Developmental Milestone

Developmental Psychology

Developmental Psychology
• Branch of psychology that studies intraindividual changes and interindividual changes within the intraindividual changes. • Its task is explication of age-related changes in behavior in terms of antecedent- consequent relationship. Preoccupied with ages and stages • Developmental changes covering the life span from conception to death. Attempt to give a complete picture of growth and decline.

in behavior. in interest. and in goals from one developmental period to another. • To find out whether they can/cannot be predicted. . • To find out what causes them. • To find out whether experience is universal or individual. • To find out how they influence behavior.6 Major Objectives of Developmental Psychology • To find out what are the common and characteristic age changes in appearance. • To find out when these changes occurs.

Development .

Both begin at conception and end at death. . • 2 essential antagonistic processes in development take place simultaneously throughout life.Development • Progressive series of changes that occurs as a result of maturation and experience. Implies qualitative change which involves process of integrating many structures and functions.growth and atrophy.

.Development • Development is the acquisition and refinement of advancing skills. The goal is to enable people to adapt to the environment. the acquisition of the new skills proceeds along a predictable sequence and time table. • Under normal circumstances.

comprehension. walking and advanced physical activities.acquisition of societal and cultural standards of behavior .Development • Gesell and Amatruda pioneered in categorizing development milestones in 4 distinct areas of function. – Fine motor adaptive behavior.prehension. – Gross motor behavior.preambulatory skills. manipulatory hand skills and application of sensorimotor abilities to tasks of daily life – Language behaviorvocalization. expression in spoken or other modes of communication – Personal-social behavior.

Growth .

 Most rapidly in infancy and prepubescence through adolescence.  Head growth is fastest in infancy. evolution and atrophy.Growth  Growth.  Increase in physical size and dimensions relative to maturity. . involution.

Growth • Trunk growth is fastest in infancy and adolescence. • Extremities growth is fastest from 1 year through puberty. . • Center of gravity of newborn is at xiphoid process.

Growth • Center of gravity of late childhood is at sacral promontory.5 years. . • 2-3 year has a mild lumbar lordosis • Transient shifts in growth parameters may occur in the 1st 418months but reach a stable rate by 1.

To achieve it. self-realization/selfactualization is essential.Goal of Developmental Changes • Enable people to adapt to the environment in which they live. .

Factors Influencing Attitudes towards Developmental Changes • Appearance. Good changes in appearance are welcome. • Cultural Stereotypes. • Behavior. . Influence from different media in judging people in every particular age group.

• Personal Experiences. • Role Changes.• Cultural Values. .

Significant Facts about Development .

are the most important stage of development according to Bijou. • The 1st 2 years of life is the most critical according to White. • Pre-school years.Early Foundations are Critical • Attitudes. . Competence and trust are developed during this stage. 2-5 years. habits and patterns of behavior established during the early years determine to a large extent how successful individuals will adjust to life as they grow older. • Changes are rapid at this stage of life.

. • There is strong motivation on the part of individuals themselves to make the change. there is little motivation to make a change. • Change is likely to occur when significant people treat individuals in new and different ways. When behavior is rewarded with social approval.Early Foundations are Critical • Change may come when the individual receives help and guidance.

In phylogenetic functionsfunctions common to human race such as creeping and sitting.development comes from maturation. .Roles of Maturation and Learning in Development • Maturation. Maturation provides the raw material for learning and determines the more general patterns and sequences of behavior. Unfolding of individuals inherent traits.

Without it.training is essential. In ontogenetic functions.specific to the individual such as driving or writing. development will not take place.Roles of Maturation and Learning in Development • Learning. Development that comes from exercise and effort on the individual‟s part. .

3 Important Facts about Interrelationship of Maturation and Learning • Human beings are capable of learning. • Maturation sets limit beyond which development cannot progress even with the most favorable learning methods and the strongest motivation on the part of the learner. . • There is a define timetable for learning which is determined by „developmental readiness‟.

