review: Proof Methods So Far

• Direct, indirect, vacuous, and trivial proofs

of statements of the form p÷q.

• Proof by contradiction of any statements.

• Next: Constructive and nonconstructive

existence proofs.

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 26

Proving Existentials

• A proof of a statement of the form -x P(x)

is called an existence proof.

• If the proof demonstrates how to actually

find or construct a specific element a such

that P(a) is true, then it is a constructive

proof.

• Otherwise, it is nonconstructive.

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 27

Constructive Existence Proof

• Theorem: There exists a positive integer n

that is the sum of two perfect cubes in two

different ways:

– equal to j

3

+ k

3

and l

3

+ m

3

where j, k, l, m are

positive integers, and {j,k} ≠ {l,m}

• Proof: Consider n = 1729, j = 9, k = 10,

l = 1, m = 12. Now just check that the

equalities hold.

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 28

Another Constructive

Existence Proof

• Theorem: For any integer n>0, there exists

a sequence of n consecutive composite

integers.

• Same statement in predicate logic:

¬n>0 -x ¬i (1sisn)÷(x+i is composite)

• Proof follows on next slide…

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 29

The proof...

• Given n>0, let x = (n + 1)! + 1.

• Let i > 1 and i s n, and consider x+i.

• Note x+i = (n + 1)! + (i + 1).

• Note (i+1)|(n+1)!, since 2 s i+1 s n+1.

• Also (i+1)|(i+1). So, (i+1)|(x+i).

• x+i is composite.

• ¬n -x ¬1sisn : x+i is composite. Q.E.D.

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 30

Nonconstructive Existence Proof

• Theorem:

“There are infinitely many prime numbers.”

• Any finite set of numbers must contain a maximal

element, so we can prove the theorem if we can

just show that there is no largest prime number.

• I.e., show that for any prime number, there is a

larger number that is also prime.

• More generally: For any number, - a larger prime.

• Formally: Show ¬n -p>n : p is prime.

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 31

The proof, using proof by cases...

• Given n>0, prove there is a prime p>n.

• Consider x = n!+1. Since x>1, we know

(x is prime)v(x is composite).

• Case 1: x is prime. Obviously x>n, so let

p=x and we‟re done.

• Case 2: x has a prime factor p. But if psn,

then p mod x = 1. So p>n, and we‟re done.

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 32

The Halting Problem (Turing„36)

• The halting problem was the first

mathematical function proven to

have no algorithm that computes it!

– We say, it is uncomputable.

• The desired function is Halts(P,I) :≡

the truth value of this statement:

– “Program P, given input I, eventually terminates.”

• Theorem: Halts is uncomputable!

– I.e., There does not exist any algorithm A that

computes Halts correctly for all possible inputs.

• Its proof is thus a non-existence proof.

• Corollary: General impossibility of predictive analysis of

arbitrary computer programs.

Alan Turing

1912-1954

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 33

The Proof

• Given any arbitrary program H(P,I),

• Consider algorithm Breaker, defined as:

procedure Breaker(P: a program)

halts := H(P,P)

if halts then while T begin end

• Note that Breaker(Breaker) halts iff

H(Breaker,Breaker) = F.

• So H does not compute the function Halts!

Breaker makes a

liar out of H, by

doing the opposite

of whatever H

predicts.

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 34

Limits on Proofs

• Some very simple statements of number

theory haven‟t been proved or disproved!

– E.g. Goldbach’s conjecture: Every integer n≥2

is exactly the average of some two primes.

– ¬n≥2 - primes p,q: n=(p+q)/2.

• There are true statements of number theory

(or any sufficiently powerful system) that

can never be proved (or disproved) (Gödel).

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 35

More Proof Examples

• Quiz question 1a: Is this argument correct or

incorrect?

– “All TAs compose easy quizzes. Ramesh is a TA.

Therefore, Ramesh composes easy quizzes.”

• First, separate the premises from conclusions:

– Premise #1: All TAs compose easy quizzes.

– Premise #2: Ramesh is a TA.

– Conclusion: Ramesh composes easy quizzes.

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 36

Answer

Next, re-render the example in logic notation.

• Premise #1: All TAs compose easy quizzes.

– Let U.D. = all people

– Let T(x) :≡ “x is a TA”

– Let E(x) :≡ “x composes easy quizzes”

– Then Premise #1 says: ¬x, T(x)→E(x)

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 37

Answer cont…

• Premise #2: Ramesh is a TA.

– Let R :≡ Ramesh

– Then Premise #2 says: T(R)

– And the Conclusion says: E(R)

• The argument is correct, because it can be

reduced to a sequence of applications of

valid inference rules, as follows:

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 38

The Proof in Gory Detail

• Statement How obtained

1. ¬x, T(x) → E(x) (Premise #1)

2. T(Ramesh) → E(Ramesh) (Universal

instantiation)

3. T(Ramesh) (Premise #2)

4. E(Ramesh) (Modus Ponens from

statements #2 and #3)

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 39

Another example

• Quiz question 2b: Correct or incorrect: At least

one of the 280 students in the class is intelligent.

Y is a student of this class. Therefore, Y is

intelligent.

• First: Separate premises/conclusion,

& translate to logic:

– Premises: (1) -x InClass(x) . Intelligent(x)

(2) InClass(Y)

– Conclusion: Intelligent(Y)

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 40

Answer

• No, the argument is invalid; we can disprove it

with a counter-example, as follows:

• Consider a case where there is only one intelligent

student X in the class, and X≠Y.

– Then the premise -x InClass(x) . Intelligent(x) is

true, by existential generalization of

InClass(X) . Intelligent(X)

– But the conclusion Intelligent(Y) is false, since X is

the only intelligent student in the class, and Y≠X.

