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Lesson Frame
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI.

Leadership – An Introduction Leadership Styles Power and Influence Tactics Motivation Leadership Traits Emotional Intelligence Leadership’s Learning Styles Followership Delegation Group and Team Development Conflict Management
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I. Leadership – The Definition
Leadership is the process of influencing

others to achieve the organizational goals. Leadership is an interaction between the leader, the followers, and the situation.
Boss says “Go!”, leader says “Let’s go!” Leader knows the way, shows the way, & goes the way.
LEADERSHIP
V I S I O N
A C H I E V E

COMMUNICATE

CREDIBILITY
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Several Definitions of Leadership
1.
Leadership as a focus of group processes; Leadership as a personality and its effects; Leadership as an act or behavior; Leadership as an instrument of goal

achievement; Leadership as interaction; Leadership as Leadership as Leadership as compliance;

an emerging effect of a differentiated role; the initiation of structure; the art of inducing and
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2.
-

Leader Vs. Manager

Leader Manager Innovate - Administer Develop - Maintain Inspire - Control Have long-term view - Have short-term view - Ask how and when - Imitate - Accept the status quo
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- Ask what and why - Originate - Challenge statues quo

3.

Quality of a Perfect Leader
Reliable and risk-

Creative and

disciplined
Visionary and

taking
Intuitive and logical Intellectual and

detailed
Motivational and

ethical
Coaching and

commanding
Directing and

controlling
Inspiring and

empowering humble

Be not a perfect leader, only an effective one! Ambitious and mentoring
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II. Leadership Styles
Leadership Style: the patterns of how a leader

interacts with his/her followers.
“Leadership style impacts the motivations of employees, either positive or negative.”
The 6 leadership styles:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Coercive Authoritative Affiliative Democratic Pacesetting Coaching
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1.

Coercive Style
 Obtaining immediate compliance from employees.

Why: How:
 Provides clear directives – no empathy  Tightly control situations  Use occasional attention-getting strategies  Emphasizes the negative  Focus on getting the job done

Slogan:
“Do what I tell you!” “You must do this NOW!”

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2.

Authoritative Style
 Mobilizing people toward a vision.

Why: How:
 Develop a clear vision  Obtain employee’s perspective  Empower and delegate  Set standards & monitor performance  Use balance of positive & negative feedbacks

Slogan:
“This is where we’re going & why.” “Come with me.”

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3.

Affiliative Style
 Promoting harmony and collaboration among

Why:
employees.

How:
 Promote friendly interactions among employees  Put people first & tasks second  Try to meet employee’s emotional needs  Identifies opportunities for positive feedback  Provide job security & work/life balance

Slogan:
“People come first.” “Everyone must get along.”
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4.

Democratic Style
 Building group consensus & commitment through group-

Why:
management in making decisions.

How:
 Give employees full participation  Emphasize the importance of consensus  Include all view in the decision-making  Listen to employees for ideas  Reward group rather than individual

Slogan:
“What do you think” “Let’s see what the group wants to do”
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5.

Pacesetting Style
 Setting high performance standards and getting quick

Why:
results from a highly motivated & competent team.

How:
 Lead by example  Allow employee work independently  Delegates demanding tasks to only

outstanding performers  Exert tight control over poor performers  Promote individual effort rather than teamwork

Slogan:
“Do as I do.” “This is how it must be done! WATCH ME!”
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6. Coaching Style
Why:
 Developing people for future performance.

How:
 Help employees identify their performance

strengths & weaknesses  Work with employees to establish long-range goals  Encourage employees to solve their own work problem  Treat mistakes as learning opportunities

Slogan:
“Try this!” “Let’s see how can I support you!”
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7.

