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Synthetic biology

Anurag Adhikari 6th Semester B.Tech Biotechnology White House Institute of Science & Technology Khumalter,Lalitpur, Nepal
Ph: 977-01-5537852/977-01-5536741

email: adhikari_anurag13@yahoo.com

Acknowledgement
I would like to express my very great appreciation to Mr. Sishir Sharma for his valuable and constructive suggestions during the planning and development of this work. My grateful thanks are also extended to my friends for their help and motivations.

Research Associate School of Biotechnology White House Institute of Science & Technology Khumaltar, Lalitpur

Content
Introduction Conventional biotechnology Synthetic biology XNAs Potential paradigm Biological Paradox Innovation blog Reference
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What is Synthetic Biology?


In simple words , making biological entities in laboratory rather than in nature Like Biomolecules Biophysical components Enzymes Genetic system And all other which are used to make a LIFE
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Is life possible without DNA/RNA ?

DNA

RNA

Protein

There is a saying , Scientist discovers those which are already present in nature but an Engineer makes those which never existed before.

Conventional Biotechnology
What were studying is the conventional biotech Conventional biotechnology is limited to; Genomics Proteomics Metabolomics and its optimized clones But Synthetic biotechnology will provide; All above and The engineered precursor of basicsi.e Stem cell for the above three..(analogy)

What weve learned on conventional biotech?


Life operates on harmony with genetic system

and the environment Products from Central dogma shapes up life From disease to disorders different switch system in vivo or in vitro are responsible Mother nature has provided tools and source to exploit the limitation of life
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But what if..


We no longer need source itself There are things beyond genomics and environment We can make products in such a way that was never made before There is a whole new system of life ahead of us
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And answer lies in Synthetic biology..

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It is now possible to digitize biology by converting the A, C, T, and G's of the chemical makeup of DNA into 1's and 0's in a computer.

But can we reverse the process and start with 1's and 0's in a computer to define the Life??
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Cynthia (Synthetic Cell)

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BioBricks: Registry of Standard Biological Parts

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Uses of Synthetic biology


Energy custom-built microbes and fuels artificial photosynthesis. Medicine drugs vaccines and diagnostic agents creation of new tissue.
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Environment pollution and ozone Chemical industry novel chemicals synthetic fibres. Agriculture novel food additives.

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Story
Bank prints 100$
Now Ive 100$

I can buy a Black & White TV But I cant buy LED TV

So can I say 100$ is not for LED TV? 100$ codes Black & white TV Is this clear?
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In central Dogma
DNA : ..GGCAAATTGGC..

Has mRNA:

..UUU

We know UUU codes for Phenylanaline(not other)

I cant get Lysine for UUU..can i?

Just as the case , for 100$ i cant get LED TV.

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Again back to story..


Let me suppose I have coins making 100$..

Hundred 1$ coin

I can still buy Black & White TV

Though Ive changed the source naturei.e Paper/ Coin

Theme: Despite of changing source overall result is same


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Recent achievement on Synthetic Biology..

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Xeno Nucleic Acid(XNAs)


Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology , UK Philip Holliger and his group made XNAs These nucleic acid consisted same base but different Pentose sugar other than; Deoxyribose and Ribose

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Its like finding a new planet Earth..

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What is XNA?
New genetic information carrier
Existing Polymerases dont work in this Total new system of enzyme needed Life can be regulated with it
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100$ Mechanism
Paper money can be counted in

XNA Mechanism

XNA cant be read on natural polymerases

But coin cant be count in this

Thats why I need an alternate machine to count coin

Thats why it needs new set of enzymes to work

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Some of the possibilitiesremember its only some..


Gene therapy Pharmacogenomics

Human health
XNAs Origin and Evolution

Genetic precursor

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Biological Paradox

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Is it possible?
Benzene

Adenine

Guanine Cytosine Thymine

Phenol

Nitrobenzene

Aniline

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So does that means were not learning genomics but its Avatar.. What would you imagine about an Escherichia coli which has genetic code made of 6 letters..

What about the Alien amino acid salvage pathway From our existing genetic code there is possibility of alternate source of life , then what would this Xna bring to us..
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Then what will happen to these?

Transcription

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Innovation Blog

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Einstein, Bohr & DNA


1. Youngs double slit experiment

2. Duality of Nature: Answer to Junk DNA

3. Space and time fabrics around cell system 4. Not predetermined state , but working state depends with Relative to Observer

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Problem of Ethical consideration can be solved.. DNA can be regarded as the coincidence for the hereditary phenomenon If you provide mechano-bio procedure for providing A.A then no need of Central dogma Can be used to artificially expand the genetic code
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Reference:

Royal Society (2008a). Synthetic biology scientific discussion meeting summary. Available at www.royalsoc. org; additional information is available at the Royal Societys Synthetic Biology resource at www.royalsociety.org/page.asp?id=7493 Weber, W, Stelling, J, Rimann, M, et al. (2007b). A synthetic time-delay circuit in mammalian cells and mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104, 26432648 Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Health Council of the Netherlands and the Advisory Council on Health Research (2008). Synthetic biology: creating opportunities. Report number 2008/19E. Available at www.knaw.nl/cfdata/publications/results_zoeken.cfm
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Thank you
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Any questions?

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