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MOTIVATION

MODULE-4

MOTIVATION

Derived from the word Motivemeans drives, impulses. Can be defined as the process for stimulating people to action, to accomplish desired goals. Is a psychological state Motivation is the cause of individual behavior. Motivation depends upon individual and situation.

Definitions of Motivation

Motivation is the result of processes, internal or external to the individual , that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action.

S. P. Robbins- Motivation is the willingness to exert high levels of effort towards organizational goals, conditioned by the effort and ability to satisfy some individual need. Dalton E. Mc Farland -Motivation refers to the way in which the urges, drives, aspirations, strivings or needs direct, control or explain the behavior of human beings

So in a nutshell

Motivation is how behaviour gets started , is energised, is sustained, is directed, is stopped and what kind of subjective reaction is present in the organization while all is going on.

CHARACTERISTICS OF MOTIVATION
Motivation is a psychological phenomenon, which arises from the feelings of needs and wants of the individual. It causes goal directed behavior. (This driving force creates a state of tension as a result of unfulfilled need, which impels an individual to fulfill the need). Process of Motivation.
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Motivation is dynamic and situational.( in a set of organizational climate,structure, physical facilities and nature of work, motivation is high or low) Motivation is not easily observed phenomenon Motivation is goal oriented process. Motivation is influenced by social and cultural norms.

Nature of Motivation

Motivation is a continuous process.( as human wants are unlimited) Motivation is a psychological concept Entire individual is motivated Frustrated individuals fails to be motivated

Goals lead to motivation Self Concept as a unifying force with motivation

Importance of Motivation

Motivation sets in motion the action of people. Motivation improves the efficiency of work perpormance Ensures achievement of organizational goals Motivation creates friendly and supportive relationships through rewards and recognition.

Motivation leads to stability in the workforce through creating confidence and loyalty. Acceptance of organizational changes.

Classification of motivation

Positive versus Negative Motivation Rational versus Emotional motivation Primary motivation versus secondary motivation Monetary and non-monetary motivation Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation

Theories of Motivation

Maslows Need Hierarchy Theory Herzbergs 2 factor MotivationHygiene Theory Mc. Gregors X & Y Theory Mc Clellands Needs Theory of Motivation Vrooms Valance and Instrumentality Theory.

Maslows Need Hierarchy Theory

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Advocated that human needs can be arranged in 5 levels of hierarchy according to their order of fulfillment. Needs of 2 types- Basic and Acquired needs Needs Theory based on assumption thatMan has continously arising needs present in 5 levels. A satisfied need is no longer a need

2. Needs

are arranged in hierarchy of importance. 3. Once one need is satisfied, a higher order need emerges 4.The physiological and security needs are finite while other higher order needs are infinite. 5.Various levels are interdependent and overlapping

5 levels of needs
Physiological or Basic needsBasic needs like- food, clothing, shelter , rest etc Safety and security needsNeeds to feel free from economic threat and physical harm.Needs of job security, freedom from coercion or arbitrary treatment.

Social needsNeeds for love, affection, belongingness, acceptance and friendship. Esteem needsDesire for achievement and competence and urge for status and recognition

Self actualisation needsNeeds for realising ones own potential, for becoming what one is capable of.

Significance of maslows theory

The theory presents an entire array of non-economic worker needs. It gives explanation for changing motivations of workers due to changing needs overtime Theory offers advice for helping managers to motivate their employees.

It accounts for both interpersonal and intrapersonal variations in human behavior Need hierarchy model is dynamic- it presents motivation as constantly changing force.

Drawbacks

The hierarchy of needs simply doesnt exist. At any particular time, all needs are present at all levels. This holds good for american and british managers. For Japanese, social and security needs are at the highest. It is an unstable theory as it is difficult to interpret and operationalise .

Herzbergs MotivationHygiene Theory

The theory was originally derived from a research of analysing critical incidents given by 200 engineers and accountants in 9 companies in Pittsburg, USA. Critical incidents described about satisfactory and unsatisfactory aspects of their jobs. Satisfactory mentioned factors intrinsic to the Job ( motivation), unsatisfactory- mentioned factors extrinsic to the job ( maintenance )

Motivational factors

Are associated with positive feelings on the job. Related to the nature of the job and are intrinsic to it These factors have a positive effect on morale,efficiency and higher production. Motivators are-achievement, recognition, work nature, responsibility, advancement and growth.

Hygiene factors

These factors do not motivate, simply prevent dissatisfaction and maintain status quo. Related to the conditions under which the job is performed Concerned with negative feelings They are preventive measures that remove source of dissatisfaction. Eg- company policy, salary, interpersonal relationships, work conditions, status, security, personal life,relationship with peers etc

Criticism

Job satisfiers and dissatisfiers were recognized at two different qualitative factors rather than as opposite factors
Difference between motivational and maintenance factors is not clear Procedure used by herzberg is limited by its methodology

Model doesnt give much emphasis to motivating qualities such as pay,status etc which are important motivators. This theory is based on a small sample of 200.

Comparison of Maslow and Herzbergs Models


Both theories oversimplify the motivational process They emphasize same set of relationships between factors according to needs and deal with the same problem Herzberg attempted to refine and hedge over the need hierarchy

Related the hygiene and motivation factors to the need levels according to maslows model Maslows physiological, safetysecurity , social and esteem (status)needs can be satisfied through Hygiene factors while rest of the self-esteem needs( recognition, responsibility, advancement growth) and self-actualisation needs can be satisfied through motivation factors.