Using the Right Style

“There is no certain guideline to be an

effective leader.” “There is no a fixed way to fit all situations.”
Effective leaders consider The skill level and experience of the team The work involved The organizational environment Your own preferred or natural style
A good leader will find him- or herself switching instinctively between styles according to the people and work they are dealing with.
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III. Power and Influence Tactics
Power – the definition The capacity to produce effects on others in terms of behavior and attitudes. P = f (L, F, S) The motivation to lead:
Maintain good relationships with authority figure Eager to compete for recognition and

improvement Be active and assertive Want to exercise influence over the others Be visibly different from followers Be willing to do routine and administrative tasks
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1.

Sources of Leader’s Power

Expert Power: power of knowledge or expertise.

Ability to use influence to build others; and supply needed info & skills. Reward Power: ability to deliver something of value to others (tangible / intangible) due to control over desired outcomes. Coercive Power: ability to administer punishment or to give negative sanctions or removal of positive reinforcements. Referent Power: ability to influence others that arises when one person admires another. Legitimate Power: ability to use rights to prescribe 16

2.

Influence Tactics

Influence tactics – the definition One person’s actual behaviours designed to change another person’s attitudes, values, beliefs, or behaviours. Types of influence tactics:
 Rational persuasion tactic: when an agent uses logical

arguments or factual evidence to influence others.  Inspirational tactic: when people make a request or proposal designed to arouse enthusiasm or emotions in targets.  Consultation tactic: when agent ask targets to participate in planning and activities.  Ingratiation tactic: when agent attempts to get you in a good mood before making a request. 17

2.

Influence Tactics (cont.)

Personal tactic: asking another to do a favor out of

friendship.
Coalition tactic: seeking the aid or support of others

to influence the target.
Pressure tactic: when mistakes occur. Legitimizing tactic: making requests based on their

“When we think position or authority.

we lead, we are most led”

“You’ve got to give loyalty down, if you want loyalty up.”
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IV. Motivation
Motivation:

A sort of shorthand that provides direction, intensity, and persistence.

Key Elements Key Elements 1. Direction: guidance for beneficial goa 1. Direction: guidance for beneficial go

2. Intensity: how hard a person tries 2. Intensity: how hard a person tries 3. Persistence: how long a person tries 3. Persistence: how long a person tries

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IV. Motivation (cont.)
“Leaders who are knowledgeable about different motivational theories are more likely to choose the right theory for a particular follower and situation, and often have higher-performing and more satisfied employees as a result.”
Factors for motivating followers
(1). Need theories (2). Individual difference (3). Cognitive (4). Situational
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1.

Need Theories
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Alderfer’s ERG Theory
Existence: provision

of basic material requirements.

Relatedness: desire

for relationships. personal development.

Growth: desire for

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2.

Individual Difference

Achievement Values orientation people are motivated to do the exertion of effort to accomplish activities that aligned with their socially acceptable preferable personal endeavors and Intrinsic motivation or social mode of activities. behavior seemingly motivated for endconducts or its own sake, for personal satisfaction, state of existence. and increased feelings of competence or control one gets from doing it.

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3.

Cognitive Theories
Expectancy Theory The strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual.
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Goal Setting Theory The theory that specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performance.

Process of Expectancy Theory

3.

Cognitive Theories (cont.)

Self-efficacy The individual belief that he or she is capable of performing a task. Equity Theory Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of other and then response to eliminate any inequities.

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4.

Situational Approaches
Empowerment The delegation by which people are provided autonomy and latitude in order to increase their motivation for work.

Operant approach The motivation by which leaders substitute reward and punishment to change followers’ behaviors.

Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB)

Satisfied employees who feel fairly treated by and are trusting of the org are more willing to engage in behaviors that go beyond the normal expectations of their job.
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5.

Intrinsic Motivation
Meaningfulness – pursuing a task that matters in the larger scheme of things.

Choice – the ability to freely self-select and perform task activities. Competence – the sense of accomplishment from skillfully performing chosen tasks or activities. Progress – the feeling of significant advancement in achieving the task’s purpose.

