CHAPTER 1 TO CHAPTER 5: MAKING THE CONNECTIONS!

Dr. Melissa, School of Educational Studies, University of Science Malaysia

CHAPTERS

    

CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 2 : LITERATURE REVIEW CHAPTER 3 : RESEARCH METHODOLOGY CHAPTER 4 : RESULTS CHAPTER 5 : INTERPRETATIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONNS

PREDICTORS OF SELF-REGULATED LEARNING IN SECONDARY SMART SCHOOLS AND THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE SELF-MANAGEMENT TOOL IN IMPROVING SELF-REGULATED LEARNING

Self-Regulated Learning describes how learners metacognitively, motivationally, and behaviorally promote their own learning and academic achievement

(Source: Pintrich & Schunk 1995; Zimmerman, 1994)

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION _____________________
Connections between subtopics: Research Problem, Research Objectives, Research Questions, and Hypotheses.

CHAPTER1: MAKING THE CONNECTIONS PROBLEM STATEMENT

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

HYPOTHESES

PROBLEM STATEMENT

STUDENTS:
 Passive learners  Spoon-fed learners  Rely heavily on rote learning

(Source: Zairon Mustapha, 1998; Smart School Project Team, 1997; Malaysian Strategic Research Center, 1994; Watkins & Maznah Ismail, 1994 )

PROBLEM STATEMENT

  

Many teachers do not know how to promote self- regulated learning No studies on self-regulated learning in smart schools The 14 weeks in-service training does not provide teachers with adequate knowledge on self-regulated learning

PROBLEM STATEMENT

The government plans to convert the present 10,000-odd national schools into smart schools.

This indicates that many teachers will have to adopt the smart school teaching and learning concepts, which are new to them.

PROBLEM STATEMENT

Many students may not be able to regulate their studies efficiently

Teachers may not know how to help students in self-regulated learning

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION _____________________
Connections between subtopics: Significance of the Study and Research Objectives

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

a)

To determine the predictors of selfregulated learning in smart schools; and

b)

To determine the effectiveness of the Self- Management Tool in improving self-regulated learning in a smart school

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Contributes significantly to the existing knowledge in self-regulated learning by identifying the predictors of self-regulated learning in smart schools
- profound instructional implications

Provides comprehensive information to researchers + teachers on self-regulated learning in IT-integrated learning environments
- this information may generate more research in this area

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Given that there is no available tool to help students self-regulate their learning, the development of the SelfManagement Tool is significant

Self-Management Tool Information Management Tool

Personal Management Tool

Teacher’s Manual

If the tool has positive effects on selfregulated learning, it can be used to develop students’ abilities in this area

 benefits both teachers and students

Based on the information provided by this study, the Teacher Training Division and the Faculty of Education at the universities can include a section of their curriculum on selfregulated learning

so that teachers are better equipped with knowledge and skills to promote selfregulated learning in smart schools

The Educational Technology Division and the Curriculum Development Center can also develop the tool into educational software and distribute it to all smart schools

In short, this study contributes significantly to:  Smart school students and teachers,  Educational psychologists and researchers,  Universities (Faculty of Education)  Various divisions at the Ministry of Education (Educational Technology Division, Teacher Training Division, Curriculum Development Center & also the Primary and Secondary School Units)

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION _____________________
Connections between chapters: Definition of Terms , Literature Review and Instruments

CHAPTER1: MAKING THE CONNECTIONS

Conceptual Definition DEFINITION OF TERMS Operational Definition

CONCEPTUAL DEFINITION

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION

CHAPTER1: MAKING THE CONNECTIONS

Conceptual Definition DEFINITION OF TERMS Operational Definition

CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEWS

CHAPTER III INTSRUMENT

CHAPTER 1 (DEFINITION OF TERMS)

CHAPTER1: DEFINITION OF TERMS – CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER1: DEFINITION OF TERMS – CHAPTER 3: INSTRUMENTS

CHAPTER1: DEFINITION OF TERMS – CHAPTER 3: INSTRUMENTS

CHAPTER1: DEFINITION OF TERMS – CHAPTER 3: FACTOR ANALYSIS (PILOT STUDY)