• Gross-Fine Law. Development spread from gross muscles to fine muscles. • Proximodistal Law. . Development spread is from the head going to the foot. Development spread is from the central axis of the body going to extremities.Development Follows a Definite and Predictable Pattern • Cephalocaudal Law.

• Each Phase of Development has Characteristic Behavior. • Each Phase of development has Hazards. . • Development is aided by Stimulation.Significant Facts about Development… • All individuals are Different.

• Social Expectations for Every Stage of Development. changes in these standards affect the developmental pattern. • Traditional Beliefs about People of All Ages . Individual‟s development is molded to conform to cultural standards and ideals.Significant Facts about Development… • Development is Affected by Cultural Changes.

The Life Span

Conditions Influencing Longevity
• Heredity. • Physical Characteristics. People of average size and body structure > under/overweight or who are very tall or very short. • General Physical Condition. • Sex. Women > Men.

Conditions Influencing Longevity
• Race. Whites > Blacks. • Geographic Location. People living in urban and sub-urban areas >rural areas. • Socioeconomic Level. Higher the socioeconomic level > lower socioeconomic level. • Intelligence. Intellectual person > less intellectual.

Efficient people > inefficient people. • Marital Status. Higher educational level > low educational level.Conditions Influencing Longevity • Education. Married people lives longer. • Smoking and Drinking. Nonsmokers and nondrinkers lives longer. . • Efficiency.

• Occupation. • Happiness. More anxiety would result to shorter life span. .Conditions Influencing Longevity • Anxiety. Happy and satisfied people lives longer.

Subdivision/ Sub Stages of Life Span .

• Infancy.6 years. • Late Childhood.• Prenatal Period. Birth.12 years.End of 2nd year. . • Early Childhood.End of 2nd week. End of 2nd week. End of 2nd year. Conception to birth. 6 years. • Babyhood.

. 18 years.18 years.60 years. 60 yearsDeath. 12 years – 14 years. 14 years.• Puberty/Preadolescence. • Adolescence. • Middle Age. • Early Adulthood. 40 years.40 years. • Old Age or Senescence.

Embryonic and Fetal Growth and Development .

.Definition of Terms • Fertilization. It normally occurs while the ovum is in the fallopian tube.Occurs at the time of conception. It takes place 12-36 hrs and usually within the 1st 24 hrs after the ovum has entered the tube. • Implantation.The process of attachment of the embryo to the maternal uterine wall.

• Fetal Period. major differentiation of organs & tissues occur (specifically 4th.9th week).• Embryonic– from 2nd week to the end of 2nd month. .from the beginning of the 3rd month to the time of birth when the fetus becomes an infant.

age. There is no sharp limit of development.• Viable Fetus. The lower limit of viability is approximately five months gestational age and usually later. .Viability refers to a point in fetal development at which the fetus may survive outside the womb. or weight at which a fetus automatically becomes viable.

• According to data years 2003-2005. . while 50 to 70% of babies born at 24 to 25 weeks. and more than 90% born at 26 to 27 weeks. 20 to 35% of babies born at 23 weeks of gestation survive.

If given expert postnatal care. and are referred to as extremely low birth weight or immature infants. . causing almost 30 percent of neonatal deaths. some fetuses weighing less than 500 gm may survive. • Preterm birth is the most common cause of perinatal mortality.• It is rare for a baby weighing less than 500 gm to survive.

Events that Occur During Fertilization • Male and female gametes are united leading to cleavage formation of the morula. • By the 2nd week. • 3rd week. (+) Ectodermal and Endodermal layer. . the mesodermal layer and notochord formation. the blastocyst and the embryo which becomes implanted in the endometrial stroma.

Describe the Sequences of Changes in Physical Development .

Grows rapidly during infancy & childhood. Gradually slows down on mid childhood to 10yrs. Small increments in adolescent period. . • Myelinization is completed by 6-12 months.Neurological • Brain develops 4-6 wks of gestation. • The Pineal body calcifies by 10 yrs (used as point reference in roentgenography by the CNS).

Musculoskeletal • It takes place at the premuscular mesodermic tissue. . • The largest part of increment takes place from the 4th month of gestation to early maturity.

