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How things get in and out of Cells
Transportation is defined as… the movement of materials in or out of a cell…… or the movement of materials throughout an organism…. example: transportation could be the movement of oxygen into a cell and the movement of carbon dioxide out of a cell…..
What is Brownian Movement?
• Albert Einstein observed the movement of small particles in water. He realized that the particles moved because they were being bombarded by moving water molecules. He later, in one of his first scientific papers, postulated that every particle in a fluid is in constant motion. This constant movement, first observed by Robert Brown, is called Brownian Movement.
Therefore.500 mph All molecules exhibit some kind of motion. @ 70 degrees Fahrenheit air molecules are traveling at 1. Absolute Zero – temperature at which all motion stops…absolute zero is -459 Fahrenheit…. Welcome to Bruno’s world!! . all molecules have temperature. An increase in temperature is actually an increase in the speed of the molecules….How Temperature affects the motion of molecules Temperature is defined as the average transitional velocity (speed) of the molecules in a system.
Permeability • The Plasma Membrane is semi-permeable ( also referred as “selectively permeable” ). and restricts the passage of some materials in or out of the cell.Semi. • A selectively permeable membrane allows the passage of some materials in or out of a cell. .
Solutions • Cells are filled and surrounded by many solutions. Solutions are composed of solutes and a solvent. • Solute + Solvent Substance to be dissolved The Dissolver Solution Salt + Water Saltwater .
Bulk Flow • The movement of some materials is referred to as “Bulk Flow”. • Blood moving through a blood vessel is “bulk flow”. . Bulk flow is the collective movement of substances in the same direction in response to a force or pressure.
2 Types of Cell Transportation Passive Transport * Materials flow down the concentration gradient. * The cell does not use any energy. Active Transport * Movement of solutes against a concentration gradient. * Requires that the cell use energy. .
The 3 most common types of Passive Transport are: 1. * The cell does not use any energy.Passive Transport Solutes flow down the concentration gradient. Osmosis 3. Facilitated Diffusion . Diffusion 2.
flow from high concentration to low concentration. or region. or region. . The overall direction of the movement is referred to as the Gradient.. Molecules usually move “down the concentration gradient”.. Eventually a state of “equilibrium” is reached where molecules are uniformly distributed but continue to move randomly...Simple Diffusion Diffusion is the flow of substances from an area. of greater molecular concentration to an area. of lesser molecular concentration.
Simple Diffusion Direction of Diffusion Down the Concentration Gradient High Concentration of solutes Low Concentration of solutes .
Isotonic 2. Or. Hypertonic 3. Hypotonic . The environments are classified as: 1.Osmosis The Diffusion of water across a membrane • All living cells must be surrounded by Water. • These water environments are classified as by the concentration of solutes in the solution.
water diffuses into and out of the cell at equal rates. the concentration of solutes outside and inside the cell are equal. ** Under these conditions. .Isotonic Environment ** In an Isotonic solution. so there is NO Net Movement of Water.
.Hypertonic Environment • Concentration of solutes is greater outside the cell than inside the cell. 97% Water 95% Water 5% solute 3% solute • Water will move outside the cell… the cell will shrink and die.
or burst. and die.Hypotonic Environment • Concentration of solutes is greater inside the cell than outside the cell. . 95% Water 97% Water 3% solute 5% solute • Water will move inside the cell… the cell will swell.
Glucose moves in and out of cells through facilitated diffusion. .Facilitated Diffusion • The diffusion of solutes through channel proteins in the plasma membrane.
Pressure • Force (push) exerted on a surface as it is bombarded by moving particles. • The amount of pressure can be determined using the following formula: Pressure = Force Area .
Osmotic Pressure If there are solute molecules only in one side of the system. . then the pressure that stops the flow of the solutes is called the osmotic pressure.
The term dialysis is usually used when different solutes are separated by a selectively permeable membrane.Dialysis • The diffusion of solutes across a selectively permeable membrane. .
especially in plant cells with central water vacuoles. Normal cells Plasmolyzed Cells .Plasmolysis • Movement of water out of a cell that results in the collapse of the cell.
Turgor Pressure Internal pressure applied to a cell wall when water moves by osmosis out of the cell. Plasmolysis is the loss of Turgor Pressure… therefore the cell collapses. The pressure pushes the plasma membrane against the cell wall. .
Countercurrent Exchange • Diffusion of substances between two regions in which substances are moving by bulk flow in opposite directions. Oxygen Flow .
the faster they diffuse… the slower the molecules move. • Concentration – the larger the population of solutes. or decrease pressure…. You can affect the rate and direction of flow. . the greater the chance of random access through a membrane. • Pressure – as you increase. the slower they diffuse.Factors which affect the rate of Passive Transport • Temperature – the faster the molecules move.
Active Transport *Solutes flow against the concentration gradient.) Pinocytosis d.) Receptor-mediated . Exocytosis 2. * The cell uses energy….ATP.) Phagocytosis c. Endocytosis a. *Requires Transport Proteins Types of Active Transport are: 1.) Special Transport b.
during Special Transport. ions need to be transported by Special Transport. their electron number is not equal to their proton number.Special Transport • Ions are atoms with either a positive or negative electrical charge…. not all. against the concentration gradient. .. if necessary. Simply put….. into the cell…. The ions can even flow through like electrical charges on the plasma membrane.. ions are captured by surface proteins and pushed’ or pulled. Because they are forced. the ions can flow. • Some.
Exocytosis (exo = outside. Cyto = cell) moving substances outside the cell • Process of vesicles fusing with the plasma membrane and releasing their content to the outside of the cell. .
receptor-mediated . phagocytosis 2. ***There are three types of endocytosis 1.Endocytosis (endo = inside. pinocytosis 3. cyto = cell) Capture of substances outside the cell when the plasma membrane merges to engulf it.
such as white blood cells. Phagocytic cells.Phagocytosis (phago = to eat. attack and engulf bacteria in the manner. The plasma membrane wraps around the solid material and engulfs it. . cyto = cell) Phagocytosis occurs when undissolved solids enter a cell. forming a vesicle.
The plasma membrane closes off the channel. cyto = cell) Pinocytosis occurs when dissolved materials enter a cell. Oils enter cells through pinocytosis . encircling the liquid inside a vesicle.Pinocytosis (pino = to drink. The plasma membrane folds inward to form a channel allowing the liquid to enter.
The membrane. called ligands.Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis Molecule being ingested Receptor Protein • Occurs when specific molecules bind to specialized “receptors” (proteins) in the plasma membrane. and the specific molecules. the receptors. Ligand . fold inward forming vesicles. Hormones target special “target cells” by receptor-mediated endocytosis.
• Both exocytosis and endocytosis are types of vesicular transport. .Vesicular Transport • Vesicles are small membrane-bound macromolecules of the cell and carry materials between organelles in the cell. • Cells can use vesicles to transport large particles across the plasma membrane.
etc) Phagocytosis Large Liquids (oils) Pinocytosis Hormones Receptor-Mediated .Summary Molecule Mode of Transportation O2 Diffusion CO2 Diffusion H 2O Osmosis Glucose (C6H12O2) Facilitated Diffusion Ions Special Transport Large Solids (starch.
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