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Assistant Associate Administrator for Science Science Mission Directorate February 15, 2005 Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee
Science Mission Directorate
Associate Administrator (AA)
• • • •
Deputy AA Deputy AA For Management
Leadership Council Science Management Council Program Management Council Operations Council
AAA/Strat, Pol & Int’l (M. Allen) AAA/Science (P. Hertz) AAA/Technology (H. Thronson) AAA/Exploration Mission Int. Sr. Policy Advisor (G. Williams)
Deputy AA For Programs
Education Officer Mission Support
NASA Management Office R. Parker Mission
Administrative Processes C. Sorrels
M. Cleave (act.) Mission Enabling Business Management R. Maizel JPL
A. Dantzler (act.)
NASA Centers GSFC ARC
Mission & Systems Management M. Luther 3
Record-Breaking Balloon Flight in Antarctica
Cosmic Ray Energetics and MASS (CREAM)
•The CREAM payload flew 41 days, 21 hr, 31 min in three circumnavigations of the South Pole between December 16, 2004 and January 27, 2005 • - Previous LDB record was broken by >10 days • - 14,000 nautical miles traveled • - Record-Breaking Flight Press Release on 1/31/05 •The CREAM payload has been fully recovered • - NSF/OPP set up field camp at impact site and provided 5 Twin Otter flights for recovery: Thanks! • - Payload disassembled to fit inside Twin Otter • - To be Air-shipped from McMurdo to U.S. •Calorimeter & Transition Radiation Detector both provided excellent particle data via TDRSS • - Quest to explore SN cosmic ray acceleration limit • - B/C ratio distinguishes propagation models •This flight demonstrated all of the ULDB support systems for future 100-day flights • - The balloon was the only non-ULDB system
• Congratulations to Chuck Bennett on his receiving the prestigious Henry Draper Medal! (The NAS awards this medal every 4 years for significant contributions to astronomical physics.) • Recent selections – ST8 Downselect – LRO Instruments – MSL Instruments – SMEX Downselect – Discovery
• Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) – Make global observations of the boundary between the solar system and interstellar space to study both (D. McComas / Southwest Research Institute)
• Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) – Studies the inner regions of black holes and maps the origins of the elements in supernova remnants (F. Harrison / Caltech)
Swift & GPB Launches Hubble/Spitzer/Chandra joint observation of Kepler’s SNR
Hubble ultra deep field
Chandra independent measurement of dark energy
2004 Significant Events Universe Division
• • • • • • Transformation activities continue. HST activities. Many Space Science Updates held. Vision Missions and Origins Probe concept studies selected. Gravity Probe B launched. (April) 2004 Senior Review complete. (May) GALEX, FUSE and WMAP were extended through Sept 08; RXTE through Mar 07; CHIPS and HETE-2 terminate Sept 05. The data centers (ADS, MAST, HEASARC, NED, IRSA, LAMBDA) continue at current funding levels with minor adjustments. WISE begins preliminary design (Phase B). (August) Beyond Einstein Program and LISA mission begin formulation (Phase A). (October) Kepler confirmed for implementation (Phase C/D). (December) TPF split into TPF-C and TPF-I. Swift launched. (December) NuSTAR continued in Phase A (January)
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• • • • • • • • • •
NOAA N VAFB April 14 SOFIA Waco, TX April 15 Astro-E2 Uchinoura Space Center NET May 1 GOES N CCAFS May 4 ST-6 June 1 CALIPSO VAFB June 17 CloudSat VAFB June 17 MRO CCAFS August 8 TWINS A September 1 CINDI VAFB September 15
Hubble Space Telescope
• What’s Changed – Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) experienced a power failure late in 2004 and is no longer operational – Life-extension 2-gyro pointing mode becomes available in 2005 – Budget supports early development of de-orbit capability • What’s Stayed the Same – Budget continues support of additional life-extension measures, including 1-gyro mode feasibility and alternative battery reconditioning
Hubble Space Telescope
NASA decided to discontinue the effort on robotic servicing of the HST and, based on analysis of relative risks, not to proceed with a Shuttle servicing mission. NASA’s FY06 budget includes funds to:
6. Keep HST operating as long as the spacecraft continues generating useful data 7. Develop techniques to extend HST’s life even as its pointing system ages and becomes less stable 8. Safely de-orbit the spacecraft after the end of HST’s useful life, including assessment of ideas that could enhance Hubble life without the use of robotic servicing 9. Examine options for addressing some HST science such as rehosting new or modified HST instruments on new space platforms 10. Continue analysis of the archived data generated by HST 11. Aggressively pursue development of JWST