• Ductus venosus & the foramen ovale become functionally closed at birth. • Heart Rate is 140-160bpm.Cardio-Respiratory Development • Heart grows slow during 1st 4-months of gestation. • Ductus arteriosus closes at 8-12 weeks. • The ECG of the fetal viability index can be taken through maternal abdominal wall. . F>M.

The Factors that Affects the Growth & Development .

Genetic Factors • Traits of the parents are transmitted to the children. (race: infants of blacks usually develop motor skills faster than Caucasians). .

protozoan(toxoplasmosis).exposure of pregnant women in therapeutic and diagnostic x-rays can cause congenital malformation.Prenatal Factor • Mother`s health. . – Infectious diseases. – Abnormal uterine condition. and spirochetal (syphilis) infection last shalf of pregnancy.viral (Rubella) occur in the 1st trimester. TORCH. – Actinic rays.

Type of Disease Myoma Amniotic bands Tumors Thalidomide Effects on the Child Positioning of the fetus and its nutrition. . May cause retardation. May amputate extremities. Amelia or Hemimelia. mental Phocomelia.

Immunologic Factors • RH and ABO abnormalities obviously affect growth & development towards the end of pregnancy if not managed properly. .

method of infant delivery & immediate care after delivery may contribute to anoxia & trauma. • Alcohol. & the effects of the nicotine on the unborn child  stunted growth. smoking. .Perinatal Factors • Anesthesia and analgesia. • Drugs are notorious for causing malformation.

found in older group) & order of birth of infants. • Other factors are duration of pregnancy. .Maternal Nutrition • Endocrine Problems  large babies‟  higher incidence of perinatal mortality. congenital anomalies & morbidity are generally smaller in size. multiple pregnancy. age of the mother (associated with Down syndrome.

nutrition.Growth Potential • Size at birth especially in relation to duration of gestation. social deprivation. family value orientation. • Poverty associated with ignorance & low intelligence. endocrine disorders. . mental deficiency.

cardio and lymphatic system and cortical portion of the suprarenal. serous membranes of peritoneal. dermis. PNS. the epidermis.lining of the respiratory tract.skeletal system. the epithelium of the sensory organs. urinary. . parenchyma of the thyroids. tonsils and the GI tract. • Ectodermal DerivativesCNS. enamel of the teeth and epithelial lining of other organs. part of the bladder & urethra. muscle cells. tympanic membrane and eustachian tubes. pleural and pericardial cavities. tissues. • Endodermal Derivatives.Histological Layers • Mesodermal Layers.

0-2.5 1.8-1.0 1.2 2.8-2.6 1.2 1.0 Water ml/kg 120-150 120-135 100-125 90=100 75-100 50-70 40-60 .Calorie and Fluid Requirements Age Infancy 1 2-3 4-6 7-10 Cal/kg 120 110 100 85-90 80-85 11-14 15-18 60-70 50-60 Protein gm/kg 2.5-1.2 0.

Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Age Infancy 1 2-5 6-9 10-13 14-18 Systolic (Seated Position) 80 90 90-94 95-98 98-109 110-115 Diastolic (Seated Position) 55 55 55 55-60 60-65 63-68 Heart Rate/Min 125 120 100-110 90-100 85-90 70-80 .

Vital Capacity Newborn 5 years 10 years 15 years 100cc 1300cc 2300cc 4000cc .

Urinary Output 2 ml/kg/hr in infants and young children .

1-14 years= (age in years + 2) x 30ml .Bladder Capacity Newborn=16-25 ml.

Growth from Birth to Maturity .

. • A rapid increase in head size during the 1st year of life reflects the growth and maturation of the brain.Head Circumference and Weight • Head circumference is measured with a tape firmly placed over the glabella and supraorbital ridges anteriorly and on the maximal protuberance of the occiput posteriorly.