CHAPTER1: DEFINITION OF TERMS – CHAPTER 3: FACTOR ANALYSIS (PILOT STUDY)

CHAPTER1: DEFINITION OF TERMS – CHAPTER 3: FACTOR ANALYSIS (PILOT STUDY)

CHAPTER1: DEFINITION OF TERMS – CHAPTER 3: FACTOR ANALYSIS (PILOT STUDY)

CHAPTER1: DEFINITION OF TERMS – CHAPTER 3: FACTOR ANALYSIS (PILOT STUDY)

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION _____________________
Connections between chapters:Limitations of the Study and Research Methodology

CHAPTER1: LIMITATIONS AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

CHAPTER1: LIMITATIONS AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

CHAPTER1: LIMITATIONS AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW _____________________
Connections between subtopics: Literature review and Theoretical Framework

Environmental Factors

Self-Regulated Learning

Personal Factors

Factors that influence Self-regulated Learning based on Social Cognitive Theory (Source: Modified from Zimmerman, 1989b, p.330)

Independent Variables
Levels of IT-Integration . Level A Technology . Level B+ Technology . Level B Technology

Dependent Variable

Environmental Factors

Student-Teacher Interaction . Student-Centered Learning . Feedback Provided by Teachers . Strategy-Instruction

Personal Factors

Motivational Beliefs . Intrinsic Goal Orientation . Extrinsic Goal Orientation . Self-Efficacy . Control Beliefs . Task Values . Anxiety

Self-Regulated Learning

Self-Regulative Knowledge Information Literacy Attitudes towards IT

Independent Variables

Dependent Variable

SELF-MANAGEMENT TOOL

Self-Regulated Learning

Extraneous variables were controlled in this quasiexperiment, these variables include:
• • • • • • •

Levels of IT-Integration Students-Teachers Interactions Motivational Beliefs Self-Regulative Knowledge Information Literacy Attitudes towards IT Other Threats

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW _____________________
Connections between chapters: Literature Reviews and Hypotheses

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW – CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION (TYPES OF HYPOTHESES)

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW – CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION (TYPES OF HYPOTHESES)

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW _____________________
Connections between chapter: Literature Reviews, Variables, Model, Definition of Terms

CHAPTER 2: MAKING THE CONNECTIONS

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW – MODEL

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW – CHAPTER 1: DEFINITION OF TERMS TASK VALUES

TASK INTEREST

TASK IMPORTANC E

TASK AUTONOMY

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW – CHAPTER 3: MODIFICATIN OF INSTRUMENTS

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW _____________________
Connections between chapter: Literature review, and Instruments Development

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW– CHAPTER 3: INSTRUMENTS (DEVELOPMENT)

CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY _____________________
Connections between chapters: Research Designs and Research Objectives

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

a)

To determine the predictors of selfregulated learning in smart schools; and

b)

To determine the effectiveness of the Self- Management Tool in improving self-regulated learning in a smart school

CHAPTER 3: MAKING THE CONNECTIONS

CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY– CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION (RESEARCH OBJECTIVES)

CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY _____________________
Connections between subtopics: Experimental Design and Validity Threats

PRETEST-POSTTEST NONEQUIVALENT CONTROL GROUP DESIGN

-----

(ExperimentalO1 X Group) O ---2

---O
3

O1 (Control Group) --------------SYMBOLS:-------: assignment of subjects X :

O
2

O
3

Nonrandom

Treatment

VALIDITY OF THE QUASI-EXPERIMENT

i. Internal Validity:

Results obtained are due only to the manipulated independent variable

ii. External Validity:

Results are generalizable to individuals or contexts beyond the experimental settings

(Souce: Gay & Airasian, 2000; Crocker, 1998; Fraenkel & Wallen, 1990)

INTERNAL VALIDITY

Pretest-Posttest Nonequivalent Control Group Design can be considered as a good research design as it is able to control most of the internal validity threats

(Gay & Airasian (2000)

INTERNAL VALIDITY In order to ensure that the experiment has Internal Validity, the following threats were controlled:

 Statistical Regression  Implementer  Location  Selection-Maturation
Interaction

 Maturation  Testing  Instrumentation  Mortality  Differential Selection

 History

… continue

EXTERNAL VALIDITY

 Pretest-Posttest Nonequivalent Control Group Design is less prone to external validity threats.