• What’s Changed – TPF has been divided into two missions: o A visible-light coronagraph (TPF-C) to launch after SIM and JWST o A formation flying interferometer (TPF-I) to launch after TPF-C – SIM launch has been slipped ~2 years – SIM costs have increased as design concept has matured; rescope activity underway • What’s Stayed the Same – Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) first light will occur on schedule in late 2006 – Planet finding foundation science
Research (Operating Missions & R&A)
• What’s Changed – Swift launched on Nov 20 and is conducting science – GP-B launched on Apr 20 and is conducting science – Astro-E2 launch delayed by Japan to NET May 2005 – Funding for mission extensions has been reduced – Out-year R&A budget held at the 2006 level – Incorporates results of 2004 Senior Review • What’s Stayed the Same – Chandra operations will continue through 2010 – With the successful launch of Swift, HETE-2 will be terminated at the end of 2005
James Webb Space Telescope
• What’s Changed – Nothing • What’s Stayed the Same – JWST will begin full-scale development in 2006 – Program continues to work toward a 2011 launch
Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope
• What’s Changed – Mission CDR delayed due to the rebaseline of the LAT resulting from technical issues, as well as funding delays by international partners • What’s Stayed the Same – GLAST entered development phase in early FY04, working toward a May 2007 launch
• What’s Changed – LISA entered formulation phase early in FY 2005 – Budget reflects tentative NASA/ESA agreement on roles and responsibilities for the LISA mission; out-year budget includes funding for both spacecraft and integration – Budget restores FY 2006 Con-X funding deleted in FY 2005 President’s budget • What’s Stayed the Same – Funding for Einstein Probes is not budgeted – LISA will launch NET 2012 – Con-X will launch NET 2016
International Space Science Collaboration
• What’s Changed – Herschel and Planck out-year budgets reflect six-month launch delay announced by ESA in 2004 – Budget includes funding increases driven by technical issues on Herschel – Budget line now combines operations and data analysis with development (previously booked separately) • What’s Stayed the Same – Planck cryocooler and instrument component remains on schedule
Stratospheric Observatory for IR Astronomy
• What’s Changed – NASA has decided to take over management of aircraft maintenance and operations from USRA – Operational Readiness review and first science flight have been delayed ~12 months • What’s Stayed the Same – First test flight to occur in FY 2005
Discovery/Explorers (Universe Missions)
• What’s Changed – Kepler has been conditionally approved to eneter implementation phase in April 2005, pending satisfactory resolution of outstanding issues – EUSO launch date has slipped; ESA decision to pursue Phase B is pending – WISE planned launch date has slipped 6 months to June 2008 • What’s Stayed the Same – WISE scheduled to enter development phase in late 2005
• What’s Changed – Future Explorer Program o Reductions to the Future Explorers Program will result in fewer missions in the current budget horizon and will delay the next Explorer mission solicitation. – Future Discovery Program o Discovery 12 AO to be released in March 2005. • What’s Stayed the Same – Explorer Program missions currently in or approaching development are THEMIS, AIM, IBEX, and WISE. – Discovery missions currently in or approaching development are Dawn and Kepler.
Solar System Budget Highlights
• Discovery selected MMM; new AO expected soon • New Frontiers funding limitation may extend development time of New Frontiers 2 • Mars Rover operations extended through March 31 • MSL instruments selected • LRO instruments selected, has entered formulation • In-Space Propulsion reduced (slowed down or eliminated 5 technologies) • JIMO deferred indefinitely; high capability instruments deferred • Astrobiology maintained at FY05 level
Mission Status Universe Division
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • HST No funding for servicing mission. Could not fund robotic servicing mission after NAS report. PDR next month focused on deorbit mission. SOFIA Begin engineering test flights this Spring. Delays to engineering and science flights. Major issue - Cost of operations. Completed two major independent reviews - report to PMC this month. SIM 2011 LRD - 1 year delay. Significant cost growth. Budget cut. Looking at replan to put back in box. Strategic planning has a role.