.Head Circumference and Weight Cases • Hydrocephalus. Excessive enlargement of head circumference due to elevated intracranial pressure or a space occupying lesion because the fontanels are open until 12-18 months and the calvarial sutures do not unite firmly until puberty. • Microcephaly. Lack of brain growth after a severe anoxic encephalopathy or cerebral atrophy associated with a degenerative or genetic disease of the CNS.

Weight  Newborns below 2500gm are categorized as low birth weight infants. .

Weight Age Birth 4 months 12 months Maturity Head Circumferenc e 35cm 41cm 47cm 57cm Weight 3400 gm Double Triple 2 kg annually until adolescence .

Height Age Birth 12 months 2 years 4 years Early school age Prepubescence/ Adolescence Height 50cm 75cm 87cm 100cm 5cm annually 5-8cm annually .

Sitting Height Age Birth Sitting Height (boys) 35cm 62cm 74cm Sitting Height (girls) 34cm 61cm 73cm 5 years 10 years 18 years 92cm 88cm .

Infantile Reflex Development Reflex Moro Stimulus Sudden neck Extension Response Shoulder abduction. static encephalopath y . elbow and finger extension followed by arm flexion adduction Same as Moro reflex Age of Suppression 4-6 months Clinical Significance Persist in CNS pathology. static encephalopath y Startle Sudden noise. Clapping 4-6 months Persist in CNS pathology.

may be associated With scissoring . may persist in CNS pathology Positive Supporting Light pressure or weight bearing on plantar surface Legs extend for partial support of body weight 3-5 months replaced by volitional weight bearing with support Obligatory or hyperactive abnormal at any age.Infantile Reflex Development Rooting Stroking lips or around mouth Moving mouth/ head towards stimulus 4 months Diminished in CNS pathology. early sign of lower extremity.

Obligatory response abnormal at any age. Symmetric Tonic Neck Neck flexion Arm flex and Neck legs extend extension Arm extend and legs flex 6-7 months . persists in static encephalopath y.Infantile Reflex Development Asymmetric Tonic Neck Head turning to side Extremities extend on the face side and flex on occiput side 6-7 months Obligatory response abnormal at any age. persists in static encephalopath y.

persists/ Hyperactivity in spasticity.Infantile Reflex Development Palmar Grasp Touch or pressure on palm or stretching finger flexors Hand fisting 5-6 months Diminished in CNS suppression. persists/ hyperactivity in spasticity. Plantar Grasp Pressure on sole distal to metatarsal heads Flexion of all toes 12-14 months when walking is achieved . Diminished in CNS suppression. absent in LMN paralysis. absent in LMN paralysis.

absent in LMN paralysis. . Placement or Placing Before end of Absent in 1st year LMN paralysis or with lower extremity spasticity.Infantile Reflex Development Automatic Neonatal Walking On vertical Alternating support automatic plantar steps with contact and support passive tilting of body forward and side to side Tactile contact on dorsum of foot and hand Extremity flexion to place hand/foot over an obstacle 3-4 months Variable activity in Normal infants.

Tonic Labyrinthine Head position in space. . strongest at 45° from horizontal 4-6 months Hyperactivity/o bligatory abnormal at any age. persist in CNS damage/ static encephalopathy.Infantile Reflex Development Neck Righting or Body Derotational Neck rotation in supine Sequential body rotation from shoulder to pelvis toward direction of face Supinepredominant extensor tone Pronepredominant flexor tone 4 months replaced by volitional rolling Nonsequential leg rolling suggests increased tone.

3vertical 4months and mouth horizontal . Visual and Align Proneface.Physiologic Postural Reflex Responses Postural Reflex Head Righting Stimulus Response Age of Clinical Emergenc Significan e ce Delays or absent in CNS Maturity or damage. 2months Vestibular head Supine.

vestibular and proprioceptiv e Aligns body parts in anatomic position relative to each other and gravity Extension/ Abduction of lateral extremities towards displacement to prevent falling 4-6 months Delays or absent in CNS maturity or damage.68months Posterior.Physiologic Postural Reflex Responses Head and Body Righting Tactile.57months Lateral.78months Standing. Protective Extension or Parachute Reaction Displacement of center of gravity outside supporting base in sitting or standing Sitting anterior. .1214months Delays or absent in CNS maturity or damage.

