Chapter2 (Unit-1

Software Quality




‘Conformance to explicitly stated and agreed functional and nonfunctional requirements’, may be termed as ‘quality’ for the software product offered to customers/final users from their perspective.

Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan


Constraint of software Product Quality Assessment
Requirement specifications are made by BA& system analyst. Testers may not have the direct access of the customer and will get info through requirement statements, queries answered etc. either from the customer or BA/SA. There are few limitations of product quality assessment are:  SW is virtual in nature: product cannot be seen, touched or heard. Our normal senses & measuring instruments cannot capable of measuring quality of SW .

SW is unique in nature: requirements, designs foundation, architecture, code etc. will be completely different for different product. Way of SW design, coding & reusabilty 3 may differ from productJyotsna product. to Anthal/Chauhan

Huge communication gap between users of SW and developers/testers of the product.5-8 agencies are involved between these 2 ends and if an avg. communication loss of 10% at each stage is considered the huge distortion is expected from user‟s perspective of requirement and actual product. All aspects of SW cannot be tested fully as no. of permutation & combinations for testing all possibilities tend to infinity. Exhaustive testing is neither feasible nor justifiable in terms of cost. SW program executes in same way when it‟s executing some instruction. An application with problematic code executes wrongly when it is executed. It makes a small defect turn into a major one as the probability of defect occurrence is 100% when the part is executed.
Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 4

Customer is a KING

Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan


Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 6  . Customer is the most imp. Org should implement some of the following measures to achieve customer satisfaction.   A satisfied customer is an imp. etc are governed by customer requirements. All SW life cycle processes such as development. testing maintenance. Achievement for an org and is considered as an investment which may pay back in short as well as in long term. Person in any process of developing a product and using it.

External customer and external supplier : customers actually paying for getting their needs served and External suppliers are the entities who are external to the org and who are supplying to org  Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 7 .FACTORS DETERMINING SUCCESS  Internal customer and internal supplier: „Internal customer satisfaction‟ philosophy is guided by principles of TQM.


bad product will not be manufactured in the first place. testing.   It will reduce inspection. Must target for doing „first-time right‟  Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 9 . Quality must improve productivity by reducing wastage. If the processes of dev & testing are good. Quality improvement is concerned about the quality of the processes used for making such product not only product quality. rework and cost/price.

sorting. Improvement in Quality directly leads to improved Productivity Hidden factory producing scrap. Repair and customer complaint is closed. Effective way to improve productivity is to reduce scrap and rework by improving process Quality improvements lead to cost reduction    Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 10 . rework.

 Proper communication between management & employee is essential Employees participate & contribute in improvement process Employee shares responsibility for innovation & quality improvement   (Assignment) difference between invention and innovation Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 11 . Employee Involvement in quality improvement: management must include employees in quality improvement programs at all stages.

Requirements of product Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 12 .

or secondary req(P2) Could be or could not be req(P3) Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 13     .Different categories of requirements are:  Stated/Implied requirements  General/ specific requirements Present/ future requirements Must & must not requirements or primary req (P1) Should be or should not be req.

Organisation Culture Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 14 .

Philip crosby has prescribed Q improvement for cultural change. good quality) of people. suppliers and all stakeholders. Quality improvement programs are based on the ability of the org to bring about a change in culture. customer. Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 15    . is an understanding of the organisations virtue (asset. „Q‟ org are more quality conscious and „q‟ org is less quality conscious. Q culture of an org.

Quality culture is Q Believe in listening to customers & determine their requirements.Difference between Q org & q org. Demonstrate leadership & commitment to quality & customer satisfaction Quality culture is not „q‟ Assume that they know customer requirements. rework. Overlook cost of poor quality & hidden factory effect. Try to assign responsibility of defects to someone else Believe in assigning responsibility for quality to others. scrap etc are essential Work on the basis of finding & fixing the problem. Inspection. They believe in more testing to improve product quality. Concentrate on identifying cost of quality & focusing on it to reduce cost of failure which would reduce overall cost & price Doing things right for the first time & every time is the motto of success. Concentrate on continuous/ continual process to eliminate waste and get better time fix for each problem after it occurs. 16 Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan . Believe in taking ownership of processes & defects at all levels. Doing things again & again to make them right is their way of working.