Performance Dimensions
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6. Why Motivation?
Direct behavior toward particular goals. Lead to increased effort and energy. Increase initiation of, and persistence in,

activities. Enhance cognitive processing. Determine what consequences are reinforcing Lead to improved performance. Motivated employees always look for better ways to do a job. Motivated employees are more quality oriented.
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V. Leadership Traits – Bright

Side

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V. Leadership Traits – Bright…

(cont.)

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V. Leadership Traits – Dark Side
Dark-side personality traits  The irritating, counter-productive behavioral tendencies that interfere with a leader’s ability to build cohesive and cause followers to exert less effort toward goal accomplishment. Dark-side personality traits:
 Is equipped with everyone, at least one dark-

side personality trait.  Usually emerge during crisis or periods of high stress and are coping mechanisms for dealing with stress.  Have bigger influence on performance for people in leadership rather than followership

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V. Leadership Traits – Dark…

(cont.)
Excitable Dramatic mood swings, emotional outbursts, and inability to persist on projects. Colorful An unhealthy need to be in the center of attention. Worrying with being noticed of his failure or incompetence. Skeptical Unhealthy mistrust of others, challenging the integrity of the follower, and vigilance for signs of disloyalty. Reserved During the time of stress, leaders become extremely withdrawn, uncommunicative, difficult to find, and unconcerned about the welfare of their staffs.
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V. Leadership Traits – Dark…

(cont.)
Cautious Fearful of making mistakes, alienate the followers by not making decisions or taking action on issues. Leisurely Exert efforts only in the pursuit of their own agendas and will procrastinate or not follow other requests that are not in line with his/her agendas. Imaginative His/her thought is quite eccentric. Often changing their mind, and making odd or strange decisions. Bold An extreme self-lover. Pride of entitlement, inability to share credit for success, adopt attribution of blame, inability to learn from experience often result in resent followers.
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V. Leadership Traits – Dark…

(cont.)
Diligent Perfectionism. This leader frustrate and disempower. Poor prioritization and inability to delegate effectively. Mischievous A charming leader, but often takes pleasure in seeing a way of breaking the commitments, rules, policies… Very good in finding excuse.

Dutiful Outcome-oriented. Unwilling to refuse unrealistic requests. Won’t stand up for their staffs, and burn them out as a result.

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VI. Emotional Intelligence
Goleman et al’s model of EQ
 Self-Awareness – Our ability to read & understand our

emotions & recognize their impact on work performance & relationships.
 Self-Regulation – Our ability to maintain self-control

while remaining flexible, honest, optimistic, & sustain behaviors to improve performance.
 Motivation – A passion to work for reasons beyond

money or status, & propensity to pursue goals with energy & persistence.
 Empathy – Our ability to empathize with others &

understand the social dynamics in our organizations & with our clients.

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VII. Leadership’s Learning Styles
Action Experience Experience
Single-Loop Learning The learning between the individual and the environment in which learners seek relatively little feedback that may significantly confront their fundamental ideas or actions. Double-Loop Learning The willingness to confront one’s own views and others’. Learner opens to info. and power sharing with others to improve communication’s effectiveness and decision making.
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Reflection Experience

Observation

Spiral of Experience

VIII. Followership
Followers, rather than representing the

antithesis of leaders, are best viewed as collaborators with leaders.
Followers fall into two groups: Independent, critical thinking Dependent, uncritical thinking Best followers think for themselves and offer

constructive advice or even creative solution. Worst followers need to be told what to do, or even dodge the responsibility.
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1.
1.

Followership Styles
Alienated followers
others. Leaders often see them as cynical & adversarial.

• They habitually point out all the negative aspects of the org to

1.

Conformist followers
• The “yes-people” of the organization. They are really active at

doing the organization’s work, but they can be dangerous*.

1.

Pragmatist followers
• They rarely committed to their group’s goals. They have learned

not to make new waves, and tend to be only average performers.

1.

Passive followers
• They rely on the leader to do all thinking. Lack of enthusiasm,

initiative, sense of responsibility. Require constant direction.

