Organizing the Literature Review based on the Theoretical Framework

Where Are You?

Conjecture

Theory

Research

Technology

Application

Thesis
Thesis: a dissertation based on original research, especially as work towards an academic degree  Dissertation = a lengthy and formal written treatment of a subject, a formal spoken or written discourse  Discourse = serious piece of writing  So what is a thesis?

Dissertation

Chapter 1: Introduction
 Problem

Statement  Main Purpose: Research Questions

Chapter 2: Literature Review  Chapter 3: Research Methodology  Chapter 4: Results / Data Analysis  Chapter 5: Discussion & Conclusions
 

Question: Where should the hypotheses be placed?

Dissertation

Chapter 1: Introduction
 Problem

Statement  Main Purpose: Research Questions

Chapter 2: Literature Review
 Conclusion

of Ch 2 = hypotheses  Main purpose = support all H for Ch 5  Elaborate from Research Questions

Title suggests RQ and H

Writing the Title

Items in the title
 Independent

Variable (IV)  Dependent Variable (DV)  Moderator Variable (MV)

Write clearly: Cause & Effect Structure
 The

effects of an IV on a DV among students with MV effects of note-taking on recall among students with poor reading skills

E.g.
 The

Expected Logical Expansion
The effects of note-taking on recall among students with poor reading skills  Note-taking & learning =strategies  Note-taking & recall = taxonomy  Note-taking & reading = schema  Recall & poor reading skills = literacy  Paradigm: Knowledge is cumulative

More Variables: > Depth
The effects of note-taking on recall in English among students with poor reading skills in Malaysian schools  Strategies of Note-taking & learning by race  Literacy levels by race  Interference of 1st language  Influences of age, gender, SES…..  All possible combinations of IV,DV,MV

For Elegance, sophistication
Start with a theoretical framework  Solid cause and effect structure  Goal: support or refute paradigms theories, or models.

Research Paths
Deductive Reasoning (Quantitative Research)
Identify a structure to guide research: Theoretical Framework Grand theory Midrange theory Micro-range theory Conceptual Definitions of Study Variables, Research Questions, Hypotheses

Inductive Reasoning (Qualitative Research)

Create a structure to guide research: Conceptual Framework

Piece together bits & pieces of data to address a research question

Operational Definitions to measure the study variables

Liehr & Smith (2000)

Structure of Academic thinking

P R E S C R I P T I V E Res.

Paradigm
D E S C R I P T I V E Res.

Theory

Model

Practice

Tech. Acceptance Model

Tech. Acceptance Model

Tech. Acceptance Model

Tech. Acceptance Model

Theoretical Frameworks In action
Structures identified/chosen to guide discourse and research

Piaget’s Stage Theory
Piaget: learning with understanding involves: managing equilibrium/disequilibrium Assimilation that occurs when a new experience is incorporated into an existing knowledge structure. Accommodation that occurs when the new knowledge alters the knowledge structure or schema. Cognitive Conflicts that occurs when a learner encounters something that contradicts his or her current understanding.

Cognitive Conflicts

• Cognitive conflict results in disequilibrium. • The learner reequilibrates his or her thinking through
assimilation or/and accommodation.

• Have to find closure / new equilibrium.

Schemes (Prior knowledge) Equilibrium

Learning Situation

New Knowledge

Cognitive Conflicts (Disequilibrium)

Accommodation

Assimilation

Reequilibrium

Learning with Understanding

Schemes (Prior knowledge) Equilibrium

Learning Situation

New Knowledge

Cognitive Conflicts (Disequilibrium)

Coop. Learning

Metacognitive Strategies

Scaffolding

Accommodation

Assimilation

Reequilibrium

Learning with Learning Mathematics with Understanding Understanding Mathematical Reasoning

Structure of Scientific Revolution (Kuhn, 1970)
Master programs Paradigm Normal Science

Anomalies

New Paradigm

New Normal Science

More Anomalies Doctoral Programs

Another new Paradigm

Structure of Academic thinking

P R E S C R I P T I V E Res.

Paradigm
D E S C R I P T I V E Res.

Theory

Model

Practice

Summary: How do we do it?

Expand from the Title
 Expand

concepts to content outline  Use cause and effect structure
    

Expand from the Research Questions Expand from the Problem Statement Hypotheses are summaries for Lit. Review. E.g. MA pg 105, Ibrahim’s Content

How do you know you’ve done a good job?
Does the review support every hypothesis?  Does the review support Chapter 5?  Up-to-date, thorough, exhaustive, original?  Can be turned into a book / a monograph?

Tuckman’s (1999) criteria
      

Context Magnitude (number of references) How empirical & up-to-date Connectedness to the problem Well-organized? Establish significance? Convincing argument?

Let’s try an example
Paradigm  Variables  Research Questions  Title  Literature Review Outline

How to improve learning?

Thank you