However even if higher order needs are concerned,motivators must still satisfy the lower level needs(maslows) for the maintenance of the current state ie, monetary factors(maintenance factors) still apply in higher levels along with motivation factors to induce high motivation.

Maslow vs. Herzberg


Sequential arrangement of needs Descriptive in nature Unsatisfied needs energize behaviour and cause performance Any need can be a motivator if it is relatively unsatisfied

No heirarchical arrangement of needs Prescriptive Gratified needs cause problem Only higher order need serve as motivator, lower orders are maintenance factors.

Maslow vs. Herzberg

Takes a general view of motivational problems of all workers Need Hierarchy theory is based on intuition and not on any empirical study

Takes a microview and deals with work-oriented motivational problems of higher level empl. Motivation hygiene theory is based on the study of empirical data collected from a sample survey.

Mc. Gregors X and Y theory

Douglas Mc. Gregor proposed 2 distinct assumptions about what motivates people One is negative ie, theory X and other positive- Theory Y.

Theory X

Employees inherently dislike work and would try to avoid it Since employees dislike work, theyll have to be coerced, controlled, and threatened with punishment to achieve goals. Employees would avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction whenever possible Most workers place security above all other factors associated with work and will display little ambition.

Most people lack creativity in resolving organizational problems Only satisfaction of physiological and safety needs will motivate the workers Focusses on a strong Org.control system Emphasizes Scalar chain system and centralization of authority. Emphasizes on autocratic leadership.

Theory Y

Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play People will exercise self-direction or self-control if they are committed to the objectives Average person can learn to accept and even seek responsibility Ability to make innovative decisions is widely dispersed throughout the population

People want security but also have other needs such as selfactualization and esteem needs Creativity is not the monopoly of the few and in the right environment,people can be made to display. Satisfaction of physiological and safety needs is not the only source of motivation, it occurs at social, esteem and actualization levels also.

Emphasizes decentralization and greater participation in decision making process Emphasizes democratic and supportive leadership

William Ouchis Z theory

Describes the major postulates of Japanese management practices. Ouchi has made a comparative study of American and japanese management practices.

Features of theory Z

Life time employment Restricted promotions Greater workers involvement Participative decision making Informal control system( focus on co-operation and sharing information)

Stable and cohesive work environment for providing increased satisfaction of multiple employee needs Mutual relationship marketed by trust, openness, candor and cooperation will induce employees to develop a sense of commitment to the org.

VROOMS VALANCE AND INSTRUMENTALITY THEORY

Is a Process theory that are more concerned with the cognitive antecedents that go into motivation or effort; and the way they relate to each other. They try to specify correlates of motivated behavior

People are motivated to achieve certain goals, which they expect from their actions. Expectancy model is based upon the belief that motivation is determined by the nature of the rewards that people expect to get as a result of their job performance.

Based on the assumption that people are highly motivated if they believe that a certain type of behavior will lead to a certain type of outcome and their extent of personal preference for that type of outcome.

Elements of Expectancy Theory


Expectancy- This is a persons perception of the likelihood that a particular outcome will result from a particular behavior or action., ie, probability of an act creating an outcome. The expectation of outcome is called Firstlevel outcome. Eg- a worker works hard and is certain (expectancy=1.0) that he will produce 15 units per day and 60% certain ( expectancy=0.6)that he will produce 20 units per day

Instrumentality- persons belief or expectation that his performance will lead to a particular desired reward. Degree of association of the first level outcome- effort to a second level outcome reward. Eg- a worker may perform good if he believes that his efforts would be recognized by a promotion /reward, he will be motivated or else not.

Valence- is the value a person associates with a desired reward. Its a perceptual value of the reward not the actual value according the need of the employee. Persons level of effort( motivation) depends upon expectancy, instrumentality and valence.

A worker must be confident that his efforts will result in better productivity(expectancy) The worker must be confident that such high performance will be instrumental in getting desired rewards.(instrumental) The worker must value these rewards as desired and satisfactory. ( valence) M= E * I * V

MOTIVATION IN WORK SETTINGS


At the workplace, motivation can be enhanced by employing following strategies: JOB DESIGN/RE-DESIGN EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT PROGRAMMES COMPENSATION STRUCTURING GOAL SETTING AND MBO ALTERNATIVE WORK SCHEDULE/ARRANGEMENT

JOB DESIGNING/ REDESIGNING


OB specialists emphasize on job itself as a source of motivation. Process of assigning tasks to a job as well as interdependency of those tasks with other jobs is called Job Design. Job design has critical impact on individual and organizational objectives in terms of job satisfaction and productivity.

EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT PROGRAMME

An employee-involvement programme relates to the participation of employees in management functions. Employee involvement aims to utilize the maximum capacity of employees by mutually encouraging them. Theories like Hygiene theory are applicable under employee involvement programmes Participative management,representative management, Quality circles and employee ownership.

COMPENSATION

Compensation and benefit system directly affects the motivation level of employees. All motivation theories like Maslows need Hierarchy theory, Herzberg, Mc. Gregors X and Y Theory include compensation as an important factor for motivation.