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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY : An Introduction

Meaning Of Research
According to Redman and Mory, Research is a systematized effort to gain new knowledge .

According to M. Stephenson, Research is the manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalizing to extend, correct or verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in construction of theory or in the practice of an art.

Objectives Of Research

Exploratory or formulative research studies

Descriptive research studies


Diagnostic research studies Hypothesis-testing research studies

Motivation in Research

Desire to get a research degree along with its consequential benefits. Desire to face the challenge in solving the unsolved problems. Desire to get intellectual joy of doing some creative work. Desire to be of service to society. Desire to get respectability.

Types Of Research
Descriptive vs. Analytical Applied vs. Fundamental Quantitative vs. Qualitative Conceptual vs. Empirical One-time or Longitudinal Historical Research

Research Approaches
Quantitative Approach o Inferential Approach o Experimental Approach o Simulation Approach

Qualitative Approach

Significance Of Research

It inculcates scientific and inductive thinking.

The role of research in several fields of applied economics has greatly increased today. It provides the basis for nearly all government policies in our economic system. It helps in solving various operational and planning problems of business and industry.

It helps in studying social relationships.

Research Methods versus Methodology


Research methods refer to the methods the researchers use in performing research operations. where as In Research methodology, we not only talk of the research methods but also consider the logic behind the methods we use in the context of our research study and explain why we are using a particular method or technique so that the results are capable of being evaluated.

Importance of Knowing How Research is Done

It helps in developing disciplined thinking or a bent of mind to observe the field objectively. It will inculcate the ability to evaluate and use research results with reasonable confidence.

It gives us the satisfaction of acquiring a new intellectual tool which can become a way of looking at the world and of judging everyday experience.

Research Process

Formulating the research problem Extensive literature survey Development of working hypothesis Preparing the research design

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Determining sample design Deliberate Sampling Simple random sampling Systematic sampling Stratified sampling Quota sampling Cluster sampling Multi-stage sampling Sequential sampling

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Collecting the data By observation Through personal interview Through telephone interviews By mailing of questionnaires Through schedules Execution of the project Analysis of data

Hypothesis-testing
Generalizations and interpretation Preparation of the report or the thesis Introduction Summary of findings Main report Conclusion

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Criteria of Good Research

Clearly defined purpose Procedure should be described in sufficient detail Carefully planned design Researcher should report with complete frankness.

Problems Encountered by Researchers in India

Lack of scientific training Insufficient interaction

Lack of confidence
Overlapping research studies No code of conduct for researchers

Difficulty of adequate and timely secretarial assistance Unsatisfactory library management and functioning at many places Difficulty of timely availability of published data Problem of conceptualization