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Hormones and nutrient partitioning

Dr. Mark Meade

Metabolism and nutrients

Nutrients will be used for certain metabolic processes depending on an animals needs
Homeostasis maintenance of normal body

conditions Homeorhesis coordination of metabolic needs based on support of dominant physiological processes (e.g., early growth, pregnancy, lactation)

Control of nutrient utilization

Nutrient utilization controlled by metabolic pathways and metabolites themselves but are primarily controlled by hormones
Hormone a chemical messenger produced in

the body by one tissue that effects the actions of other tissues Many hormones involved in partitioning the use of energy to those areas where its needed in the body

Insulin and Glucagon


Produced by (glucagon) and (insulin) cells of pancreas Insulin released in response to high blood glucose

Also in response to glucagon, GH, and gastric

inhibitory peptide (glucose-dependent insulin-releasing peptide)

Glucagon released in response to low blood glucose

Insulin

Overall, makes sure cells can take up nutrients (glucose)


Increases rate of uptake of glucose by liver, muscle and

fat cells Stimulates glycogenesis (formation of new glucose) Stimulates release of fatty acids from liver and fat Stimulates uptake of amino acids by liver and muscle

Abnormalities associated with insulin


Diabetes mellitus (type I) associated with a loss of cells in pancreas (autoimmune) Diabetes mellitus (type II) associated with defective signal reception for insulin

Both lead to hyperglycemia, glycosuria, and

reduced stores of lipids and proteins

Growth Hormone (GH or somatotropin)

Produced by anterior pituitary Release controlled by two hypothalamic neurohormones


GH releasing hormone (GRH) GH inhibiting hormone (GIH or somatostatin)

Blood glucose can effect release of hypothalamic hormones

GH

Increases blood glucose by


Stimulating gluconeogenesis Blocking glucose uptake by tissues other than

nervous system Promotes utilization of fatty acids as an energy source Promotes use of other substrates than glucose

GH functions

Promotes RNA and protein synthesis Promotes growth of bone and cartilage Promotes growth by increasing cell numbers

Response to GH

Depends on age of animal


Neonatal mammal is insensitive

Stimulates liver to produce other growthpromoting factors (insulin-like growth factors)

GH abnormalities
Gigantism caused by hypersecretion of GH before puberty Acromegaly caused by hypersecretion of GH after puberty Dwarfism caused by by hyposecretion of GH during childhood and adolescence

IGF

Insulin-like growth factors


Many different forms produced by many tissues IGF-I produced by liver

IGF-I mediates the effects of GH on tissues Helps GH cause muscle growth Independently reduces uptake of glucose by fat cells

Catecholamines and Glucocorticoids

Adrenal gland hormones


Catecholamine

adrenal medulla (ectodermal origin) Glucocorticoids adrenal cortex (mesodermal origin)

Chromaffin cells

(modified postganglionic sympathetic neurons)

Synthesis and release of catecholamines

Both a neurotransmitter and hormone Involved in famed fight or flight response As a hormone, acts to:

Cause contraction/relaxation of smooth muscle Stimulate glycolysis and lipolysis Increase heart rate and contraction Known to increase muscle production and decrease stored lipid

Chromaffin cells

Found with steroidogenic tissues in mammals


Significance is steroidogenic tissue induces

production of more epi than nor-epi

Found as separate tissue in other vertebrates (e.g., fishes)

Epi and Nor-epi release

Chromaffin cells stimulated by action of preganglionic sympathetic nerves

Pos and Neg feedback

Release of epi causes more blood flow to adrenals and thus more release of epi (pos) Release of nor-epi inhibits further release of norepi (neg) ATP (in secretory granules) reduces calcium influx and thus inhibits release (neg) Hypoxia can also stimulate release of catecholamines (pos)

Effects of catecholamines

Many effects depending on the type of adrenergic receptors (adrenoreceptors)


-increase metabolic rate and blood flow

- increase blood glucose and fatty acid conentrations

Also stimulate protein synthesis in muscle and lipolysis in adipose (fat) tissue Thus stimulation of receptors will enhance growth Ractopamine a agonist used in pigs and cattle to stimulate increased muscle

Glucocorticoids

Released from adrenal cortex when stimulated by the anterior pituitary hormone ACTH 3 categories actually secreted
Glucocorticoids Mineralcorticoids Reproductive hormones

Glucocorticoids

Cortisol Cortisone corticosterone

CRH release

Glucocorticoid levels highest in morning Starvation Stress

Glucocorticoid effects

Liver
Promotes gluconeogenesis

Fat cells
Release fatty acids (direct source of energy)

Muscle cells
Lose amino acids (opposite the effects of

catecholamines)

Also stimulate gastric secretion, inhibit immune response

Thyroid hormones

Cells (follicles) of thyroid are stimulated by TSH from anterior pituitary Two major thyroid hormones
3,5,3-triiodothyronine (T3) Thyroxine (T4)

Steroid-like hormones which have long lasting effects on target cells

Effects of thyroid hormones on target tissues

Causes organs to be more sensitive to epinephrine, stimulating cellular respiration, oxygen consumption, and metabolic rate Affect development and maturation of some mammals (protein synthesis)
Only in presence of GH

Thyroid abnormalities

Cretinism (humans) results from hypothyroidism (lack of dietary iodine)


Somatic, neural, and sexual development

Metabolic rate reduced


Immune responses limited Hypothalamus continues to secrete TSH and

causes thyroid gland to hypertrophy (goiter)

Leptin

A hormone produced by fat tissue A satiety hormone that plays role in regulating appetite.
Acts as a body fat sensor Increased in body when fats high thus decreasing appetite Decreased in body when fats low thus increasing appetite

Regulation of milk production

Can require huge amounts of energy and animal will sacrifice nutrients to make sure lactation occurs properly Controlled by GH, IGF-I, and estrogen (an ovary hormone) in ruminants Controlled by prolactin (another pituitary hormone) and estrogen in non-ruminants Insulin may have some stimulatory effect since it results in glucose availabiltiy Glucocorticoids may inhibit lactation Thyroid hormones may also stimulate lactation