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CONTENTS:

1) BASIC CONCEPTS PRESSURE

2) PRESSURE STANDARDS, PRINCIPLES AND CORRECTION FACTORS DEADWEIGHT PISTON GAUGES MANOMETERS BAROMETERS McLEOD GAUGES

The standard SI unit is the Pascal (Pa) which is equivalent to one N/m2.PRESSURE What is fluid pressure? Pressure is a force per unit area exerted by a fluid perpendicularly (say normal) to a boundary (as opposed to shear stress. which is exerted parallel to the boundary) p= dF/dA A more precise term is hydrostatic pressure A fluid can be either a gas or a liquid. .

Gauge pressure Differential pressure. .Different categories of pressure measurement Absolute pressure.

Different types of fluid systems Static systems and Dynamic systems .

In mechanics. pressure is molecular kinetic energy per unit volume p= 2 KE/3 V In thermodynamics pressure is work per unit volume p= δW+δF/dV . pressure is specific weight times height dp= -w dh In kinetics. pressure is force per unit area p=dF/dA In hydraulics.

PRESSURE STANDARDS. PRINCIPLE AND CORRECTIONS TYPES OF PRESSURE STANDARDS DEADWEIGHT PISTON GAUGE MANOMETERS BAROMETERS McLEOD GAUGES .

When the piston is floating freely within the cylinder. the piston gauge is in equilibrium with the unknown system pressure . . Fluid pressure is then applied to the other end of the piston until enough force is developed to lift the piston-weight combination.DEADWEIGHT PISTON GAUGE Gauge under test Oil Reservoir Piston Principle: Check valve High pressure hydraulic gauge A number of masses of known weight are first loaded on one end of the free piston.

000 Psig Calibration uncertainty : 0.01 to 10.This pressure is given by the equation pDW = FE/AE Where FE force execrated by the weights (depend upon the local gravity and buoyancy) AE area of the piston-cylinder combination Range of pressures : 0.05% of the reading .01 to 0.

Corrections: Two correction factors are applied to the pressure pI indicated by the deadweight piston gauge 1) Air buoyancy correction factor – The buoyant force of air causes the gauge to indicate too high pressure Ctb= .637 x 10-3 cos2Ø + 9.6x10-8 h + 5x10-5 Corrected deadweight piston gauge pressure is pDW= pI (1 + Ctb + Cg) .(wair/wweights) 2) Gravity.gravity differs due to latitude or altitude variations Cg= (glocal/gstandard-1) = -(2.

The difference between unknown pressure and the reference pressure is balanced by the weight per unit area of the equivalent displaced manometer liquid column .MANOMETER a a b b c c Principle: One end of the tube is connected to reference fluid pressure and other end of the tube is connected to unknown pressure. These two fluids exerts pressure on the manometer fluid.

The difference in pressure is given by the equation ∆pman = wM ∆hE Where wM corrected specific weight of manometer liquid (depend upon the temp & local gravity) ∆hE equivalent manometer fluid height (depends upon the scale variations with temp. relative specific weights and heights of the fluid and capillary effects) .

1 to 100 Psig Calibration uncertainty : 0. mercury • To measure pressure differential in air pipes.02 to 0.2% of the reading . gas pipes Range of pressures : 0. water.• Measure the differential pressure across two points •Positive pressure •Negative pressure (vacuum) • The liquid-column manometer is the oldest type: a Ushaped tube half-full of liquid • Liquid: oil. water pipes.

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variations specific weights of mercury and water due to temperature variations ∆pman = wM ∆hE 2) Gravity correction factor- Wc .Corrections: 1)Temperature correction factor.is corrected specific weight Wst -is standard specific weight of a fluid .

3) hydraulic correction factor.Applied to manometer fluids (mercury and water) The final equation will become ∆pman = wM ∆hE = ws.t (1+Cg) (Ch ∆hI ±Cc) .Applied to manometer indication ∆hI associated with the relative specific weights and heights of the fluids involved 4) Capillary correction factor.

BAROMETER .

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Next the indicated height of the mercury column in the glass tube is Glass cylinder ambient determined (htI). at which point the mercury surface is aligned with zero on the instrument scale. vented cistern The barometric pressure is determined by the equation pbaro = wHght0 Adjusting screw Fortin Type barometer .Principle: The datum-adjusting screw is turned until the mercury in the cistern just makes contact with the ivory index.

wHg = ws.491154 lbf/in3 .wHg = referred specific weight of mercury depends upon temp.t0 = 0.t0 (1 + Cg) ws. and local gravity ht0 = referred height of mercury depends upon thermal expansion of the scale and of mercury Corrections: 1) Gravity and specific weight correction factor.gravity differs due to latitude or altitude variations and specific weights of manometer fluids varies with the temperature.

2) Temperature correction factor- .

trapping a gas sample in the measuring capillary tube C. which is used for high precision measurement of vacuum Principle: Mercury is initially contained in the volume below the cutoff level. the mercury level is then raised in tube A beyond the cutoff level. The Mcleod gauge is first exposed to the unknown gas pressure p1.McLEOD GAUGE McLeod gauge is low absolute pressure measuring instrument. . the level increases until it reaches to zero reference in the capillary tube B.

Initial volume of capillary tube C before mercury level raising V1=V+ ahc where ‘a’ is the area of a capillary tube B and C Final volume after the mercury level raised in the capillary tube C is V2 = ah The unknown pressure p1 will be calculated by using the relationships p1V1= p2V2 And If ah<<<V1 p1= ah2/V1-ah p1=ah2/V1 Range of pressures to above 0.1µm .5% above 1 µm to 3% at 0.01µm : 1mm of Hg above absolute zero Calibration uncertainty : 0.

Comparison of standard pressure instruments .

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