Sitting. .68months Standing1214months Delays or absent in CNS maturity or damage.Physiologic Postural Reflex Responses Equilibrium Displaceme Adjustmen or Tilting nt of t of Reaction center tone and of posture gravity of trunk to maintain balance.

automatic stepping may be seen Fine Motor Adaptive Hands fisted Grasp reflex State. turns head to side to side with neck hypertension Automatic reflex walking In sitting. full support is required.dependent ability to fix and follow bright object . back is rounded and head falls forward When held in supported standing and tilted forward.Gross and Fine Motor Age Newborn Gross Motor Flexor tone predominates In prone.

head at Hands mostly open midline Midline hand play When pulled to sitting Crude palmar grasp from supine. tucks the chin and head in midline In prone. lifts head to 90° and lifts chest slightly Turns to supine In supported sitting.Gross and Fine Motor 4 months In supine. thoracic spine is straight .

the legs are abducted. bounces when held erect Cervical lordosis Pulling to stand and starts to cruise sideways Intermediate grasp Inferior radial grasp Transfers cube from hand to hand Bangs object . there is active rotation of trunk and reach with hands in limited range Rolls to prone Moves from prone to quadruped Rocks in quadruped position.Gross and Fine Motor 7 months Maintains sitting. externally rotated and abdomen is sagging Bears all weight.

Gross and Fine Motor
10 months Creeps on all 4s Pivots in sitting While sitting, reach up to 10 inches forward without losing balance Transition to standing through half-kneeling continues Stands momentarily Cruises Slightly bow leg Increased lumbar lordosis; acute lumbosacral angulation Pincer grasp, mature thumb to index grasp Bangs 2 cubes held in hands

Gross and Fine Motor
14 months Crawls upstairs Walks alone, arms in high guard or midguard Wide base, excessive hip and knee flexion Foot contact on entire sole Slight valgus of knees and feet Pelvic tilt and rotation Piles 2 cubes Scribbles spontaneously Holds crayon full length in palm Casts objects Insert a pellet in a bottle

Gross and Fine Motor
18 months Arms at low guard Mature supporting base and heel strike Seats self in a low chair Walks backward Emerging hand dominance Building a 3-cube tower Turns 2-3 pages at a time Crude release Holds crayon butt end in palm Dumps raisin from bottle spontaneously

Gross and Fine Motor 2 years Begins running Walks up/down the stairs alone without alternating feet Open doors and climbs furniture Jumps on both feet in place Hand dominance is usual Builds 8-cube tower Aligns cube horizontally Copy vertical line and folds paper Places pencil shaft between thumb and fingers Draws with arm and wrist action Pulls on garment Turns one page at a time .

Gross and Fine Motor 3 years Runs well Imitates 3-cube Pedals tricycle bridge Broad jumps Copies circle Walks up stairs Uses overhand alternating feet throw with anteroposterior arm and trunk motion Catches with extended arms hugging against body .

Gross and Fine Motor 4 years Walks down the stairs alternating feet Hops on 1 foot Plantar arches developing Sits up from supine position without rotating Handles a pencil by finger and wrist action. like adults Copies a cross Draws a frog like person with head and extremities Throws underhand Cuts with scissors .

tiptoes Balances 10seconds on each foot Hand dominance expected Draws man with head. body.Gross and Fine Motor 5 years Skips. and extremities Throws with diagonal arm and body rotation Catches with .

Gross and Fine Motor 6 years Rides bicycle Roller skates Prints alphabet. Letter reversals still acceptable Mature catch and throw of ball .

Gross and Fine Motor 7 Continuing Continuing years refinement refinement of skills of skills .

Cognitive Development  Refers to increasing ability of the child to interpret sensory events. symbols and concepts in thinking . register and retrieve information from memory. images. problem solving and the acquisition of knowledge and beliefs in the environment . reasoning. and manipulate schemata.