(Heppner, Kivlighan & Wampold, 1992)

EXTERNAL VALIDITY

In order to ensure that the experiment has External Validity, the following threats were controlled:

 Pretest-Treatment Interaction  Reactive Arrangement  Specificity of Variables  Treatment Diffusion

CHAPTER 4: RESULTS

CHAPTER 4: RESULTS _____________________
Connections between chapters: and Research Objectives Results

CHAPTER 4: RESULTS _____________________
Connections between subtopics: and Results Statistical Analyses

ASSUMPTIONS OF CORRELATIONAL ANALYSES

   

Data on dependent and independent variables to be obtained from the same sample Variables involved should be continuous in nature Scores for each of the variable must be normally distributed Linearity and homoscedasticity

(Coakes & Steed, 2000)

CORRELATIONAL ANALYSES AND HYPOTHESIS

HYPOTHESES THAT WERE SUPPORTED:

H1:

There is a significant positive relationship between levels of IT-Integration and self-regulated learning in smart schools There is a significant positive relationship between student-centered learning and self-regulated learning in smart schools There is a significant positive relationship between feedback provided by teachers and self-regulated learning in smart schools There is a significant positive relationship between strategy-instruction and self-regulated learning in smart schools

H2:

H3:

H4:

H5: There is a significant positive relationship between intrinsic goal orientation and self-regulated learning in smart schools

HYPOTHESES THAT WERE SUPPORTED:

H6:

There is a significant positive relationship between extrinsic goal orientation and self-regulated learning in smart schools.

H7:

There is a significant positive relationship between self-efficacy and self-regulated learning in smart schools There is a significant positive relationship between control beliefs and self-regulated learning in smart schools

H8:

H9:

There is a significant positive relationship between tasks values and self-regulated learning in smart schools There is a significant positive relationship between self-regulative knowledge and self-regulated learning in smart schools.

H11:

HYPOTHESES THAT WERE NOT SUPPORTED:

H10:

There is a significant relationship between anxiety and self-regulated learning in smart schools.

H12: There is a significant positive relationship between information literacy and self-regulated learning in smart schools

H13:

There is a significant positive relationship between attitudes towards IT and self-regulated learning in smart schools

ASSUMPTIONS OF MULTIPLE REGRESSION ANALYSES

    

Ratio of cases to independent variables Normality Outliers Linearity and homoscedasticity Singularity (Coakes & Steed, 2000)

MULTIPLE REGRESSION ANALYSES

CHAPTER 4: RESULTS

CHAPTER 5: INTERPRETATIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

CHAPTER 5: INTERPRETATIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

___________________
Connections between chapters: Introduction In Chapter 5 and Research Objectives in Chapter 1

CHAPTER 5: INTERPRETATIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

___________________
Connections between chapters: Interpretations in Chapter 5, Results in Chapter 4 and Literature Reviews in Chapter 2

CHAPTER 5: INTERPRETATIONS – RESULTS

EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS

Predictors of Self-Regulated Learning

Enlighten teachers about the factors that must be taken into considerations when nurturing selfregulation behaviors among students.
*

More schools will have to be converted into level A smart schools as high level of technology integration is needed to create a significant impact on students’ self-regulated learning.

THEORETICAL AND RESEARCH IMPLICATIONS

Predictors of Self-Regulated Learning

The findings lend support for social cognitive theory. According to this theory, self-regulated learning is influenced by environmental and personal factors.
*

Social cognitive theory also claims that selfregulated learning is not a skill that automatically develops as students grow older, therefore, knowledge on strategies has to be learnt, constructed and enriched.

This view is shared by Piagetian theorists, who emphasize that self-regulated learners have to construct their own knowledge on learning strategies. (Sigelman, 1999; Zimmerman & Schunk, 1989; Paris & Byrnes, 1989). Surprisingly, many past studies on selfregulated learning did not pay attention to selfregulative knowledge.

The finding of this study, which found that selfregulative knowledge is an important factor that influence self-regulated learning, may prompt more research on this variable.