• Therefore, the premises do not imply the

conclusion.

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 41

Another Example

• Quiz question #2: Prove that the sum of a rational

number and an irrational number is always

irrational.

• First, you have to understand exactly what the

question is asking you to prove:

– “For all real numbers x,y, if x is rational and y is

irrational, then x+y is irrational.”

– ¬x,y: Rational(x) . Irrational(y) → Irrational(x+y)

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 42

Answer

• Next, think back to the definitions of the

terms used in the statement of the theorem:

– ¬ reals r: Rational(r) ↔

- Integer(i) . Integer(j): r = i/j.

– ¬ reals r: Irrational(r) ↔ ¬Rational(r)

• You almost always need the definitions of

the terms in order to prove the theorem!

• Next, let‟s go through one valid proof:

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 43

What you might write

• Theorem:

¬x,y: Rational(x) . Irrational(y) → Irrational(x+y)

• Proof: Let x, y be any rational and irrational

numbers, respectively. … (universal generalization)

• Now, just from this, what do we know about x and y? You

should think back to the definition of rational:

• … Since x is rational, we know (from the very

definition of rational) that there must be some

integers i and j such that x = i/j. So, let i

x

,j

x

be

such integers …

• We give them unique names so we can refer to them later.

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 44

What next?

• What do we know about y? Only that y is

irrational: ¬- integers i,j: y = i/j.

• But, it‟s difficult to see how to use a direct proof

in this case. We could try indirect proof also, but

in this case, it is a little simpler to just use proof

by contradiction (very similar to indirect).

• So, what are we trying to show? Just that x+y is

irrational. That is, ¬-i,j: (x + y) = i/j.

• What happens if we hypothesize the negation of

this statement?

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 45

More writing…

• Suppose that x+y were not irrational. Then

x+y would be rational, so - integers i,j: x+y

= i/j. So, let i

s

and j

s

be any such integers

where x+y = i

s

/ j

s

.

• Now, with all these things named, we can start

seeing what happens when we put them together.

• So, we have that (i

x

/j

x

) + y = (i

s

/j

s

).

• Observe! We have enough information now that

we can conclude something useful about y, by

solving this equation for it.

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 46

Finishing the proof.

• Solving that equation for y, we have:

y = (i

s

/j

s

) – (i

x

/j

x

)

= (i

s

j

x

– i

x

j

s

)/(j

s

j

x

)

Now, since the numerator and denominator

of this expression are both integers, y is

(by definition) rational. This contradicts

the assumption that y was irrational.

Therefore, our hypothesis that x+y is

rational must be false, and so the theorem

is proved.

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 47

Example wrong answer

• 1 is rational. √2 is irrational. 1+√2 is

irrational. Therefore, the sum of a

rational number and an irrational number is

irrational. (Direct proof.)

• Why does this answer desereve no credit?

– The student attempted to use an example to prove a

universal statement. This is always invalid!

– Even as an example, it‟s incomplete, because the

student never even proved that 1+√2 is irrational!

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 48

Proof Terminology

• Theorem

– A statement that has been proven to be true.

• Axioms, postulates, hypotheses, premises

– Assumptions (often unproven) defining the

structures about which we are reasoning.

• Rules of inference

– Patterns of logically valid deductions from

hypotheses to conclusions.

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 49

More Proof Terminology

• Lemma - A minor theorem used as a stepping-

stone to proving a major theorem.

• Corollary - A minor theorem proved as an easy

consequence of a major theorem.

• Conjecture - A statement whose truth value has

not been proven. (A conjecture may be widely

believed to be true, regardless.)

• Theory – The set of all theorems that can be

proven from a given set of axioms.

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 50

Graphical Visualization

…

Various Theorems

The Axioms

of the Theory

A Particular Theory

A proof

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 51

Circular Reasoning

• The fallacy of (explicitly or implicitly) assuming

the very statement you are trying to prove in the

course of its proof. Example:

• Prove that an integer n is even, if n

2

is even.

• Attempted proof: “Assume n

2

is even. Then

n

2

=2k for some integer k. Dividing both sides by n

gives n = (2k)/n = 2(k/n). So there is an integer j

(namely k/n) such that n=2j. Therefore n is even.”

– Circular reasoning is used in this proof. Where?

Begs the question: How do

you show that j=k/n=n/2 is an integer,

without first assuming that n is even?

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 52

A Correct Proof

We know that n must be either odd or even. If

n were odd, then n

2

would be odd, since an

odd number times an odd number is always an

odd number. Since n

2

is even, it is not odd,

since no even number is also an odd number.

Thus, by modus tollens, n is not odd either.

Thus, by disjunctive syllogism, n must be

even. ■

This proof is correct, but not quite complete,

since we used several lemmas without proving

them. Can you identify what they are?

Module #3 - Proofs

7/4/2012 53

A More Verbose Version

Suppose n

2

is even 2|n

2

n

2

mod 2 = 0. Of course

n mod 2 is either 0 or 1. If it‟s 1, then n÷1 (mod 2),

so n

2

÷1 (mod 2), using the theorem that if a÷b (mod

m) and c÷d (mod m) then ac÷bd (mod m), with

a=c=n and b=d=1. Now n

2

÷1 (mod 2) implies that

n

2

mod 2 = 1. So by the hypothetical syllogism rule,

(n mod 2 = 1) implies (n

2

mod 2 = 1). Since we

know n

2

mod 2 = 0 = 1, by modus tollens we know

that n mod 2 = 1. So by disjunctive syllogism we

have that n mod 2 = 0 2|n n is even.

Uses some number theory we haven‟t defined yet.

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