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30th June 2005

KEMENTERIAN

LANDFILLS: REMEDIATION OF
LINGKUNGAN HIDUP

FORMER DUMPSITES
PEMERINTAH DAERAH
NANGGROE ACEH DARUSSALAM

AND

DESIGN OF ENGINEERED
LANDFILLS
Hari Srinivas
Chief of Urban Environmental Management Unit
International Environmental Technology Centre
United Nations Environment Programme
2-110, Ryokuchi Koen, Tsurumi-ku,
Osaka 538-0036, Japan
Landfills: Remediation of Former Dumpsites and
Design of Engineered Landfills

PRESENTATION STRUCTURE
KEMENTERIAN
LINGKUNGAN HIDUP

PART 1
Close an Open Dumpsite in an Environmentally
PEMERINTAH DAERAH
NANGGROE ACEH DARUSSALAM
Sound Manner, including Rehabilitation and
Redevelopment

PART 2
Shifting from Open Dumping to Controlled
Dumping and to Sanitary Landfilling
Landfills: Remediation of Former Dumpsites and
Design of Engineered Landfills

PRESENTATION SOURCE
KEMENTERIAN
LINGKUNGAN HIDUP

• This presentation is taken from training


materials prepared by UNEP’s International
Environmental Technology Center
PEMERINTAH DAERAH
NANGGROE ACEH DARUSSALAM

• The full training modules, containing Parts 1


and 2, are available for download from IETC’s
website at:

http://www.unep.or.jp/download/Session7_Hari.pdf
Landfills: Remediation of Former Dumpsites and
Design of Engineered Landfills

PART 1
KEMENTERIAN
LINGKUNGAN HIDUP

Close an Open Dumpsite in an


Environmentally Sound Manner,
PEMERINTAH DAERAH

including Rehabilitation and


NANGGROE ACEH DARUSSALAM

Redevelopment
Landfills: Remediation of Former Dumpsites and
Design of Engineered Landfills

1. Planning for Closure


KEMENTERIAN
LINGKUNGAN HIDUP • Planning is essential to closing open
dumpsites, with clear goals and objectives:
• Define roles and responsibilities of affected groups.
PEMERINTAH DAERAH

• Investigate existing conditions, characteristics,


NANGGROE ACEH DARUSSALAM

composition
• Draw up practical options or alternatives to meet the
objectives
• Develop a closure plan
• Identify end-use options
• Ascertain legislation, EIA, local environment (water
Landfills: Remediation of Former Dumpsites and
Design of Engineered Landfills

2. Elements of a Closure Plan


KEMENTERIAN

Elements of a Closure Plan include:


LINGKUNGAN HIDUP

• stabilization of steep slopes to prevent


erosion/slippage
PEMERINTAH DAERAH
NANGGROE ACEH DARUSSALAM • implementation of leachate and gas management
systems
• design of the final cover (influences gas and
leachate system)
• prevent future illegal dumping at the site
• arrangements for informal settlers (if any)
• installation of monitoring wells
• prevention of unauthorized access to the closed
site.
Landfills: Remediation of Former Dumpsites and
Design of Engineered Landfills

3. Post Closure Management

• Decomposition of organic waste produces


KEMENTERIAN
LINGKUNGAN HIDUP

leachate and landfill gas (CH4, CO2, trace


components).
PEMERINTAH DAERAH
NANGGROE ACEH DARUSSALAM
• Therefore, a post closure plan allows for
continued maintenance and monitoring of the
site for at least ten years.
• Revenue: Who pays for post-closure plans?
Landfills: Remediation of Former Dumpsites and
Design of Engineered Landfills

4. Related costs
KEMENTERIAN

• Closing a disposal site entails costs


LINGKUNGAN HIDUP

• Expenditures for closure cover capital


PEMERINTAH DAERAH
NANGGROE ACEH DARUSSALAM and operational expenses:
• Capital expenses: final cover materials,
drainage, leachate and gas management
systems, and relocation of informal settlers,
among others.
• Operational expenses: rental of equipment and
manpower requirements, including post closure
management.
Landfills: Remediation of Former Dumpsites and
Design of Engineered Landfills

5. Afteruses of dumpsites
KEMENTERIAN
LINGKUNGAN HIDUP
• A closed dumpsite may later be used as a
green area, recreation area, or for
construction purposes.
PEMERINTAH DAERAH

• Factors to be considered: differential


NANGGROE ACEH DARUSSALAM

settlement, bearing capacity, gaseous


emissions, and corrosion of metals/concrete.
• Because open dumpsites are unplanned and
haphazardly operated, the practical beneficial
afteruses are often limited.
Landfills: Remediation of Former Dumpsites and
Design of Engineered Landfills

5. Remediation/Clean-up
KEMENTERIAN
LINGKUNGAN HIDUP • Required when problems develop at a closed
dumpsite: severe leachate leakage, waste
slippage and exposure, or fires/uncontrolled
PEMERINTAH DAERAH
NANGGROE ACEH DARUSSALAM burning and explosions. Dumpsites also see
low temperature combustion, dioxins etc.
• Causes: improper and/or inadequate closure
and post closure procedures.
• Solutions (expensive!): excavations,
groundwater isolation, soil washing, and use of
microorganisms.
Landfills: Remediation of Former Dumpsites and
Design of Engineered Landfills

