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Recycling is the most widely recognized form of source reduction. It involves the process of separating, collection, processing and marketing. It uses the material that would have otherwise been discarded. It is the fundamental part of waste management plan. It can divert a significant portion of waste stream from disposal in landfill and combustion facilities.

Significance of Recycling
Economic significance 1. cost reduction it is important way of resource recovery. It reduces waste disposal cost. This savings in waste management cost is significant incentives to authorities to increase the coverage of service areas and its improvement. It saves the cost for transport, o/m It generates revenue by sale of recyclables.

2. Employment recycling is a labour intensive activity. Thus it reduces the unemployment. Available areas for employment are separation, collection, industry, dealership. It creates additional job market for skilled and unskilled labour.

3. Energy saving use of recyclables is known to reduce energy than making it from original raw material. Reduction in energy consumption to one industry could mean its availability for some other industry in need. 4. reduced health care cost improved health and sanitary conditions in urban areas results from waste recycling. It reduces occupational hazards thus reduces the investment in public health program.

5. Saving cost for other public utilities. It reduces the frequency of sewer clogging in rainy season. Thus reduces pollution of waterbodies. It reduces the cost of cleaning, water treatment at sewage plant. It also reduces the cost for public safety due to clogged sewers, narrowing of natural watercources.

Environment and health significance The volume of waste is increasing rapidly due to population growth and economic development. Composition of waste is changing leading to waste production with more recyclables. But polluted waste fractions are increasing due to increase in complex processes being used in industries. All these contribute to envt. Degaradation.

Recycling helps to mitigate envt. Degradation by 1. improved environment pollution is due to inadequate SWM. Recycling reduces the volume of waste that has to be finally disposed thus reduces the pollution at disposal site. 2. natural resource conservation use of recyclables in industrial production will relieve the tremendous pressure on these precious resources.

Social significance There is a hierarchy of groups of people engaged in waste recycling. It represents the social and economic status. Scavengers -waste collectors - waste buyers - waste dealers and wholesalers processors A formal recycling management will help to promote the social esteem of waste workers and facilitate their upward social mobility due to increased earning. Improved recycling will increase the economic value of waste. It provides opportunity to people engaged in recycling to switch to more socially acceptable occupation.

Types of recycling
Recycling of material like glass, metal, paper and plastic is of two types Primary or closed loop recycling Waste discarded by consumers are recycled to produce new products of same type. This reduces demand of virgin resources by 20%- 90%, pollution and saves energy.

Secondary or open loop recycling Waste material is converted into different and usually lower quality products. It reduces the demand of virgin material by 25%.

Planning for Recycling program

It requires strategic planning It involves Understanding the market Asses local expertise Setting goals Enhance and establish people participation.

It requires Systematic approach to all components which are interrelated. Public participation Program must be designed keeping view of public convenience and support.

1. Build local expertise Small projects help to build local expertise in recycling and minimize problems associated with poor planning. These projects are easy to compare and evaluate the program techniques which are most successful within community. Then develop a large scale program based on practical experience of short project.

2. Understand and develop recycling market. Find out the outlet for recyclable material. Requires continuous market analysis as all recyclable material demand can be affected by market fluctuations. Planning and designing should be flexible to handle fluctuating market .

3. Public Education and involvement Public has a right and a responsibility to understand full cost and benefit of managing the waste they produced. Well planned education involvement increase the public interest in recycling.

4.Asses local waste stream Planning of recycling requires the knowledge of local waste stream. It helps to decide and choice the right material to recycle and design the program. 5. augment existing program Recycling should augment the success that has been attained by other groups operating recycling programs. It is very important for planning and success.

6. set goals and objectives Waste stream assessment helps in deciding long term goals for a community. Objectives component that should be recycled. Investigate the curbside feasibility that is the material which can be segregated from waste at the origin (glass, metals etc.) by keeping separate containers. Benefits will be obtained from carefully developed achievable goals and objectives.

7. Coordinate the program Recycling program is considered a public service. Thus the local Govt. is required to ensure that all services are provided properly. Recycling program should be consistent, predictable, equitable and efficient.

8.Evaluate the program planning Continuous evaluation of program planning makes it an ongoing process. The best recycling program experiment with new technologies to improve on their current efforts.