Language and Cognitive Development Age Newborn Speech and Language Cognitive Cry Sensorimotor: State-dependent Reflex stage quieling and head turning to rattle or voice Reflex sucking and swallowing is present .Speech.

Speech. Language and Cognitive Development 4 months Laughs. squeals Responsive vocalization Blows bubbles Sensorimotor: Circular Reaction 7 months Uses single Sensorimotor: word and Circular double Reaction consonantvowel combinations .

Speech, Language and Cognitive Development
10 months Shouts for attention Imitates speech sounds Waves bye-bye Uses “mama” and “dada” with meaning Inhibits behavior to “no” Can retrieve object hidden from view

Speech, Language and Cognitive Development
14 months Uses single word with 45 letters Understand simple commands Differentiates available behavior patterns for new ends i.e., pulls rug on which is a toy

Speech, Language and Cognitive Development
18 months Points to named Capable of body part insight, i.e., Identifies one solving a picture problem by Says “no” mental Jargons combinations, not physical groping

Speech. Language and Cognitive Development 2 years Two-word phrases are common Uses verbs Refers to self by name Uses “me” and “mine” Follows simple directions Pre-operational stage Able to evoke an object or event not present Object permanence established Comprehends symbols Listens to stories with picture .

symbolic „where‟ play.e. drawing of Follows prepositional graphic images. i. „who‟ and imitation. commands.Speech.. put mental images and it under verbal evocation of Gives full name events May stutter in eagerness Identifies self as boy/girl Recognizes primary colors . Language and Cognitive Development 3 years Three-word sentences Continuation of preare usual operational period Uses future tense Capable of deferred Asks „what‟.

Language and Cognitive Development 4 years Gives connected account of recent experiences Questions „how‟. „when‟ and „why‟ Uses past tense.Speech. adjectives and adverbs Knows opposite analogies Repeats four digits .

classification or use Follows 3-part commands Has number concept to 10 . Language and Cognitive Development 5 years Fluent speech Misarticulation of some sounds may persist Gives name. address and age Defines concrete nouns by composition.Speech.

Language and Cognitive Development 6 years Shows mastery of grammar Uses proper articulation Continuing refinement of skills Period of concreteoperational thoughts Child is capable of logical thinking 7 years .Speech.

does not differentiate between self and mothers . Mistrust Cuddly Normal symbolic phase. some control Basic of state.Personal/Social and Emotional Age Personal/Social Emotional Newborn Habituation and Basic Trust vs.

developing a sense of basic trust .Personal/Social and Emotional 4 months Recognizes bottle Turns to voice or source of sound consistently Lap baby.

begins between to differentiate familiar person between mother and stranger and self. i..e.Personal/Social and Emotional 7 months Differentiates At 5months. Stranger anxiety beginning of begins to separationdevelop individuation Holds bottle Has a sense of Looks for dropped belonging to a object central person “Talks” to mirror image .

Personal/Social and Emotional 10 months Plays peek-aboo Finger feeds Chews with rotary movement Practicing phase of separationindividuation .

Personal/Social and Emotional 14 months Uses spoon with overpronation and spilling Removes a garment Pull things Hugs parents Rapprochement phase of separationindividuation. ambivalent behavior to mother Stage of autonomy vs. shame and doubt (13 years) Issue of holding on or letting go Pleasure in controlling muscles and sphincters .

hugs doll Drinks from cup neatly Kisses a parent with a pucker Seek help when in trouble Complain when soiled or wet .Personal/Social and Emotional 18 months Imitates parent‟s daily routine Imitates housework Carries.

Personal/Social and Emotional 2 years Pulls on garment Uses spoon well Opens door by turning knob Feeds doll with bottle or spoon Toilet training usually begins .

Guilt (3day and night 5years) Pours from pitcher Deals with issue of Unbutton or unzip genital sexuality clothing Washes and dries hands and face Parallel play Can take turns Can be reasoned with .Personal/Social and Emotional 3 years Most children are Stage of Initiative toilet trained vs.