Mission Status Universe Division
• • • • • • • • • • • JWST LRD Aug 2011. Mirror fabrication continues to go well. Biggest issue - Lack of resolution on LV issue is having an impact Agency provides strongest possible programmatic commitment to JWST - money will not be the pacing constraint. LISA LRD NET 2013. Aug 2004 ESA/NASA agreement on joint development. ESA selected study contractor. Technology plan due in a few weeks. Implementation budget augmented to account for new NASA role.
Mission Status Universe Division
• TPF-C • LRD 2015 • Foundation science is blooming, robust program to set science foundation. • • • • • Con-X LRD NET 2016. Continuing technology development. Investigating synergism with ESA's XEUS. FY06 "budget malfunction" repaired.
Mission Status Universe Division
• GLAST • LRD May 2007 (pending LAT rebaseline & GLAST replan). • GLAST flight towers A and B, built, tested and shipped to SLAC, are performing extremely well. • Major cost/schedule problems with Large Area Telescope (LAT) • Joint NASA/DOE instrument • Overrun on LAT at $25-35M • President’s budget caps DOE contribution to overrun at $3M • Also limits operations costs to less than proposed/planned/agreed • ASI has not signed contract for LAT construction, costing $1M/week, currently at $5M and counting • Major cost growth on GLAST $45-60M • NASA and DOE rebaselining LAT • NASA looking at LAT and GLAST descopes • NASA looking at ways of reducing further cost and schedule risk • Has implications for future NASA/DOE partnerships 32
JDEM Concept Study Funding
• An amendment to the 2005 Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES-2005) will be posted in the near future. • Will call for proposals for JDEM Concept Studies with support considerably larger than that for the earlier Beyond Einstein Concept Studies. • Additional information will have to wait until the ROSES Amendment posting.
Scientific Ballooning Roadmap Team – Summary (as reported to SEUS/OS 8 Nov 2004)
• Scientific ballooning has made important contributions.
– Science from balloon flights and instrument development for spacecraft
• Scientific ballooning will contribute to NASA’s objectives.
– Physics of the Universe, Space Science Strategy, Earth Science Strategy
• The current balloon program has substantial capability, but
– Funding for the the Balloon Program Office is barely adequate. – Funding under SR&T for new instruments is inadequate.
• High-priority needs have been identified.
– Increased LDB capability: more polar flights, trajectory modification – Complete current ULDB plans and extend to higher altitude (125 kft) – A restored UNEX program to provide a reliable funding source and enable new science capability.
• There are exciting new possibilities for the next 10 to 30 years.
– Flights at 160 kft (less than 1 mb residual atmosphere) – Advanced trajectory control and large aerostats – Balloons capable of deployment on Venus, Mars, Titan
• Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences - 2005 • 2005 Omnibus NASA Research Announcement • Available at end of January • Over 50 program elements, 11 in Universe Division, plus Interdisciplinary Exploration Science • Proposal due dates from April 8 to early 2006 • New NASA Proposal Data Base System • NSPIRES - NASA Solicitation and Proposal Integrated Review and Evaluation System • Must be registered to be a PI or Co-I on a NASA proposal • Everyone must register again! • Major change: Electronic cover sheets must be submitted by the institution, not the PI • Every institution must register! • http://nspires.nasaprs.com
Universe Key Issues
• Key Issues and Events • • • • • • • • • • SOFIA – first test flight (April) Astro-E2 – launch (summer) GLAST replan/descope Kepler funding reductions and other 05 impacts First meetings of new advisory committee and subcommittees Future of Hubble Space Telescope Future of Beyond Einstein Roadmapping and strategic planning Balance of science and exploration
Recommendations under current funding The current funding comes in two parts:
~$25M/yr to Balloon Program Office to support operations and technology development.