Shift in focus from ‘q’ to ‘Q’ Quality control Quality assurance Quality management   As the org grows from „q‟ to „Q‟ there is a cultural change in attitude of the management & employees towards quality & customer. Above fig shows an improvement process where focus of quality changes gradually. Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 17 .

scrap.    . Huge testing teams. rework etc. large investment in appraisal cost and defect fixing cost followed by retesting and regression testing Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 18 are there. Works on correction attitude involving defect fixing. Quality control approach (finding & fixing defects)  Org are at the higher end of „q‟ believe in finding and fixing defects to the extent possible as the way to improve quality of product before delivering it to the customer & achieving customer satisfaction. Work on the philosophy that a product is good unless a defect is found in it.

 19 .    Management approach shifts from corrections to corrective actions through root cause analysis. policies. Starts working on preventive actions to some extent to Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan avoid potential defects. Quality Assurance Approach (creation of Process framework)  Focus shifts from finding & fixing the defects to first – time right. as it shifts its approach from Q control to Q assurance. methods for handling various functions so that it can incorporate a process approach for doing various things. Org does investment in defining processes. Becomes learning org.

     . organising. directing. Start working on defect prevention mechanism and continuous improvement plans. Management includes planning. open and systems with semi permeable boundaries. coordinating and controlling to get the desired output. processes & techniques for future technologies & training programs for process improvement. Also involves mentoring. No defects in processes as they are optimized continuously. Org defines methods. coaching and guiding people to do better Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 20 work. and products are delivered to the customer without deficiency. Quality Management Approach:  3 types of systems : close. staffing.

Characteristics of Software (assignment) Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 21 .

 SW cannot be sensed by common methods of inspection or testing as it is virtual in nature. Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 22 .it needs testing in real environment but nobody can do exhaustive testing by trying all permutation and combinations.

Software development Process Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 23 .

Each approach has some positive and negative points. There are various approaches to build software.  Waterfall development Approach/model Iterative development Approach/model Spiral development Approach/model Prototyping development Approach/model     Rapid Application development Approach/model Agile development Approach/model Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 24  .

Types of Products Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 25 .

criticality of the SW defines. how much imp it is to the user/customer. SW products have some peculiarities defined as criticalities of SW.    Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 26 . Few are below:   Life affecting products Product affecting huge sum of money Products which can be tested only by simulators Other products. There are various schemes of grouping the products on the basis of criticality to the users.

in addition to customer requirements.Life affecting products:  Directly or indirectly affect human life are considered most critical products in the world. This is grouped into 5 different categories:         Any product failure resulting into death of a person Any product failure may cause permanent disablement to a patients. Q req are more stringent and testing is critical for such products. Any product failure may cause temporary disablement Any product failure may cause minor injury Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 27 Other products which don’t affect health or safety directly . They come under the purview of regulatory and safety requirements.

  Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 28 .. Examples. confidentiality and accuracy are some of the and ebusiness softwares. Quality factors for such products. Product affecting huge sum of money  Direct relationship with loss of huge sum of money Need large testing efforts and have many regulatory and statutory requirements.

products used in aeronautics. Examples. space research etc. Products which can be tested only by simulators  Cannot be tested in real-time scenario but need simulated environment.   Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 29 . Real time scenario is either impossible to create or may not be economically viable.

Software Quality Management Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 30 .

Software quality American Heritage Dictionary: a characteristic or attribute of something Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 31 .

Software quality American Heritage Dictionary: a characteristic or attribute of something Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 32 .

Software quality Philip Crosby‟83: conformance to requirements Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 33 .

Software quality Quality of design Quality of conformance Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 34 .

There are 3 levels of handling problem  Correction. Operations management group is responsible for corrective action (identification & implementation) Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 35 . Quality management involves management of all inputs & processing to the processes defines so that the output from the process is as per defined quality criteria.  Corrective action  situation where root cause analysis of the defects is done & actions are initiated to remove the root causes so that the same defect doesn't recur again.condition where defects found in the product or services are immediately sorted and fixed.

Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 36 . Preventive actions means there are potential weak areas where defect has not been found till that point. but there exists a probability of finding a defect.    QM approach where an org takes preventive action so there is no defects at first place. Similar scenarios are checked and actions are initiated so that other potential defects can be eliminated before they occur. Senior management is responsible for preventive actions.

 WHY SW HAS DEFECTS?  Huge communication losses between entities Development people are more confident about their technical capabilities and do not consider that they can make mistakes. Customer may not be aware of all requirements. Requirement changes are very dynamic.    Technologies are responsible for introducing few defects. Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 37  .