Personal/Social and Emotional 4 years Cooperative playsharing and interacting Imaginative make believe play Dresses and undresses with supervision distinguishing front and back of clothing and buttoning Does simple errands outside of home .

Personal/Social and Emotional 5 years Creative play Competitive team play Uses fork for stabbing food Brushes teeth Self-sufficient in toileting Dresses without supervision except tying shoelaces Stage of Industry vs. Inferiority (5yearsadolescence) Adjust himself to the inorganic laws of the tool world .

Personal/Social and Emotional 6 years Teacher is an important authority to child Uses fork appropriately Uses knife for spreading Plays table games Stage of Industry vs. Inferiority continues .

Personal/Social and Emotional 7 years Eats with fork and knife Combs hair Responsible for grooming .

shaking) 6-9 months Child explores characteristics of objects and expand the range of schemes (pulling. turning. poking and tearing) Child combines objects in rational play. such as objects in containers .Early Object Use Age Milestones 3-6 months Child focuses on action performed with objects (banging.

Early Object Use 9-12 months Child notices the relation between complex actions and consequences such as opening doors. placing lids on containers and differential use of schemes based on the toy being played with (pushing a train or rolling a ball) 12 months Child acts on object with variety of schemes .

Early Object Use 12-15 months Child links schemes in simple combinations (placing a baby in carriage and then pushing the carriage Child links multi scheme combinations into a meaningful sequence (putting food using a spoon and feeding a doll) 24-36 months .

Early Object Use 36-42 Child links schemes into a months complex script .

toy covered by cloth) Uses movement as a means to an end (e. looking towards trajectory of objects circling his head) Attends to consequences of actions (e.g.g. rolling to secure toy) Anticipates movement of objects in space (e.Problem Solving Skills Age 6-9 months Milestones Child finds object after watching it disappear (e. banging toy and realizing it makes noise) Repeats actions to repeat consequences (e.g. banging toy to hear noise .g.g.

using a stick to secure a toy that is out of reach) Child‟s behavior becomes more goal oriented Child performs an action to produce a response .g.Problem Solving Skills 9-12 months Child is able to use a tool after demonstration (e.

Problem Solving Skills 12-15 months Child recruits the help of an adult to achieve a goal Child attempts to activate a simple mechanism Child turns and inspects an object Uses trial and error approach to new challenges .

g. on-off switch) Child can predict effects or presume causes .Problem Solving Skills 18-21 months Child attends to shapes of things and uses them appropriately Child begins to think before acting Child uses tool to obtain a favored object Child begins to replace trial and error with a thought process in order to attain a goal Child can operate a mechanical toy (e.

squares. shape sorter) .Problem Solving Skills 21-24 months Child recognizes operation of several mechanisms Child matches circle.g. triangles and manipulates objects into small openings (e.

it will make a loud noise) .g. if the balloon is popped.Problem Solving Skills 24-30 months Child discriminates sizes Child can build with blocks horizontally and vertically Child begins to relate experiences to one another based on logic and knowledge of previous experiences (e.

Problem Solving Skills 36-48 months Child can build a tower of nine cubes. demonstrating balance and coordination Child can organize objects by size and builds a structure from a mental image .

Problem Solving Skills
48-60 months Child can build involved structures combining various planes, along with symmetrical designs Child is able to utilize spatial awareness, cause and effect and mental images in problem solving

Ability to Follow Instructions
Age Milestones

0-1 year Responds to simple requests with gestures

Ability to Follow Instructions
1-1-5 years Follows simple one step instruction Understands pointing
Follows 2-step command

2-2.5 years

Ability to Follow Instructions 5-6 years Comprehends directional commands 6-7 years Comprehends double commands .

6 years .Color Concept Colors Matching Discrimin Identifica ating tion Primary colors 2 years 3 years 3.

Color Concept Green.6 years 4 years . 2.6 years Orange and Purple 3.

6 years 4 years 5 years 5. Pink and Gray White 3 years 4 years 4.6 years .Color Concept Brown. Black.

