whether that knowledge aids in construction of theory or in the practice of an art. concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalizing to extend. Stephenson.Meaning Of Research According to Redman and Mory. “Research is the manipulation of things.” .” According to M. “ Research is a systematized effort to gain new knowledge . correct or verify knowledge.

Objectives Of Research  To gain familiarity or achieve new insights on a phenomena (exploratory/ formulative) To portray characteristics of a situation/ group/ individual (descriptive) To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else (diagnostic/ clinical) To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between given variables (Hypothesis-testing)    .

Motivation in Research      Desire to get a research degree along with its consequential benefits. . Desire to be of service to society. Desire to get intellectual joy of doing some creative work. Desire to face the challenge in solving the unsolved problems. Desire to get respectability.

Empirical One-time or Longitudinal Historical Research .Types Of Research       Descriptive vs. Analytical Applied vs. Fundamental Quantitative vs. Qualitative Conceptual vs.

Research Approaches  o o o Quantitative Approach Inferential Approach Experimental Approach Simulation Approach Qualitative Approach  .

Significance Of Research  It inculcates scientific and inductive thinking. The role of research in several fields of applied economics has greatly increased today.    It helps in solving various operational and planning problems of business and industry. It helps in studying social relationships.  . It provides the basis for nearly all government policies in our economic system.

.Research Methods versus Methodology Research methods refer to the methods the researchers use in performing research operations where as In Research methodology. we not only talk of the research methods but also consider the logic behind the methods we use in the context of our research study and explain why we are using a particular method or technique so that the results are capable of being evaluated.

It will inculcate the ability to evaluate and use research results with reasonable confidence. It helps us to take rational decisions.Importance of Knowing How Research is Done  It helps in developing disciplined thinking or a „bent of mind‟ to observe the field objectively.    . It gives us the satisfaction of acquiring a new intellectual tool which can become a way of looking at the world and of judging everyday experience.

Research Process  Formulating the research problem Extensive literature survey Development of working hypothesis    Preparing the research design .

 Determining sample design o o o o o o o o Deliberate Sampling Simple random sampling Systematic sampling Stratified sampling Quota sampling Cluster sampling Multi-stage sampling Sequential sampling .

 Collecting the data o o o o o By observation Through personal interview Through telephone interviews By mailing of questionnaires Through schedules  Execution of the project  Analysis of data .

 Hypothesis-testing Generalizations and interpretation Preparation of the report or the thesis o   o o o Introduction Summary of findings Main report Conclusion .


Criteria of Good Research  Clearly defined purpose Procedure should be described in sufficient detail Carefully planned design    Researcher should report with complete frankness. .

 Adequate analysis of data Proper conclusions Experienced researcher Systematic research     Logical research Empirical research   Replicable research .

Problems Encountered by Researchers in India  Lack of scientific training Insufficient interaction   Lack of confidence Overlapping research studies No code of conduct for researchers   .

 Difficulty of adequate and timely secretarial assistance Unsatisfactory library management and functioning at many places Difficulty of timely availability of published data Problem of conceptualization    .

End of Topic .

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