Satellite Communications

Fahad Faraz Ahmad Reg#2009-ee-470

• Basics of Satcom • Working of Satellite • Modulation Schemes • Types & services • VSAT & GPS • Frequency Bands • Satellite Communication Organizations

. • It contains several transponders which listens to some portion of spectrum.What is Satellite? • Satellite is a large microwave repeater in the space. amplifies the incoming signal and broadcasts it in another frequency.

Satellite Control Center  OCC .Major Parts: • Altitude and Orbit Control System  rocket to move satellite back to the correct orbit  keep antennas point toward earth • Operation center  TTC & M  SSC .Satellite Control Facility • Power system  electrical power from solar cells • Communication subsystem  one or more antennas and a set of receivers and transmitters (transponders) .Operations Control Center  SCF .

This is called a Uplink. • The satellite Transponder converts the signal and sends it down to the second earth station. . This is called a Downlink.How do Satellites Work? • Use a satellite as a relay station. • One Earth Station sends a transmission to the satellite.

Transponders • • • • Repeaters Carried by Communications Satellites Low Noise Amplifier(LNA) Heterodyning (frequency changing) High Power Amplifier(HPA) .

Factors in satellite communication • Elevation Angle: The angle of the horizontal of the earth surface to the center line of the satellite transmission beam. • Coverage Angle: A measure of the portion of the earth surface visible to a satellite taking the minimum elevation angle into account. .

Other Factors:  Propagation Delay  Free Space Loss  Satellite Footprint  Atmospheric Attenuation  Atmospheric absorption  Traveling ionospheric disturbances  Cloud attenuation  Rain attenuation .

Propagation Delay: .

Modulation schemes: .

Mobile Service Satellites (MSS) • Example: Satellite Phones .Satellite communication services: Fixed Service Satellites (FSS) • Example: Point to Point Communication Broadcast Service Satellites (BSS) • Example: Satellite Television/Radio • Also called Direct Broadcast Service (DBS).

Types of Satellite based Networks  GEO – Geostationary Orbits  36.000 km above Earth  Commercial and military satellites  Three satellite are used for whole earth coverage  MEO – Medium Earth Orbits  From 5000 to 15000 km  Navigation satellites (GPS)  LEO – Low Earth Orbits  500 to 1000 km above Earth  Military intelligence satellites. weather satellites  HEO – High Elliptical Orbits  Satellite Handover .

• Ideal for centralized networks with a central host (Banking institutions with branches all over the country).VSAT Network • At the Very Small Aperture Terminal a lower performance microwave transceiver and lower gain dish antenna (smaller size) is used. • Star configuration • Mesh configuration • Use the ALOHA and TDMA for communication .

VSAT Network Component: • A VSAT network has three components: A central hub (MES) The satellite A Number of VSAT earth stations in various locations across a country or continent .

.Global Positioning System(GPS) • GPS is a space-based satellite navigation system that provides location and time information in all weather. anywhere on or near the Earth • 6 orbit and 24 or more GPS satellites • It is maintained by the United States government • Freely accessible to anyone with a GPS receiver.

Basic concept of GPS • A GPS receiver calculates its position by precisely timing the signals sent by GPS satellites high above the Earth. Each satellite continually transmits messages that include  the time the message was transmitted  satellite position at time of message transmission .

Components of GPS: • The current GPS consists of three major segments  Space segment (SS)  Control segment (CS)  User segment (US) .

.  the available satellite channel bandwidth is broken into frequency bands for different earth stations.MAC(Media Access Control) protocols for satellite links • ALOHA:  Every station can transmit any time  Very low efficiency 18.36 %. • FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access):  It is the oldest and most common.

 Requires time synchronization between the Earth Stations.• TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) :  Each earth station gets to transmit in a fixed time slot only. .  It provides a decentralized way of providing separate channels without timing synchronization. • CDMA : (Code Division Multiple Access)  Combination of time/frequency multiplexing ( a form of spread spectrum modulation).

5 GHz  Ka –Band: 17 to 31 GHz. ex: military and meteorological satellites  Ku –Band: 12 to 14. used by MSS  S-Band: 2 to 4 GHz. used by MSS.5 GHz. used by FSS  X-Band: 8 to 12.Frequency Bands • Different kinds of satellites use different frequency bands. used by FSS and in terrestrial imaging. The Ka and Ku bands are reserved exclusively for satellite communication but are subject to rain attenuation . deep space research  C-Band: 4 to 8 GHz.  L–Band: 1 to 2 GHz. NASA.

.  Transmission cost of a satellite is independent of the distance from the center of the coverage area.Advantages of Satellite Communication: • The advantages of satellite communication over terrestrial communication are:  The coverage area of a satellite greatly exceeds that of a terrestrial system.  Satellite to Satellite communication is very precise.  Higher Bandwidths are available for use.

.Disadvantages of Satellite communication: • The disadvantages of satellite communication:  Launching satellites into orbit is costly.  There is a larger propagation delay in satellite communication than in terrestrial communication.  Satellite bandwidth is gradually becoming used up.

“INTELSAT.Satellite communication Organizations ITSO • previously known by the acronym. .” • global cooperation in satellite communications ESA • ESA is responsible for developing new technology for European space industries for the field of satellite communications NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS • National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) • Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency(JAEA) • China National Space Administration(CNSA) • etc.

Thank you .