6 years Discriminati Identificati ng on 3.6 years 4.Shapes Shapes Circle/ Triangle Square/ Rectangle Diamond Matching 3 years 4 years 5.6 years 6 years 4 years 5 years 6.6 years .

Quantitative Concepts Age Concepts 2 years Many/one and little big 3 years Empty/full and light/heavy .

Quantitative Concepts 3. thin/fat. few/many and thin/thick 5 years Narrow/wide . less/more and short/long 4 years Slow/fast.6 years Short/tall.

6 years “one more” 2.Number Concept Age 1.6 years “Just one” Counts objects Concepts 3 years 1-2 .

Number Concept 4 years 6 years 1-7 1-9 6.3 years 1-10 .

40. 60.3 years 30. 10 and 20 6. 5.Rote Counting and Numeral Reading Age Concepts 5. 70. 80. 90 7 years 100 . 50.3 years 3.

3 years 1-9 7 years 1-10 Concepts .Numeral Comprehension Age 6.

3 years 1st.3 years Middle. 3rd and 4th 7 years 5th .Ordinal Position Age Concepts 5. 2nd and last 6.

6.12. 10.Addition Combination Age Concepts 6. 16 7 years 18 . 8.3 years 4. 14.

8 7 years 10 Concepts .Subtraction combination Age 6. 6.3 years 4.

6 years Knows the part of the day for specific daily activities 4 years Can sequence 5 daily activities and tell time of the day for each activity .Time Age Concepts 3.

Time 5 years Differentiates between the little and the big hands of the clock Knows the position of the hands of the clock for daily activities Knows the direction in which the clock hands turn .

Time 6 years Identifies numerals on the clock face Differentiate between the hour hand and the minute hand Can tell time to the hour and the half-hour Can tell the exact time 7 years .

Age Alphabet Concepts Concept 5 years and Recites A-Y 3 months Matches uppercase and lowercase letters from A-Y 5 years and Points to uppercase and 7 months lowercase letters named from A-Y Matches lowercase letters a-z .

Alphabet Concepts 5 years and Recites A-Z 10 months Matches uppercase letters from A-Z Points to uppercase and lowercase letters named from A-Z Names uppercase and lowercase letters pointed to from A-Y .

Alphabet Concepts 6 years and 3 Names upper and lowercase months letters pointed to from A-Z .

Body Parts Identification Age Receptive Expressive 1 year and 7 months 2 years Mouth. Nose. Eyes. Feet Concept .

Stomach. Toes Chin. Fingernails. Hands. Arms.Body Parts Identification 2 years 2 years and 7 months 3 years and 7 months 3 years Hair. Thumb. Tongue. Head. Legs. Back. Ears. Fingers. Knees. Teeth. Neck .

Ankles. Elbows. Heels.Body Parts Identification 4 years 5 years 6 years 4 years and 7 months 5 years and 7 months 6 years and 7 months Chest. Wrists Waist . Jaw Shoulders. Hips.

Scissoring • Paper tearing • Snipping • Cutting clay (1-scissor length then 2scissor length…) • Cutting card board (1-scissor length then 2-scissor length…) • Cutting regular paper (1-scissor length then 2-scissor length…) .

Scissoring • • • • • • Cutting straight line Cutting regular geometric figure Cutting curve lines Cutting circles Cutting intricate pictures Collage .

Drawing • Introduce coloring materials • Scribbling (circular. horizontal then vertical) • Coloring large geometric figure • Coloring small geometric figure • Color irregular figure • Color a picture .

Writing • Tracing • Imitating • Copying (near point copying then far point copying) .

Writing • • • • • • • Horizontal line Vertical line Cross Diagonal X Triangle Square .

Writing • • • • Diamond Semi-circle Circle Alphabet – – – – Bold and upper case Bold and lower case Cursive upper case Cursive lower case .

General Rule • Start with large diameter writing/coloring materials then gradate • Start with thick borders figure/picture during scissoring/drawing then gradate .

General Rule • • • • Match Sort Discriminate Identify through pointing ( near point) • Identify through naming • Associate .

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