Experiences and Suggestions for Creating Shared Cyber-Infrastructure for Engineering/Design/Manufacturing

William Regli Geometric & Intelligent Computing Lab Department of Computer Science Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics College of Engineering Drexel University

Presentation Objectives
• Experiences with creating/using Cyber-Infrastructure
– National Design Repository

• Results & Lessons Learned • Suggestions regarding Cyber-Infrastructure for Engineering • Discussion

Design Repositories: Digital Libraries for Engineering

  τ s = M(θ) ⋅  + V(θ, θ) + G(θ) + F(θ, θ) θ

Engineering Digital Libraries with CAD models, assemblies, process plans, revisions, S-B-F models, project information and workflows, design rationale, design history, records of collaborative activity... [Regli & Cicirello, JCAD 2000]

Historical Context
• Data is at the heart of fundamental science and engineering issues
– Bush’s MEMEX, Engelbart’s Augmented Intellect, H. Simon, D’Arcy Thompson, etc

• Design Repositories are not new
– Kyprianou’s goal (1980) was databases – GT is 50+ years old – Variant design much older

National Design Repository
http://www.designrepository.org http://repos.cs.drexel.edu
• • • • Over 55,000 CAD and assembly models Over 10GBs of data Many formats, both exact and visual models Contributions from all major vendors

Objectives: Provide a corpus to support research in graphics, databases, design, process planning, manufacturing…

Repository Acknowledgments
National Science Foundation (NSF)
Division for Design, Manufacture and Industrial Innovation Grant ENG/DMI-9713718 Knowledge & Distributed Intelligence (KDI) Grant CISE/IIS-9873005 Information & Data Management Program Award CISE/IIS-0136337 Early Faculty CAREER Award CISE/IIS-9733545

NIST Grant 60NANB7D0092 Office of Naval Research (ONR) Grant N00014-01-1-0618, Knowledge Repositories Additional Support provided by: National Institute of Standards and Technology, OpenCASCADE, AT&T Labs, Honeywell, UGS, Spatial Tech (Dassault), Bentley and SDRC

History & Impact
• Started at NIST in 1993; Moved to Drexel in 1997
– Initially: set of ~100 solid models of discrete parts and a couple dozen process plans

• Now a common source for CAD artifacts for SIGGRAPH, SM/SPM, SMI, JCAD, ASME DETC… • Approximately 1,000 downloads/month • Contributions from around the world, from companies • Benchmarking studies (including ours in SPM 2005) and one feature recognition competition (DETC 1997) • Used by Honeywell, Ford, Dassault, Boeing, GM … • Supported work at hundreds of universities and labs

Our Repository Research
• Objective: Archival of engineering knowledge using design and manufacturing semantics
– Represent semantics with features and formal methods (RDF, OWL, OWL-S, PSL, etc) – Capture model properties via signatures – Develop algorithmic techniques for comparison, classification, indexing, clustering and inference

• Broader scientific context
– Pattern recognition & knowledge representation

• Specific domain contexts
– CAD, graphics, vision, databases, engineering design, manufacturing, AI, HCI, …

Partial List of Our Results
• Search, Indexing, Clustering, Browsing: 10+ different techniques
– – – – – – – – – – – A*SIC Algorithm [Cicirello/Regli 98/99/02] GD-SIC Algorithm [Cicirello/Regli 98/99/01] Clustering with iso-invariant MSG vectors [Peabody et al 01] Metric Space M-tree indexing of MSG spectra [Mc Wherter et al 01/04] Matching w/ CAD-enhanced shape distributions [Ip et al, 02] Matching w/ Multi-resolution Reeb Graphs [Bespalov et al, 02] Automated Category Learning [Ip et al, 02/05] Scale space decomposition [Bespalov et al 03] Parametric scale space for partial matching [Bespalov et al 04/05] SVM-based multi-method classification [Ip et al, [04/05] Manufacturing process discrimination [Ip & Regli, 05]

Representations extending Semantic Web for engineering knowledge
– Kopena & Regli; Kopena & Gruninger, 03/04/05
• ISWC, VLDB SWDB, IEEE Intelligent Systems, IEEE Data Engineering Bulletin, ASME DETC 03/04, AAAI Magazine, …

Knowledge capture
– CoDesign 00, IEEE WETICE 00, KIC-4, SPIE00, CG&A 02, JCISE 01, JCAD 04

Example: Knowledge Representation for Design

• Connect CAD model to logical model of behavior & function represented with extensions to W3C & ISO standards

Example: Benchmarking

Example: Feature Selection

• Objective: Learning shape features to discriminate parts by manufacturing process

Example: Acquired Data
360° Scan Single Scan From Exact Representation

Example: Acquired Data
360° Scan Single Scan From Exact Representation

An example of many-to-many correspondence (an open pattern recognition problem)

Some Lessons Learned
• Data acquisition is hard work & time consuming
– “Open Source” data from industry is scarce – Content, formats, versions and need to move beyond parts and assemblies… Design rationale, history, etc.

• Infrastructure requires significant cost & effort
– User access, usability, upgradeability, testing, maintenance, extendibility, interoperability… – Interdisciplinary CS/IT R&D problems exist

• Community inertia must be overcome
– Peer review plays a large role in adoption

• Engineering is “cyber-trailing” CS/CE/ECE/IT/IS disciplines significantly…. Why??

Properties of Working Cyber-Infrastructure
• Shared and accepted datasets • Specific (very specific) problems and goals
– Specification, goals, what constitutes success or correctness
• ICAPS has PDDL for planning, SQL, etc

• Metrics and rigorous evaluation procedures
– Quantitative: Time, space, stability, quality and accuracy – Qualitative: User studies, experience, …

• Peers aggressively enforce procedures
– Use of datasets, metrics, experimental procedures, etc. – Code must work, adhere to interface standards, be available for others, etc. – Mandatory use of and contribution to existing cyberinfrastructure

Applications of Engineering Cyber-Infrastructure
• Copra
– Internet, NLP, ML, COIL, Visible Human, Design Repository

• Benchmarks
– Lena, Princeton Shape, Berkeley Segmentation, …

• Representations
– Standards & ontologies (W3C, DARPA, ISO, NIST...)

• Common Simulation Testbeds
– NS-2, OpNet, Robot Soccer, …

• Contests & Challenge Problems
– DARPA Grand Challenge, RoboCUP, ICAPS Planning Competition, NIST RoboCUP Rescue

• Demonstrations

• Open Source Systems + Software
– graphics, geometry, AI etc communities

Some Issues for Engineering Cyber-Infrastructure
• • • • Finding specific, focused, objectives & goals Raw data for the entire design process Scale, multi-scale & scalability How to involve industry?
– Access to complex problems, but IP issues
• How to “open source” CAD data?

• Where is the engineering “SourceForge”?
– Software + Systems

• What does “Interdisciplinary” mean?
– Beyond mere application of existing technology – Real interdisciplinary results & publications

• How to bring about the “Scientific Revolution”?

For more information: http://www.designrepository.org http://repos.cs.drexel.edu http://gicl.cs.drexel.edu

• Under normal conditions the research scientist is not an innovator but a solver of puzzles, and the puzzles upon which he concentrates are just those which he believes can be both stated and solved within the existing scientific tradition. • T Kuhn

• Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm (MBB) Gehaeuse

Example: Shape Analysis

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