PART 2
KEMENTERIAN
LINGKUNGAN HIDUP

Shifting from Open


Dumping to Controlled
PEMERINTAH DAERAH
NANGGROE ACEH DARUSSALAM

Dumping and to
Engineered Landfilling
Landfills: Remediation of Former Dumpsites and
Design of Engineered Landfills

1. Upgrading Open Dumps


KEMENTERIAN • Open burning
OPEN
LINGKUNGAN HIDUP

• Scavenging
DUMP • No pollution measures
Increase in …
PEMERINTAH DAERAH

Technology
NANGGROE ACEH DARUSSALAM

• Controlled access
Density
CONTROLLED
LANDFILL Cost

• Lined cells
ENGINEERED • Dump cover
LANDFILL • Leachate and gas control
Landfills: Remediation of Former Dumpsites and
Design of Engineered Landfills

1. Upgrading Open Dumps


KEMENTERIAN
LINGKUNGAN HIDUP

• Upgrading an Open Dump to a Controlled

Landfill requires proper planning


PEMERINTAH DAERAH
NANGGROE ACEH DARUSSALAM
• Site assessment has to be conducted first: Is

the site convertible to a controlled dump?

• If conversion is not practical, a new site will

have to be identified and developed.


Landfills: Remediation of Former Dumpsites and
Design of Engineered Landfills

Upgrading Open Dumps … contd 2

• Development of a controlled landfill on a new site


KEMENTERIAN
LINGKUNGAN HIDUP

has to comply with several criteria, specifically


siting and design requirements.
PEMERINTAH DAERAH
NANGGROE ACEH DARUSSALAM • Controlled dumps have minimal infrastructure
requirements (e.g. no liner with required
permeability)
• Sites need to have suitable hydrogeologic
conditions
• Preparation: provision of adequate gradient,
minimal compaction of the soil, and the construction
of drainage management systems.
Landfills: Remediation of Former Dumpsites and
Design of Engineered Landfills

Upgrading Open Dumps … contd 3

KEMENTERIAN

• Conversion of an open dump into a controlled


LINGKUNGAN HIDUP

landfill means that disposal will be on a site


previously used for open dumping.
• Preparation needed:
PEMERINTAH DAERAH
NANGGROE ACEH DARUSSALAM

• leveling and compacting existing garbage heaps


• construction of drainage canals/ditches
• Other actions.
Landfills: Remediation of Former Dumpsites and
Design of Engineered Landfills

Upgrading Open Dumps … contd 4

KEMENTERIAN
LINGKUNGAN HIDUP
• Prescribed operational procedures:
• Limiting the working face area and height
• Controlled filling
• Application of daily cover
PEMERINTAH DAERAH
NANGGROE ACEH DARUSSALAM
• Installation of litter barrier
• Others, including use of bulldozer/compactor

• Other monitoring procedures needed:


• Monitoring for incoming waste volumes/quality
• No hazardous wastes – asbestos, oils
• Chemical wastes in specific cells
• Water quality
• Condition of drainage systems
• Others
Landfills: Remediation of Former Dumpsites and
Design of Engineered Landfills

2. Controlled  Engineered
KEMENTERIAN
LINGKUNGAN HIDUP • Shifting from Controlled Dumping to Sanitary
Landfilling is the most demanding:
• An EIA has to be carried out
• Financial resources, technology, and expertise are
needed.
PEMERINTAH DAERAH
NANGGROE ACEH DARUSSALAM

• Thorough planning and design, from inception to


planned afteruse is also needed.
• Siting, design, construction and operation
requirements are much broader and more stringent
than other modes of land disposal.
• Properly engineered landfills have the least
potential impact on public health and the
environment as compared to open dumpsites or
controlled disposal facilities.
Landfills: Remediation of Former Dumpsites and
Design of Engineered Landfills

3. Cost of Waste Disposal


KEMENTERIAN

• Waste disposal cost can be categorized into capital


LINGKUNGAN HIDUP

and operating costs.


• Capital Costs: costs for land acquisition, machinery
PEMERINTAH DAERAH

and equipment; designers/consultants fees; site


NANGGROE ACEH DARUSSALAM

preparation and construction; and closure and post


closure requirements.
• Operational costs: daily operational requirements of
the facility, including salaries, maintenance costs, and
others. These are generally recovered through tipping
fees. Some regulatory costs may also be involved.
Landfills: Remediation of Former Dumpsites and
Design of Engineered Landfills

4. Public Participation
KEMENTERIAN

• The involvement of communities essential to the


LINGKUNGAN HIDUP

project’s realization and success.


• Need to involve those who will be affected by the
project.
PEMERINTAH DAERAH
NANGGROE ACEH DARUSSALAM

• Need to involve all stakeholders right from the siting


process up to the post closure phase.
• Otherwise, problems may occur during the facility’s
construction and operation, or the project may not be
completed due to public opposition.