RESEARCH METHODOLOGY : An Introduction

” According to M. concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalizing to extend. whether that knowledge aids in construction of theory or in the practice of an art. Stephenson. correct or verify knowledge. “ Research is a systematized effort to gain new knowledge . “Research is the manipulation of things.“ Meaning Of Research ” According to Redman and Mory.” .

“ Objectives Of Research ”  Exploratory or formulative research studies  Descriptive research studies Diagnostic research studies Hypothesis-testing research studies   .

Desire to be of service to society. Desire to get intellectual joy of doing some creative work.“ Motivation in Research ”      Desire to get a research degree along with its consequential benefits. Desire to get respectability. Desire to face the challenge in solving the unsolved problems. .

Fundamental  Quantitative vs. Empirical  One-time or Longitudinal  Historical Research  . Analytical  Applied vs.“ Types Of Research ” Descriptive vs. Qualitative  Conceptual vs.

“ Research Approaches ” Quantitative Approach o Inferential Approach o Experimental Approach o Simulation Approach   Qualitative Approach .

“ Significance Of Research ”   It inculcates scientific and inductive thinking. It provides the basis for nearly all government policies in our economic system. The role of research in several fields of applied economics has greatly increased today. .    It helps in studying social relationships. It helps in solving various operational and planning problems of business and industry.

we not only talk of the research methods but also consider the logic behind the methods we use in the context of our research study and explain why we are using a particular method or technique so that the results are capable of being evaluated.“ Research Methods versus Methodology” Research methods refer to the methods the researchers use in performing research operations. where as In Research methodology. .

  It gives us the satisfaction of acquiring a new intellectual tool which can become a way of looking at the world and of judging everyday experience.“ Importance of Knowing How Research is Done ”  It helps in developing disciplined thinking or a „bent of mind‟ to observe the field objectively. It will inculcate the ability to evaluate and use research results with reasonable confidence. .

“ Research Process ”  Formulating the research problem Extensive literature survey Development of working hypothesis Preparing the research design    .

 o o o o o o o o Determining sample design Deliberate Sampling Simple random sampling Systematic sampling Stratified sampling Quota sampling Cluster sampling Multi-stage sampling Sequential sampling .

 o o o o o Collecting the data By observation Through personal interview Through telephone interviews By mailing of questionnaires Through schedules Execution of the project Analysis of data   .

 Hypothesis-testing Generalizations and interpretation Preparation of the report or the thesis Introduction Summary of findings Main report Conclusion   o o o o .

“ Criteria of Good Research ”  Clearly defined purpose Procedure should be described in sufficient detail Carefully planned design Researcher should report with complete frankness.    .

“ Problems Encountered by Researchers in India”  Lack of scientific training Insufficient interaction   Lack of confidence Overlapping research studies No code of conduct for researchers   .

 Difficulty of adequate and timely secretarial assistance Unsatisfactory library management and functioning at many places Difficulty of timely availability of published data Problem of conceptualization    .

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