1.

Exemplary followers
• They are independent, innovative, and willing to assume

responsibility and stand up to superiors. They apply their talents for the benefits of the org. 37

2.

Leader-Follower Relationship
Personality, Position, Expertise, …

Leadership

Values, Norms, Cohesivenes s, …

Task, Stress, Environment , …
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IX. Delegation
Why:
Free time for other activities Develop followers Strengthen the organization

Why not: Delegation takes too much time Delegation is risky The job will not be done as well The task is a desirable one Other are already too busy
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Principles for Effective Delegation
1.
Combined principles of effective delegation Decide what to delegate Decide whom to delegate Make the assignment clear and specific Assign an objective, not a procedure Allow autonomy, but monitor performance Match the amount of responsibility and authority Provide adequate support Avoid “upward delegation” Give credit, not blame
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X. Group and Team

Development

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1.

Why People Join Group?
• Security • Status • Self-esteem • Affiliation • Power • Goal Achievement

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Stages of Group Development
2.

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Stages of Group Development (cont.)
2.

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3.

Group Processes

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4.

Group Decision Making
Weaknesses
More time

Strengths
More complete

information Increased diversity of views Higher quality of decisions Increased acceptance of solutions

consuming Increased pressure to conform Domination by one or a few members Ambiguous responsibility

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5.

Team Vs. Group

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Comparing Work Groups & Work Teams
6.

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A TeamEffectiveness Model

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7.

Being a Good Team Player

Ten Qualities of effective team player: Demonstrate reliability Communicate constructively Listen actively Function as an active participant Share openly and willingly Cooperate and pitches in to help Exhibit flexibility Show commitment to the team Work as a problem-solver Treat others in a respectful and supportive manner

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XI. Conflict Management
Conflict – the definition The opposition between two simultaneous but incompatible feelings, ideas, or interests. Benefits of conflicts
Increased understanding Increased group cohesion Improved self-knowledge

Drawbacks of conflicts Personal dislike Disengagement from work Downward spiral of negativity and recrimination
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Conflict Resolution Techniques
1.
assertive

Competitive
Assert one's viewpoint at the potential expense of another.

Collaborative
Work together to find a mutually beneficial solution.

Compromising
Find a middle ground in which each party is partially satisfied.

unassertive

Avoiding
Avoid or postpone conflict by ignoring it, changing the subject, etc.
uncooperative

Accommodating
Surrender one's own needs and wishes to accommodate the other party.
cooperative
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Conclusion
 Leadership is the process, not the position.  Use the combination of transactional and transformational.  Use the styles appropriately.  Combine the power and influence into process of work.  Keep the bright-side of yours and improve the dark ones  Enhance your skills in perceiving, managing, using, & understanding

emotions.  Leadership and learnership is indispensable.  Keep followers close to the heart & improve them through effective delegation.  Establish effective groups and teams to help you achieve the overall goals.  Understand the pros and cons conflicts, and apply the appropriate techniques to resolve them.

“Leadership is based on inspiration, not domination;

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16 Desires Guiding Human Behaviors
 Acceptance, the need for  Physical Activity, the need for

approval  Curiosity, the need to think  Eating, the need for food  Family, the need to raise children  Honor, the need to be loyal to the traditional values of one's clan/ethnic group  Idealism, the need for social justice  Independence, the need for individuality  Order, the need for organized, stable, predictable

exercise  Power, the need for influence of will  Romance, the need for sex  Saving, the need to collect  Social Contact, the need for friends (peer relationships)  Status, the need for social standing/importance  Tranquility, the need to be safe  Vengeance, the need to strike back
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References
Leadership Skills (textbook) Organizational Behaviors (textbook) International Leadership Skills Training

(handouts) http://www.mindtools.com http://www.openminds.com http://lowery.tamu.edu http://www.dummies.com http://hotjobs.yahoo.com http://wikipedia.org
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