– BPO plans given this budget make sense, so we do not recommend any significant changes. – However, the funding level is barely adequate.
~$15M/yr from SR&T to scientists for developing missions and analyzing their data.
– There are many balloon-borne missions that will advance key elements of NASA strategic plans -- more than will fit into the current budget! – This roadmap team has not attempted to prioritize among them. – Strengths of the balloon program are that o Its science is selected by peer review (like Explorers). o It gives opportunity for new ideas, not foreseen in strategic plan.
High-Priority Need for Scientific Ballooning Increased Capability for Long-Duration flights
• New programs needing this:
– Polarization of Cosmic Microwave Background – Detection of neutrinos with energy > 1018 eV – High sensitivity spectroscopy and survey imaging of black holes o in advance of Beyond Einstein missions Con-X and Black Hole Finder Probe. – Others will surely use the capability also.
• Program and technology developments to support this:
– – – – Additional infrastructure and program cost to enable three Antarctic flts/yr Dedicated aircraft in Antarctica to help assure timely instrument recovery LDB flight capability for three flights per year from Arctic “Nudging” trajectory control to meet flight safety and environmental restrictions o Keep Antarctic trajectory over the continent even after two circuits o Ensure that mid-latitude flights do not fly over densely populated areas o This is critical technology for ULDB flights of 100 days or more
High-Priority Need for Scientific Ballooning High-Altitude (125 kft) Super-Pressure Balloon
• Required for gamma-ray and hard X-ray investigations of the “Beyond Einstein” program.
– Data from balloon-borne instruments will begin to address the scientific objectives of “Beyond Einstein”. – Balloon-borne instruments will be essential for development and testing of new technology for Constellation-X, Black Hole Finder Probe, Advanced Compton Telescope. – These investigations require o Altitude 125 kft desired, 120 kft minimum, for 1-ton instrument o Long duration, at least ten days at these altitudes o Low cosmic-ray background, by flying at mid-latitude.
• Program and technology developments to support this:
– Extension of current ULDB development, which will take 1-ton instrument to >110 kft about two years from now. o Substantially lighter-weight support instrumentation o ~ 50% increase in balloon volume
High-Priority Need for Scientific Ballooning Issue a UNEX AO under current Explorer guidelines.
• Balloon payloads would be highly competitive for UNEX.
– LDB missions were reviewed favorably in the 1997 UNEX solicitation. – With a now proven LDB capability, LDB missions would be even more competitive today. – ULDB missions would also be very competitive once the super-pressure balloons are successfully demonstrated. – Payloads capable of achieving the highest priority science are too expensive for SR&T budgets (Cost ~ SMEX/4). – One LDB Mission (ANITA) is in Phase-A Concept Study. – There is no clear mandate to evaluate science/$ for Explorer. – Most balloon missions cannot compete with full size Explorer science.
• Currently balloon payloads are solicited in the ROSS NRA’s . • LDB Missions are solicited as Missions of Opportunity.
• Frequent UNEX AO's would provide better, more reliable support for both balloon missions and Missions of Opportunity.
Long-term (10 – 30 year) vision for scientific ballooning
• Flights of 1-ton instruments at extremely high altitudes with less than 1 mb residual atmosphere (above 160 kft)
– Enables solar UV research on magnetic transition zone and improves solar irradiance source imaging by including the UV – Enables much improved X-ray, gamma-ray, cosmic-ray studies. – 160 kft with 450 lb science instrument has been demonstrated.
• Advanced trajectory control, large aerostats capable of station keeping and/or tethered balloons
– Enable Earth observations on spatial and temporal scales that satellites cannot, complementing global satellite observations – Could fly to desired location from any convenient launch/recovery site. – ~70 kft, enable atmospheric studies, geophysical monitoring, and serve as a platform for optical telescopes free of most of the atmospheric “seeing” – ~130 kft, serve as a platform for optical telescopes comparable to Hubble
• Balloons capable of deployment elsewhere in the Solar System – Venus, Mars, Titan
– Atmospheric studies – Close monitoring of ground