 VISION     Established by the policy management.  MISSION    Several initiatives defined as mission which will be helpful in realising its vision. Missions are expected to support each other to achieve vision put by management. Defines what org wishes to achieve in the given time horizon. Missions may have different life span and completion dates. Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 39 . “to become a billion dollar company within 3 years” Every org must have a vision statement. clearly defining with respect to time span.

Helps policy. Ex. Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 40  Objectives     . Must be expressed in numerals along with time period. suppliers and customers to understand the thinking and Defined quantitatively Defines an expectation from each mission and can be used to measure the success/failure of it. quality policy and human resource dev policy. Tells us way of doing business as defined by senior management. Many policies will define a way of achieving missions. Policy     intent of management. Every mission must have one objective.

Defined as the principles. Must have a time frame and objectives along with goals associated with it. or way of doing business as perceived by management. Defines the milestones to be achieved to make the mission successful. Strategy     Defines the way of achieving a particular mission. Manner in which a n org think and behave is governed by values it believes in. Policy is converted into actions. Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 41  Goals   Values    . Involves the actions required to realise the mission and way of doing things. Treating customers with courtesy can be a value for an org.

Quality Management System Structure Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 42 .

 QMS of a typical organisation Quality Policy Quality Objectives Quality Manual Quality Processes/ Quality Procedures Work instruction Guidelines/ standards Formats/ Templates Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 43 .

Are measurements established by the management to define progress and achievements in numerical way.  Ist Tier (Quality Policy):   Sets the wish. intent and direction by the management about how activities will be conducted by the org. Termed as policy manual. Achievement of these objectives must be compared with planned levels and deviations must be acted upon. Basic framework on which the Q temple rests. Every org has different QM Structure depending upon its needs and circumstances. established & published by the management of the organisation. Sets a framework for other process definitions Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 44 Foundation of Quality planning at organisational level  2nd Tier (Quality Objectives:    3rd Tier (Quality Manual)    .


Act as checklist to maintain consistency across the project in the org. they are guidelines. Guidelines are suggested ways of doing things where as standards are mandatory ways of doing things Guidelines may be overruled but over ruling of standards is a punishable offence Guidelines may or may not be written but standards must be written to avoid any misunderstanding. used for tracking a project.  Guidelines/ standards       Formats/ Templates   . Are used by an org‟s project team for achieving quality goals for the products & services delivered to customers. If made compulsory are considered as standard where as if they are indicative or suggestive. function and dept info. Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 46 Templates are mandatory while Formats are suggestive in nature. Quality Processes/ Quality Procedures Work instruction   Are defined at org level by the functional area experts Processes Act as an umbrella process definitions may different for different projects and functions. Both may need revision from time to time.

Important Aspects of Quality Management Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 47 .

             Quality planning at organisational level Quality planning at project level Resource management Work environment Customer related processes QMS document and data control Verification and validation SW project management SW configuration management SW metrics and measurement SW quality audits Information security management Management Review Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 48 .

Project plan must define all aspects of quality at project level Quality objectives of the project may be inherited from organisation level objectives or May be defined separately for the project Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 49 . policies and strategies at org level along with objectives & goals to achieve vision  Quality planning at Project level:     Strategic level quality plans with details of responsibilities and actions. Quality planning at organisational level:  Includes establishing missions.

 Work environment:    An imp input for a good product & Can help an org to build on its strength Two components. Resource management:    Org should use good inputs as required by quality planning so the output of the processes match the organisation‟s business plan. Good processes and good technology need good people to perform work and achieve planned results. Includes people.external and internal environment. machines. materials and methods as the basic resources. Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 50 .

 Customer Related Processes:   Must be analysed for their capability in servicing customers & achieving customer satisfaction. product delivery and other processes related to the customer must be analysed. Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 51 . project processes. designing. Requirement analysis. Statistical process control and data management are essential for continuous improvement of processes.  QMS document and data control    QMS is defined on the basis of some quality standards /models There may be Specific customer requirements for different standards & models which help an org in defining its own QMS.

  . Verification & validation:  V&V are performed by an org at each level of development and for each activity. Verification defines the processes used to build the product correctly.   Verification includes management reviews and technical reviews (such as technical review and project plan review) Validation ensures that the right product has been built Validation involves different kinds of testing (unit testing & system testing) to ensure the work product meets the Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 52 predefined acceptance criteria.

End of chapter 2 Jyotsna Anthal/Chauhan 53 .

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